Chapter X Basic Thought on Great Unification Plan

After above discussion, we are clear that science and technology at present level could meet hard technical requirements of the great unification. Although transition from national society to the great unification is the most significant social reform in history, the blocking strength is comparatively weak and total resistance is relatively small. All these have clearly improved that the target of great unification could be realized through rational operation, and it might even be realized after a short while.

We will discuss how we could realized the target, that is, by which way could we realize the great unification.

 

Section I Measures and Procedures

I. Basic Thought: Peaceful Interim

In the process of great unification, national society will develop into greatly unified society, nation will perish, and the whole mankind will live in a unified society led by world regime and in which the whole world will act uniformly. In the greatly unified society, the highest administrative right is transferred from national government to world regime, and highest rights will be transferred from many national regimes that co-exist with each other to the only world regime. Such transition is unprecedented great undertaking in human history. To finish such transition and protect mankind from self-extinction is the most fundamental and basic interest of mankind.

But great unification will damage viewed interests of some people, and some of these people might obey basic interest of mankind, and promote the great unification process, but they might also go against basic interest of mankind, and block process of the great unification, or even resort to armed confrontation.

So there are two kinds of measures for great unification, respectively as peaceful measure and war.

Generally speaking, big change of political map can't be realized only by peaceful negotiation or war. Peaceful measure means pure peaceful negotiation without any coercion by war, and the so called war means pure war without any peaceful negotiation to reduce losses and casualties.

In aspect of procedures, there could be also two kinds of great unification plans, respectively as one-step plan and interim plan.

One-step plan means direct entrance into the greatly unified society from national society, and direct transition from human society jointly governed by different nations to the society governed by world regime.

According to interim plan, there will be an interim stage between national society and the greatly unified society, in which factors disadvantageous to great unification or long-term stability of the greatly unified society should be effectively fathered, adjusted, reformed or removed.

Primary goal of great unification is to save mankind from extinction. As an unprecedentedly just undertaking, great unification should adopt just plan, so war is not first choice, and peaceful measure is the starting point of our design.

By above analysis, we can conclude that as the whole mankind's basic interests are consistent in the great unification, what’s more, in aspect of viewed interests, most groups' interests are consistent, and leaders of large countries that control highest authorities and widest resources are largest beneficiaries of viewed interests, peaceful measure becomes possible, and war could be avoided.

Then let's turn to steps of the great unification. It will be very difficult to unify so many nations and regions by one step.

Firstly, the nations are too different. In aspect of economy, income per capita of the richest nation is hundreds times of the poorest nation. Because of such economic gap, it is very difficult for the rich and the poor to reach agreement. What's more, wide gap between economic bases will lead to very different education levels and overall qualities, so living habits and characteristics thus related will be very different also, and it will be very difficult to fuse people of the nations in a unified society.

Secondly, in aspect of nationality, feud exists between many nationalities, so it will be very difficult to fuse nationalities between which feud has existed for many generations. Even if these nationalities could be unified in the greatly unified society, hatred between these nationalities will be root of turmoil, and killing in revenge will occur often. All these will seriously injure world people's recognition of the greatly unified society, and will be a curse to long-term stability of the greatly unified society.

Thirdly, religious problem will also be an important factor blocking process of great unification. Historic hatred between some major religions in the world have lasted for nearly a thousand years. Discrepancies both in aspects of religious consciousness and religious rites are serious. Because of religious strength, it's very difficult for disciples of different regions to accept each other. What's more, a handful nations in the world are religious extreme nations, which consider any concession made by heretic as betrayal to religion, because of religious feeling, they are unwilling to be influenced by heretic, which sets a toughest obstacle to agreement between nations.

In fact, there are many factors that will influence process of great unification, much more than factors listed above, for example, because of cultural difference and difference of political tradition, it's very difficult for people in different nations to accept each other. If culture and politics of any nation are quite different from future greatly unified society, realization of great unification will be influenced.

The most important factor might be attitude of national leaders which might be able to decide realization of the greatly unified society. National will is often represented by national leaders. While instilling his own will to people, leader of democratic nation may consider people's will more than a dictatorial nation.  In a dictatorial nation, the ruler often imposes his own will to the people, and ruler's will could often become national will unconditionally, so ruler's will will decide everything. As for one-step realization plan, we will take all nations in the world into consideration, some of them are democratic nations, and others are dictatorial ones, so it's doubtless that the conditions will be very complicated. It's certain that among so many nations, leaders of some nations will try everything to stop progress of the great unification.

Because of a series of factors as above, it’s certain that there are many difficulties for realization of the great unification by one step, so interim plan is more feasible, then peaceful measure and interim stage are basic thoughts for our design of great unification plan.

During interim from national society to the greatly unified society, at least several works as follows should be done properly:

Balance world economic and social development

For example, to help low-income areas to catch up with developed areas, popularize mature and safe scientific and technological fruits to these low-income areas, then income per capita of different areas will tend to be generally same when these safe and mature scientific and technological fruits are popularized everywhere in the world.

Promote regional fusion

To promote regional fusion and realize transition from national society to the greatly unified society are both primary task and final target of the interim period. Works in this aspect are various, including continuously weakening concept of nation and emphasizing concept of mankind, popularizing uniform moralities and values, language, characters, and living habits, and promoting ethic fusion and religious fusion. Set up a uniform environment by a series of works as above elaborated, so that the whole mankind could live harmoniously as a big family.

Prepare hard environment for the unified world step by step

Present technical conditions are completely enough to meet hard condition requirements of governance of the greatly unified society. Every large city has wired and wireless communication equipment, airplanes and automobiles. Television and radiograms are highly popularized. By these means, unified governance of the greatly unified society will be realized. But development of the world is very uneven, there are still many nations that have no highways, many areas have no electric light, telephone, radiogram, and many places can’t even be reached by automobile. So there is a heavy construction task in the interim period, that is to connect the whole world step by step in the principle of easy and convenient communications, with world unification as the standard, to create hard environment for realization of the greatly unified society.

Besides above works, a series of effective management methods should also be tested and summarized in the interim period. What’s more, the interim stage is different from national society in many aspects, certain conditions for restriction of development of science and technology are ready, so actions restricting development of science and technology should be adopted when the time is right, which is very important also.

II. Basic Selections: Close Absolutely Advantageous Group

To arrange an interim stage between national society and the greatly unified society is to realize transition from national society to the greatly unified society smoothly and effective, stable and long-term stability of future greatly unified society also. During interim period, many factors that will endanger realization of above purposes must be adjusted, fathered or removed, so that to ensure smooth progress of the greatly unified society.

There are many interim plans, every of which could be selected as the interim plan if it is favorable for realization of above purposes.

In fact, selection of interim plan greatly relies on political standpoints of political leaders and the mass’s attitudes in national society. We could be certain that no plan could make everyone completely satisfied. If there are many plans for people to choose, different groups and nations will certainly choose different plans, but the final selection must be made by the most influential political leaders and nations. Such selection might not be the most rational, but that’s practice of human society.

Theoretically speaking, we could analyze and research real situation of human society, confirm the most rational plan, and influence the mass and political leaders using the most rational plan, and thus make preparation for selection of a most suitable interim plan.

Transition from national society to the greatly unified society could be understood as combining all nations into a whole, so in the interim stage, some nations will combine with others to form large entities.

Peaceful method often used to enlarge political entity in history is league of nations. In the following part, we will carry out analysis with league of nations as a starting point, and give rise to various questions that the interim plan should consider, so that to find a feasible interim plan at last.

(1) Different forms of unions

National Union refers to a powerful community of nations, which is combined by several countries with different forms taking the alliance as the transition form and different relations as the linking tie.

This kind of national union is established with the sole goal of pushing ahead the process of grand unification. According to the maturity of the times, it will continuously strengthen close links among these nation members and expand the scope of the union until eventually incorporate all countries in the world as a whole so as to realize the grand unification worldwide.

Maybe, the original intention of some unions is to pushing ahead the process of grand unification, some others may be for the other purposes. If countries can form a national union freely, then, the objective of the union must be various. Though the idea of grand unification is widely accepted worldwide, it is not likely that the objective of all national unions is for the cause of grant unification.

Forms of union may be different. It can be classified into economic union, political union, military union, as well as comprehensive union according to contents of the union; from the perspective of closeness, there will be close union, semi-close union and loose union; based on the connecting tie, it can be divided into regional union, alliance between nationalities, union of civilization, and union of ideology.

It is safe assumption that, however, some kinds of union are destined to fail to shoulder the important responsibility of pushing forward the grand unification. For example, it is difficult for such unions tied by economic links to shoulder heavy responsibility of grand unification; and for example, any loose national union can’t do this too.

A union, which is striving for leading grand unification and can shoulder the heavy task, will be the close-type one that contains the most important contents of politic, military and economy, and the one with the world’s major powers as its members and with powerful strength, such strength is strong enough that one big power can’t counter against. Only this kind of national union can win the recognition from other non-union nations by its power. An unknown union formed by small countries can’t own the authority to commanding the whole world, and of course, can’t hold the responsibility to leading the grand unification.

At present, there are so many kinds of national unions that it is difficult for analyzing and summing up. For example, European Union and the Association of South-East Asian Nations are regional national union, while, the League of Arab States is a national union linked by nationality. the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and Warsaw Treaty Organization in history are national unions which include political and military contents, while, North American Free Trade Area(NAFTA) and South Asia Free Trade Area are national unions which just involving economic content. Such unions as Commonwealth Country are so tightly connected that, actually, they become a country. While some unions are so loose that there is no any restriction among them. The national unions we are researching is well targeted, that is, the unions which can directly push forward the process of grand unification and is likely to play a leading role in this process, which, to a great extent, narrows the scope of researching.

(2) Characteristic of National Union under Free State

In history, basically, unions among countries could be formed freely at their will. As a supreme authority body, country is basically free to the restriction of the outside force. They can the ascendancy which can determine their action, determine the subject, form and content of the union according to their own demand.

1. Unions are set up either result from confrontation, or result in confrontation 

Generally, National unions under Free State are set up for the purpose of confrontation. Even it is not for the purpose of confrontation, objectively, the establishment can break some force balance, thus resulting in the confrontation. Some of the confrontation is for the reason of economy, some is the culture, some is the politic, some is the military, and some have the feature of the combined confrontation including politics, economy, culture and military.

For example, Islamic civilization had no ability to strike back against the Christian civilization due to the invasion of western countries. In order to fight against the Christian civilization, Pan-Islamism thus appeared with the purpose of uniting all Islamic Nations into a large union so as to fight against the invasion of western countries.

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and Warsaw Treaty Organization during the period of Cold War is similar with this. At the earliest time, when the NATO was established by western countries led by the Britain and France, it compete with the Soviet Union. Under the threat of the NATO, the Soviet Union unites other East European countries to set up the Warsaw Treaty Organization to effectively counter back with the NATO.

In order to dominate the world, occupy Europe and get the living space for Germanic peoples, it is necessary to set up a national union with overall strength can compete with the Great Britain, France and Soviet Union. So Hitler, by joining hands with Italy and Japan, set up the Axis Powers. Under the attack of the Axis Powers, the European countries with loose state are not able to fight against with the Powers. So, the Great Britain, France and Soviet Union set the Alliance, and get America and China involved in it later.

In order to counter against the powerful nations such as China, Japan and India to avoid being marginalized, countries in Southeast Asia is striving to set up Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Economic Community, and take it as the substantial content of ASEAN. Of course, confrontation of economy is far less intense than military and political ones, so it causes less concern.

Unions, which take economy as the starting point, are also set up for the purpose of confrontation. For example, In order to carry out economic competition with the united European nations, America, Canada and the Mexican jointly set up North American Free Trade Area (NAFTA)

The League of Nations after the WWW I and the United Nations after the WWW II, which are striving for incorporate all the nations in the world,  don’t belong to the particular national union. In other words, if the League of Nations or the United Nations could fully and effectively influence the world affairs, then it could directly change from Society of States to the society of grand unification, thus it is not necessary to discuss here.

2. The union under the free state is multicomponent

Union in free state either originates from confrontation, or will generate confrontation, so confrontation will certainly have targets. When a union is established, its confrontation target is fixed also. No matter whether the union indicates its confrontation target openly or only, someone will seat by number.

Rearrangement of the nations’ strength is the comprehensive cause of union of nations. To protect advantage of their strength or enhance their strength as much as possible, the targeted nations will soon contact countries having common interest and set up a confronting union.

Just because union of nations has the feature of confrontation, union of nations in free state will not be single, but will be various, or in other words, there will always be two or more than two unions of nations of the same type co-exist in the world, they might be established at different times, but such difference will not be large, no matter it is economic league, cultural league, military league or political league, the feature is even much obvious for political league and military league, because political and military issues concern survival of a nation directly, the interest is very serious, and not any country is willing to be inferior in confrontation.

3. Confronting Leagues Will Expand Continuously

After a league of nations is founded because of confrontation, a confronting league will be set up accordingly. Every league will try to enlarge its strength to overpower the counterpart, and no party is willing to lose in the confrontation, particularly political league and military league, because if any party is obviously inferior means that it will doubtlessly lose in the war if it breaks out, as it concerns life or death, not any nation is willing to be inferior. After establishment, to enlarge scale and strength, every league will consolidate and expand its scale, and win over and absorb new members, rather than keeping the original scale. As confronting leagues are all making efforts like this, scale of the league will expand continuously.

Before the World War I, after allied with Russia, France also sought alliance with the UK, and thus set up the Allies with core as the UK, France and Russia. This was just start of the alliance, with progress of confrontation with the Central Powers, contending for alliances became fiercer, even Italy, previous member of the Central Power was also won over, and Rumania and Greek both joint the Allies later. In Far East, two large countries—China and Japan were also won over, and at last, America was won over, which fundamentally changed strength of the Allies, and became the most important factor for the final victory.

The Central Powers’ achievement was also excellent. Turkey, the country that occupied an important strategic position then, was an allied nation of the Central Powers, and Bulgaria joint with it later. Bulgaria did not only occupy an important strategic position as it was adjacent to Rumania, Serbia and Macedonia, but it also had a powerful land force. What’s more important, before defeating the Allies, the Central Powers successfully coerced Russia, a most important member of the Allies, into signing a treaty, according to which, Russia did not cede territory and paid indemnities, but also quitted the war, thus removed the oriental threat of the Allies.

During the Cold War, NATO had only 12 members at first, and Greek and Turkey joint with it later. When West Germany joint with the alliance, NATO was quite powerful already. In fact, power of NATO is not restrained to west Europe and North American countries, Japan, Korea and Taiwan of China in Far East all obey NATO’s order.

While the confronting Warsaw Treaty Organization was doing the same, it did not win over South Korea, Vietnam and China, but also alienated the important countries like France and West Germany from NATO.

4. Semi-close League Could Easily Cause Conflicts

Actions of members in a close league are coordinated, and the member will handle every important action prudently under the agreement. What’s more, because most sovereignty has been transferred to the league, the league acts as a nation in dealing with external affairs (today’s Federal country is such league).

But a semi-close league is quite different, on one hand, the countries have reached agreement about helping each other to guard against external, such agreement was binding; while on the other hand, many unilateral actions of the countries are beyond constraint of the league.

So a problem crops up, every country will act independently from the league. Every country has interest independent from interests of the league, and driven by such independent interest, the country will easily act unilaterally, which means conflict with another country in a confronting league. The more the members in a league are, the more the countries that will act independently, the larger of opportunities of such conflict, and more frequent of such conflict.

While on the other hand, after conflict arises, the other countries in the same league will doubtlessly join in the confrontation with the confronting country, driven by obligations of treaty of the league and in consideration that it will need support of league when similar things happen to the country, even if they can’t be very clear of issue. While members of the confronting league will certainly have same attitude and action, so confrontation between two countries could easily lead to large-scale conflict between leagues.

To put it simply, trouble of a single country will easily get the whole league involved in the conflict, and the possibility that a country gets into trouble is very large, so semi-close league will easily cause conflicts, and often large-scale conflicts.

Take cause of World War I as an example, Austria-Hungary and Serbia conflicted with each other, because Austria-Hungary, the member of the Central Powers, had been coveting territory of Serbia, assassination of Austrian grand duke was only an excuse. But Austrian’s invasion into Serbia conflicted interest of Russia which was a member of the Allies. After Russia adopted pertinent actions, Germany, another member of the Central Powers, didn’t want to sit out, and joint in the confrontation with Russia resolutely. In fact, without support of Germany, Austria-Hungary would not dare to invade Serbia, and without backup of the Allies, Russia couldn’t resist Germany and Austria-Hungary itself. After the war broke out, France, which also belonged to the Allies, joint with Russia in the war later, and prelude of World War I thus started.  

Such conflicts could rarely occur between completely loose leagues, because trouble caused by unilateral action of a member country will be ignored by other members, and unilateral action is rare to close leagues, so such unilateral action that could easily get the whole league involved will only happen to semi-close leagues.

(III) Leagues in Free State Could Barely Complete the Important Task of Transform to the Great Unification

The emphasis of transform by league is to continuously combine the countries, to make the league larger and larger, and relationship among countries closer and closer. When the whole world is included in one league that is close as one country, the great unification is realized then. What will happen if we try to realize the great unification by transform of league in free state?

As there will be various leagues in free state, and the leagues will become larger and larger, scale of the league that intends to unify the whole world might be as large as half world, while the other half world belongs to another such league.

Because the league that intends to realize the great unification will have two kinds of members, the first of which will be countries that want to dominate the process of the great unification, this kind of country is very powerful and large scaled; the other kind of country hopes not to be marginalized in the process of the great unification, and safeguard its own interest. This is a major consideration of many medium and small sized countries that must rely on a large country to safeguard their own interests. So the league that intends to realize the great unification will be dominated by large countries and will enlist many medium and small countries.

But not every large country could be a dominator in the great undertaking of unification, nor all medium and small sized countries will be marginalized. Those large countries that can’t be dominators are certainly elbowed out by the ones that could be dominant, and those marginalized are certainly pushed aside by countries not marginalized, so the leagues will certainly compete and confront with each other.

Development of leagues will follow the rule—after people reach consensus of the great unification, if someone starts to set up the league that intends to realize the great unification, it will certainly stimulate other countries, and many leagues will thus emerge. After emergence of these leagues, every of them will try its best to absorb new members to enlarge its strength so that to scramble for leading position in the great unification.

If no large scale wars break out during this period, and everything develops fluently, following changes will happen in metaphase of development of leagues: some leagues will be lagged behind in aspects of development speed and scale both, their ability can’t match with their ambition, and couldn’t enlarge their strength anymore. Faced by fierce competition, they have to admit the fact of their inferiority and give up the original intention of dominating the great unification, and start to seek for not being marginalized instead. Such small leagues will merge into some large league, while large league could enlarge its scale by absorbing such small leagues, so it is certainly willing to merge such small ones.

Following circumstance may also happen—some medium sized leagues sense deeply that they are no match of the much powerful leagues in the fierce competition. Because of the sense of crisis, two or more than two medium leagues will combine into one large league. Above two circumstances may cross and complement each other.

In middle and late period, after long-term merge and absorption, the most possible result will be co-existence of two super leagues that no one will give way, with half the world belongs to one league, and the other half belongs to the other league. Both the leagues want to lead the historic process of the great unification. So confrontation thus caused will be confrontation between one hemisphere with the other.

In early and middle period of league development, most leagues will be semi-close, because purpose of most countries to join in a league is to avoid being marginalized in the process of the great unification. Forced by the general trend, the countries could not be subordinate in the league, and few countries could be dominant. As regard to most countries, both the people and leaders of the countries are unwilling to transfer all rights to the leagues, but forced by general trend, the countries will have to gradually transfer their rights to the leagues step by step. To win more members, the leagues will certainly not require all rights at first, and there must be a process before close leagues are realized, while completely loose leagues have little real meaning to promote the greatly unified society, so most leagues will be semi-close in the early and middle period.

Just because of above features, possibilities of armed conflicts between leagues are increased. What’s more, league that intends to realize great unification will be very large, with many members, which means that possibility that member country in the league getting into trouble is very large, and such trouble will inevitably lead to world war with disastrous damages. It might be a real world war with half world fighting the other half, and a real extinction war in which all high-tech killing methods will be used.

In view that league in free state could easily cause disastrous world war, which goes against our wish of realizing the great unification by peaceful means, so league in free state will not be able to shoulder the heavy responsibility of transforming to the great unification.

(IV) Conclusion: Absolute Advantage Could Avoid Slaughter

In view that league in free state could easily lead to disastrous world war, to avoid such disastrous war, to avoid diversification of leagues so that to avoid confrontations between leagues should be the key. First, free association of countries should be prohibited, or in other words, free establishment of leagues should be prohibited. Only a specific league that consists of certain nations is allowed to develop, and absorb countries that could meet the requirements at the right time, so that the league will grow continuously and enter the greatly unified society when conditions are ripe.

Key of this assumption is to restrain free combination of nations that are the highest authorities in national society. Only a few specific countries are allowed to establish league of nations, rather than allowing countries to set up leagues freely. What’s more, there will be only one league that intends to promote the process of great unification.

In fact, partial right of most countries will be restrained, or in other words, countries’ right to set up leagues freely is restricted. Such restriction will be unprecedented, because international organizations including the UN are all unable to do so.

Then what kind of strength could influence a nation’s action in national society?

In NATO, members all obey order from America, while in WTO, members obey order from Soviet Union, because America is the most powerful in NATO, while Soviet Union is the most powerful member in WTO.

Over 2,000 years ago, during Spring and Autumn Period in ancient China, there were many countries large or small in China, strength of kingdom of Zhou was declining, and among all these five most powerful countries that were called five hegemonies in Spring and Autumn Period appeared successively. They dominated China at different times, and were called hegemonies. No country cared order issued by emperor of Zhou, but was very obedient to order of hegemony at that time. This improves that strength will determine a country’s action. 

Global organizations like the League of Nations and Union of Nations are unable to restrict a nation’s action, but large country could. A small country may be supercilious in front of the UN, but it is obedient to order of the large country. France and Germany challenged America as the authority of NATO successively, because France and Germany were also very powerful; while in socialist camp then, China challenged Soviet Union, and broke away from the camp centered in Soviet Union, also because that China was fairly powerful and needn’t show deference to Soviet Union.

Let’s discuss diversification of leagues. To prohibit free association of nations, there should be an absolutely strong power that could restrict the nations from free actions, and such absolutely strong power could only comes from nations that refer to not any single nation, because a single nation will not be powerful enough to rein the whole world, but only a group that is closely associated in aspects of politics, military and economy could be that powerful. The group should be powerful enough that not any nation could challenge it. The group to a nation outside of the group is just like a giant to a baby. It is impossible that a baby could challenge a giant by force. Even there is such force challenge, it will not be serious, because loss caused by confrontation between the parties with wide gap of strength won’t be large, even if the confrontation develops into war.

It is a rule that confrontation and war between parties with wide gap of strengths will not cause large death or damage. It is clear by analyzing wars broke out between large country and small one in the history:

In 1983, when America seized Grenada, only around 130 soldiers fell in the war, and most of them came from assistance force of Cuba. America occupied the whole Grenada in only 3 days. In 1989, America occupied Panama, and sent president Noriega of Panama to America for trial. America controlled the whole Panama in only 4 days, and casualties of the parties were only over 3,000, over half of which were civilians. The Gulf War in 1991 could be reckoned as a large-scale war, but death in the war was less than 20,000. Death of multi-national force led by America was less than 100, and only 42 days later, Iraq retreated fully from Kuwait.

The reason for such result is that compared with these countries, America is absolutely advantageous in aspects of military, politics and economy, particularly when compared with Grenada and Panama.

WTO’s occupation of Czechoslovakia in 1968 was such an example also. WTO, led by Soviet Union, seized the whole Czechoslovakia in 1 day using tanks and planes, and the casualty was less than 100. While casualty of NATO in the war with League of Communists of Yugoslavia was almost zero, and casualty of Yugoslavia was only several thousand.

While damage of Iran-Iraq war that lasted from 1980 to 1988 was much larger than the Gulf War between America and Iraq. Iran and Iraq were matchable enemies, the war between these two medium sized countries lasted 8 years. Total casualty of the countries reached 2.5 million, and they spent over 900 billion US dollars in the war. Both of them had spent the last penny in the war. The result is that none of them could defeat the other, and the previous rich oil countries became poor ones after the war, with both countries hurt.

The World War I between the Allies and the Central Powers and the World War II between the Allies and the Axis were both wars between matchable military camps, so they brought over half a world down to the abyss of war. Both the wars made record-high casualties in war history, and the wars led to collapse of economy, and destruction of various architectures and cultural facilities. People had no means to live, with countries split.

Numerous historic issues and wars have improved the truth that wars developed from confrontation between matchable parties will definitely be very cruel ones, while cruel wars could be avoided if strengths of the parties differ greatly.

This issue contains the truth: when strengths differ greatly, not only the weak one will be willing to obey government of the strong, but the strong party will also treat the weak mercifully.

Take relation between countries as an example, when facing a weak country without any aggressivity nor any aggressiveness, a large country is usually clement and merciful, because it senses no threat, it will certainly show its merciful and peaceful image. It’s just like a giant facing a baby, the giant will not hurt the counterpart in general, but matchable boxers are hostile to each other.

So absolute advantage could inspire mercifulness, kindness and peace of the country or league. To the contrary, advantage that is not obvious could result in further expansion of the strength, and inspire ambition of war. To make countries or leagues co-exist peacefully, their strengths must be kept greatly differed, general difference of strength is not able to realize the target, but only the difference that is large enough could attain this purpose—making them coexist peacefully.

So, if several very powerful nations could form a close league with absolute advantage, and the league’s strength is large enough that not any country or league dare to confront with it, then this league could frighten other nations in the world, and could easily prevent the countries from set up leagues freely. The free state of nation will change then. 

If there is no large scale war nor large confronting entity, this league with absolute advantage is definitely able to ensure that there is only one league (that is the league itself), so that it could drive the world towards the dream of great unification under the precondition that there is no disastrous war.

This truth could be further generalized, or in other words, during the interim from national society to the greatly unified society, to avoid large-scale war, we must use large countries’ strength to restrict free actions of other nations, rely on strength of absolute power to lead undertaking of the great unification, and let the absolute power to restrict other countries from doing damages to undertaking of the great unification and things unfavorable to world peace, thus ensure that undertaking of the great unification could process humanely and peacefully. It means that the absolute power will act as helmsman and leader of the whole world.

Not any single country could be strong enough to act as the absolute power. Only league of nations could be that strong. Besides league of nations, other forms of association might be possible also. We call such association of nations as absolute advantageous group, or advantageous group for short. To ascertain and choose the scheme of advantageous group is to ascertain and choose interim plan, and the realization plan of the great unification also.

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