Section III Two Assumed Plans
According to theoretical principles elaborated in previous sections, two plans will be put forward in following part. What needs to make clear is that the plans are only imaginative plans that are suggestions only, rather than compulsory choice. To realize the great unification with peaceful measure, the most important mean will be political negotiation among large countries, so attitude of leaders of large countries is the key factor that is decisive to the final plan.
I. Plan I: Core Nation Transition
(I) Basic thought of the plan
Basic thought of core nation transition plan: by three principles of legality, feasibility and justice, associate major large nations in the world to form a group with absolute advantage. From confirmation to realization of association, the advantageous group should enter the stage of close combination, in which the association is as close as a real nation, after loose and semi-loose states.
To be exact, the advantageous group in this state is fully eligible to be called a nation, a nation with special meaning. Common grounds that this special nation shares with common nations are relatively fixed territory and people, unified regime agencies and policies and statutes promulgated by these agencies, and uniform national governance thus result in.
Its difference from common nations is that this nation shoulders a great mission—leading mankind to the greatly unified society. It should annex mature countries now and then, so that it could expand continuously, it asks and supervises the nations to restrict development of science and technology, it needs to harmonize world development of economy, society and culture, and it also needs to probe political policies, economic policies and social and cultural systems for the future greatly unified society. It is the world’s flagman and leader of the nations.
This nation is called the core nation, of which “core” means world center and world leader, while other nations are called common nations. Common nation will have partial national sovereignty, and it is dutiful to obey lead of the core nation in aspect of policies concerning the great unification undertaking.
Unification of the core nation is ensured by its constitution, and maintained by powerful national machines. Government, parliament, court, army and police are all strong tools that will ensure long-term stable unity. Although the core nation is evolved from concept of the advantageous group, it has get rid of many essential features of the group, and it’s quite similar to a unified nation.
International law should endow the core nation which is an absolutely powerful nation the responsibility, duty and corresponding rights to lead the world to the great unification. Its relationship with common nations should be leader and the led, which means that many policies of the core nation should have certain administrative compulsion, and common nations should obey lead of the core nation.
Foundation of the core nation doesn’t mean realization of the greatly unified society, it’s just the first step towards the great unification, there is a lot to do and a long way to go to realize the great unification. After foundation of the core nation, there will be a quite long interim, which is a process to integrate nationalities, religions, languages, societies, economies, cultures, arts, people’s living habits, morals and values of common nations and different regions. After a series of such integration, the great unification will be realized when conditions are ready.
(II) Specific Assumptions of Core Nation Foundation Plan
According to legality principle, to make the core nation legal in the sense of international law, it must meet the lowest standard which is 5+4, or in other words, founding members of the core nation should include the permanent five of the Security Council, and at least 4 other nations that comply with the requirements. 5+4 is actually the basic framework for foundation of the core nation. Selection of other members besides the permanent five of the Security Council should follow feasibility principle and justice principle.
1. Analysis of the Permanent Five
Feasibility should consider strength of core nation first. The primary requirement is that founding members of the core nation must have quite strong power. In this aspect, as the most powerful nations in the world, the permanent five are doubtlessly qualified in aspect of feasibility. But overall strength of the core nation will not be strong enough if founding members are only permanent five, so other powerful nations should be included in the core nation also.
Justice should consider wide representation of the core nation first. As the core nation will has members besides the permanent five, we should get clear of representation of the permanent five so that to analyze wide representation of the core nation as a whole.
There are four indexes for representation which justice principle should consider first, respectively as population, race, terrain and religion. In aspect of population, population of the five nations is over 1.8 billion, the number is huge, so representation is not any problem in aspect of population, and requirement of population of other member nations will not be influenced by these five. So it is unnecessary to discuss population separately, and only race, terrain and religion need to be discussed separately.
Race: Though over 10% population is black, and there are some Chinese and Indians of yellow race, over 80% population are white, so it represents the white;
Terrain: America represents North America;
Religion: Americans believe in Protestantism and Catholicism. To not complicate the problem, we will not subdivide religious sects, so America represents Christianity in the broad sense.
Race: Represents the white.
Terrain: Russia crosses Europe and Asia, though most of its territory is in Asia, its centers of population, economy and politics are all in Europe, so Russia is deemed as a European nation in general. Russia represents Europe;
Religion: Russian believes in Eastern Orthodoxy, which is a branch of Christianity in the broad sense, so it represents Christianity in broad sense.
Race: Yellow race;
Terrain: Represents Asia;
Religion: Though some Chinese have belief, over 90% Chinese are antitheists, and China used to be a nation with quite light religious color, so China represents antitheism. By further analysis, Buddhism originated from India, but flourished in China, and China was the most important spreading source of Buddhism. Today, though proportion of Chinese Buddhists is very small in Chinese, the proportion of Chinese Buddhists against the world total is very large, so China represents Buddhism.
(4) the UK
Race: Represents white race;
Terrain: The UK is a European nation, so it represents Europe;
Religion: Over 80% believe in Protestantism, and some believe in Catholicism, so it represents Christianity in broad sense.
Race: represents white race;
Terrain: represents Europe;
Religion: believes in Catholicism, so it represents Christianity in broad sense.
By above analysis, we can get conclusions as follows:
In aspect of race, China represents the yellow, other nations all represent the while, so there is no nation representing the black;
In aspect of terrain, America represents North America, China represents Asia, and other nations represent Europe, so there are no nations representing Africa, South America and Oceania;
In aspect of religion, China represents antitheism and Buddhism, other nations all represent Christianity, so there is no nation representing Islam.
With above conclusions, we could further narrow scope of selection of other members.
2. Select Other Members
According to 5+4 standard, after the permanent five of the Security Council become members of the core nation, if 4 other suitable nations are selected, then the legality requirement of the plan could be met. But this is the lowest requirement, to have enough strength to lead the world and ensure abundant justice, the core nation must include the most powerful nations, and its members must have wide representation.
Analysis of representation of the permanent five shows that in aspect of terrain, there is no nation to represent Africa, South America and Oceania, in aspect of race, the black has no representing nation, in aspect of religion, Islam has no representing nation. Members of the core nation should include such representing nations, or otherwise, the core nation will not have wide representation, and its justice will be not sufficient.
What’s more, while selecting members, for feasibility of the core nation, whether the core nation could be easily governed and fused should also be considered. To be in specific, whether territory of member nation connects with the core nation, gap of living standard between the nations and whether the nations are nations of national or religious extremism should be considered.
In aspect of territory connection of the core nation, it’s doubtless that if all members could connect to form a whole piece is the ideal situation, but by simple thinking, we know it is impossible. If members should have wide representation in aspect of territory, then it will be impossible that all these members could connect, at least South America and Oceania can’t connect with other major members of the core nation. Then requirement in this aspect is that major members of the core nation should connect, but few particular members could exist as overseas territories of the core nation.
As for gap of people’s living standard between different nations, the writer thinks that if the gap is larger than 10 times, it will be very difficult for national fusion. It is an empirical estimate, rather than a final conclusion. If 10 times is the upper limit, then the highest per capita income in the permanent five should be standard of the highest income.
As for whether a nation is of religious and national extremism, there will not be any specific measuring index. The judge will rely on comprehensive analysis and general comment of international society.
After above analysis, we can get the primary conclusion about selection of members of the core nation. The most powerful nation that could present the core nation in every aspects, but will not influence governance and fusion of the members will be first choice of the core nation. While nation without representation, but is very strong, shouldn’t be excluded for consideration of feasibility of the core nation, because if such powerful nation is excluded outside the core nation, it will not only mean loss of strength of the core nation, the free nation will also pose threat to the core nation.
II. Plan II: World Commonwealth Transition
(I). Framework Assumption of the Plan
Similar to the plan of core nation transition, world commonwealth is also designed according to the facts and theoretic principles that the United Nations is center of international relationship and the Charter of United Nations is core source of international law. What is different from core nation plan is that the world commonwealth plan will carry though democracy and human rights more profoundly. Its thought is as follows:
During transition of world commonwealth, the world will be governed by world commonwealth, and the world consists of a central state that is under direct jurisdiction of the world commonwealth and many free states that are highly autonomous. The central state is made up of quite a few most powerful nations, while free states are evolved from other nations. So the central state is actually an advantageous group set up for the great unification.
The central state is made up of the most powerful nations, because government of the commonwealth must rely on an absolutely strong power to rein the world. As foundation of the advantageous group should meet principles of legality, feasibility and justice, requirements for members of the central state are actually same as founding members of the core nation.
Except nations that will make up the central state, all other nations will evolve into free states. Central state is essentially different from nation. Free states will enfeoff partial sovereignty to the world commonwealth, and what are left to the nations are only territory, people and certain regional management right.
World commonwealth transition have both taken the factor that the world needs uniform and effective harmonization and management, and the great disparity of world at present into consideration, so the world commonwealth will rely on strength of the central state to fulfill its harmonization and management tasks, and will continue separate government of regions and people of present nations.
During transition by world commonwealth, the world operates orderly under restriction of world constitution. The commonwealth government manages the world in accordance with world constitution. The central state is the core for the great unification. World regime will absorb free states whose conditions have matured to the central state, so scale of the central state will be larger and larger, while free states will be less. The great unification will be realized when all free states have been included in the central state.
The major difference between world commonwealth transition and core nation transition lies in global democracy and human rights represented by their operation mechanisms. World commonwealth regime in this chapter will adopt democratic regime—Separation of Three Powers (administration right, legislation right and jurisdiction right are separated from each other, and they restrict each other from autarchy) that is commonly recognized at present. What’s more, world regime adopts two-level right separation. The world commonwealth adopts separation of three powers. What’s more, powers are also separated between the central state and free states. Within scope regulated by constitution of the commonwealth, the state will have independent administration, legislation and jurisdiction rights.
1. World Commonwealth Government
Administration right of world commonwealth is held by world commonwealth government (referred to as commonwealth government for short), while the highest administration right of world commonwealth is held by heads of the commonwealth government (referred to as commonwealth heads).
Commonwealth government has two management responsibilities, firstly, direct management of administrative affairs of central state; secondly, the highest target of commonwealth government is to lead the whole world to realize great unification of mankind, so that to harmonize, unify and balance world development according to objective requirements of the great unification undertaking is another important work of commonwealth government.
During transition period of world commonwealth, world constitution will endow certain autonomous rights to free states and certain administration rights to lead the whole world to commonwealth government according to actual situations, and commonwealth government will exercise its rights endowed by world constitution.
So commonwealth heads are general principals of administrative affairs of the central state, commander in chief of the great unification undertaking, and also heads of commonwealth government and government of the central state as well.
2. World Commonwealth Parliament
World commonwealth parliament (referred to as commonwealth parliament for short) is legislation organ of regime of the world commonwealth. Commonwealth parliament is also the highest authority department of world commonwealth in theory. Laws promulgated by commonwealth parliament are standards for the whole world. Jurisdictions of commonwealth government and commonwealth court are both restrained by laws promulgated by commonwealth parliament.
Composition of members of commonwealth parliament should fully reflect the principles of democracy and human rights. Members of parliament will be selected by and dispatched from the states.
As the central state is composed of several most powerful nations, calculating by population proportion, members from the central state should account for a large proportion, while free states are evolved from previous nations, some of which are very small, and calculating by population, they might have not even one parliament member, but such small free state also has right to express its opinion, so distribution of parliament members should incline towards free states.
Besides formulating and voting various laws and resolutions, another important responsibility of parliament members is to take part in voting commonwealth heads. As parliament members represent people in their states, commonwealth heads are voted by commonwealth parliament, so democracy and human rights of the whole mankind are fully represented.
Another responsibility of commonwealth parliament is to participate in deliberation of political affairs. It will supervise and deliberate administration of commonwealth government, demonstrate and debate on significant guidelines and policies. As for commonwealth government that is disqualified, the parliament could impeach commonwealth heads when the affirmative votes reach certain proportion.
Besides commonwealth parliament, every state will have its own parliament. Commonwealth parliament is responsible to the whole world, while parliament of each state is responsible to people in the state only. As the central state shares heads with the commonwealth, so commonwealth heads will be supervised and quested both by parliament of the central state and parliament of the commonwealth. When commonwealth heads deliver addresses and speeches in conference of parliament of the central state, they are certainly based on interests of people in the central state, but when they deliver addresses and speeches in conference of parliament of the commonwealth, they will pay more attention to the whole world.
3. Supreme Court of World Commonwealth
The supreme court of world commonwealth (referred to as commonwealth court for short) is the judicial organization of regime of the world commonwealth. Its major responsibility is to maintain the great unification undertaking in judicial aspect, ensure that the world commonwealth is the only transitional organization to the great unification, ensure that duties, rights and obligations of the states endowed by world constitution are implemented, and protect world constitution.
Commonwealth court will not accept lawsuits of cases within each state, or in other words, lawsuits within jurisdiction of previous national laws are beyond jurisdiction of commonwealth court, and will be dealt with by judicial departments of the states. While jurisdiction of cross-state civil right dispute, or cases within jurisdiction of private international law, is also beyond jurisdiction of commonwealth court, and will be dealt with by special juridical department.
Half grand justices of commonwealth court will come from the central state, and the other half will come from free states. This arrangement is made because in transitional period of world commonwealth, the central state will absorb free states that could meet requirements, number and population of free states will be both very small, so proportion of members from free states in the commonwealth will be very small, and voice speaking for free states will be very low. To prevent free states and interests of their people from being impinged on, there should be some strength in juridical department to speak for them. If grand justices from autonomous states account for half the total, then autonomous states and interests of the people could be guaranteed to a certain degree. Meanwhile, such factor that when strength of the central power is very large, there will still be certain mechanism to restrain it from getting on its own way is also considered.
Commonwealth court is entitled to interpret commonwealth constitution, and declare that commonwealth heads or statutes of commonwealth parliament breach the constitution. Commonwealth court accepts various litigations, and will judge and sentence various cases that breach constitution.
(II) Selection of Commonwealth Heads and Parliament Members & Representation of Democratic Principles and Human Rights
Commonwealth heads hold the highest administrative right of world commonwealth, so whether selection of commonwealth heads could reflect general democracy and human rights of the whole mankind is an important index to weigh justice of world commonwealth.
To design the procedures of democratic selection of commonwealth heads, let’s analyze features of rights of commonwealth heads first.
As elaborated ahead, commonwealth heads directly manage administrative affairs of the central state, and will rein the whole world with strength of the central state, thus dominating process of the great unification undertaking. So commonwealth heads have quite large leading rights over autonomous states, and absolutely highest command right over various affairs that involve process of the great unification. They are both heads of government of the central state and government of the commonwealth.
With basic facts as above, we could conclude that commonwealth heads will come from the central state, because they directly manage affairs of the central state, and will lead the whole world relying on strength of the central state. As commonwealth heads are responsible and entitled to manage and harmonize world affairs, heads of autonomous states should have voting rights to select commonwealth heads.
As for why commonwealth heads should come from the central state, there is also a reason that seems not very just, but very important to feasibility: the central state is made up of the most powerful nations, if commonwealth heads come from the central state, nations in the central state may feel that they are ruling the whole world, the “evil” in human nature make such feeling become a great impetus for large nations to be devoted in the great unification undertaking and positively join in the central state. As establishment of the central state is a key to success of the transitional plan of world commonwealth, this reason that seems not very just is actually an important factor that is decisive to success of the plan. So we may use the “evil” in human nature to promote the great unification undertaking, and try to weaken this “evil” effect in design of world commonwealth transition plan and design of relevant systems, to achieve a justified result from the origin that is not very justified.
So we will have a specific plan as follows: in aspect of selection of commonwealth heads, the central state could only recommend two candidates that have won most votes among candidates (government heads of the central state are also heads of commonwealth government), or in others, there might be many parties or independent candidates, but the central state could only recommend two candidates with highest votes to commonwealth parliament, where these two candidates will be voted by parliament members. This means that commonwealth heads are selected in commonwealth parliament, rather than in the central state.
As number of parliament members for each state is determined by population of the state, including both the central state and autonomous states, and distribution of parliament member quota will incline to autonomous states, so the central state has not any privilege. Meanwhile, as parliament members represent people in their states in theory, their political inclination and voting inclination will certainly represent their own states and willing of people in the states. Head candidates recommended by the central state will be voted by commonwealth parliament means that the selection will be supervised and approved by people of the whole world in theory, so the selection is fairly democratic to the whole world.
While selection of parliament members could be different in different state. The state could have its own procedure and method of selecting and dispatching parliament members to commonwealth according to history and actual features of the state. Parliament member selection and dispatch method of the state is regulated by each state, rather than by relevant policies or laws and regulations of commonwealth.
Parliament members come from different states will not only exercise the right of voting commonwealth head on behalf of people in their states, but also exercise other rights, such as legislation right, right to deliberate political affairs and supervision right on behalf of people in their states, because jurisdiction of these rights is for the whole world. So the transition of world commonwealth will reflect democracy and human rights in the supreme regime of the world in many aspects.