Section II Most Fundamental Reform with Smallest Resistance
When we are clear that technical conditions for great unification have been mature, we will know that great unification of mankind could be realized by reasonable efforts of mankind. But there is still a problem of degree of difficulty even if the great unification could be realized by efforts of mankind, if undertaking of the great unification is very difficult to be promoted, and is in the indefinite future, far beyond the period in which extinction means will appear, even far beyond the time when mankind will get self-extincted, then promotion of great unification will be meaningless. So it is necessary to practically analyze magnitude of resistance of the social reform.
I. Cruelty of Social Reform
Throughout human history, social reform is always connected with bloody killings. Cruelty is same for regime change of small country and social reform that is influential to regions or the world.
The basic reason for why social reform always express itself in very cruel mode is that conflict between the party that wants to keep old system and the party that hopes for reform is life-and-death struggle. Major form of social reform is replacement of ruling class in old social institution by ruling class in new social institution. The ruling class will use is ruling position to maintain interests of itself and some certain groups, these interests include economic interest, politic interest and cultural interest. But no matter what interest it is, it belongs to scope of happy value.
If social reform really happens, after new ruling class replaces old ruling class, happy value of old ruling class and interest groups it represents will be deprived, and the deprived happy value will be acquired by new ruling class and interest groups the new ruling class represents. Generally speaking, some people will lose happy value, while others many acquire happy value in social reform. So that party that will lose happy value will certainly try everything to protect its interests, while the party that will acquire happy value in social reform will certainly try to make the reform happen.
This is just start of the question. While protecting its interest, the party that will lose happy value will use measures beyond scope of happy value. The ruling class will use its advantageous position to exile, imprison and torture reformers to deprive happy value of reformers, and will also use measures that will deprive survival value of people, such as killing, or even killing families, friends and partisans to stop the reform.
Likewise, reformer is completely clear that purpose of reform is to win happy value, and to deprive happy value of the ruling class, but the measures used will not be limited to scope of happy value. The purpose will not be realized if ruling class is not completely defeated and thoroughly toppled, so the measures featured as depriving survival value, such as assassination, terrorist attack and war will be used inevitably.
Although all reforms originate from happy value, the measures used include both measures within happy value and measures beyond happy value. The measures used include measures in scope of survival scope, or in other words, all important values are involved, so conflict in social reform is very serious. Just because of this feature, every great social reform is very difficult, as the ruling class will use every measure to protect original system, and measures and resources controlled by the ruling class have obvious advantages.
There is also another reason for why great social reform is very difficult. To maintain its ruling, the ruling class will enforce a series of policies, measures and methods, and use various measures to influence people's understanding and thought, to let people agree to rationality and legality of the ruling system, so it is doubtlessly very difficult for people to accept a system that is more scientific and reasonable. In history, people will use over 100 years to accept a new thought, but the thought would still need hundreds of years to change the world.
For example, renaissance movement's flag is to revive European classical civilization, but its real purpose is to topple feudal theocratic rein of Catholicism. As feudal rein of Catholicism had greatly influenced people, it was very difficult to topple the rein, and various conditions should be created, the process for waking up was quite long. As the first thought liberation movement in modern human society, it took 200 years, from the 14th century to the 16th century, before it functioned practically. During this period, many thinkers and scientists were murdered or persecuted, and final success of the movement was realized through war.
The enlightenment movement that was lunched later and called the second thought liberation movement took over 100 years from initiation to when it functioned practically.
The enlightenment movement in the 17th and 18th centuries directly aimed at the black Middle Ages, enlightenment thinkers held high the banner of rationalism, refuted feudal social institution and political institution, attacked dogmatic theology, and put forward systematic theory and assumption to found rational society and nation, thus paved road for foundation of modern democratic nation both in aspects of thought and theory. Success of enlightenment movement is symbolized by a series of great revolutions and wars, including American revolution, French revolution and Napoleonic war, in which millions of people were killed or injured.
Just because this social reform will be more profound, it will be crueler than normal reforms, and time required for thought preparation will be very long. Besides over 100 years of enlightenment movement, renaissance movement was prelude of the social reform also, then preparation time for the reform is around 400 years.
The communist movement is same. Communist movement aims to topple rein of capital class, to set up socialist nation dictated by proletariat, so fierceness of the social revolution is certainly doubtless, and that the social revolution needs quite long preparation time and will certainly use cruel measures .
The earliest assumption of socialist thought could be retrospected to Eutopia written by More in the 16th century, the pursuit of a kind of ideal society and quest for socialism lasted for hundreds of years. In fact, the process of questing was also a process of thought spreading. In the 19th century, Marx and Engels' scientific socialist thought provided theoretical basis for foundation of socialist regime. Because of further spread of the thought, socialist nation is finally founded, and socialist flags once flew over half the world.
Cruelty in the process for foundation of socialist regime is very obvious. Foundation of almost every socialist nation was accompanied by bloody war and armed uprising. After foundation of the first socialist regime, regime of Soviet Union, it immediately encountered armed interference of capitalist countries. From foundation of the regime, to maintenance in early state and stabilization later, the regime experienced a very difficult process. While casualty in the war for foundation of Chinese socialist regime was millions. This is completely because in such social revolution, requirement of current ruling class is opposite to interest of the group that asks for revolution, and acquirement of interest of one party means lose of interest of the other party, the interest conflict is tit for tat and life to death.
II. Consistency of People's Interests in This Fundamental Reform
Generally speaking, the larger the scale of social revolution is, the more difficult it will be, because ruling vested interest group will try everything to keep current system, while the party that seeks for revolution will need a quite long time to accumulate strength, and social revolution will be realized when balance between the parties is broken. It's doubtless that because of the serious interest conflict, one party will try its best to maintain current system and the party that seeks for revolution, every social revolution is very difficult, long and cruel, which will be more obvious as scale of social revolution is larger and larger.
Scale of the social reform from national society to the greatly unified society will be larger than any previous social reform, because all previous reforms happened within national society, some of these social reforms were within the nations, while others involved merger, split and reconstruction of nations, but any way, these reforms were within national society. While the coming reform is the transfer from national society to the greatly unified society, which is fundamental change of social morphology. Its precondition is perishment of all nations. Scale of the reform will be unprecedented, and its significance will not only be unprecedented, but also unrepeatable. Whether the unprecedented significance means unprecedented difficulty, cruelty and long time required of the social reform?
As we know, we have no other choice but great unification, because if great unification is not realized, development of science and technology will not be restricted truly, and mankind will soon be extincted. So this social reform concerns overall existence of mankind and fundamental interest of everyone. Though disaster brought by science and technology may not threaten us directly, our offspring will be related.
What's more, the greatly unified society will bring common happiness to the whole mankind. When great unification is realized, human society could be built as a non-competitive society, and ethic fusion and religious fusion will both become possible; development of science and technology is restricted; meanwhile, the greatly unified society is suitable for policy of equal prosperity. All these will make the greatly unified society into a society without competition pressure and knowledge updating pressure, a society with rare war and crime, and also a generally prosperous society in which everyone lives healthily and for a long life (these points will be further elaborated in following sections). So the great unification will not only ensure overall existence of mankind, but also ensure realization of overall happiness of mankind.
So the greatly unified society will benefit all out descendants, everyone could enjoy benefits of realization of the most important value brought by the greatly unified society, no matter which class or group he belongs to. So all the classes and groups share wide conformity in the undertaking of great unification, and there is no fierce conflict as that one party's gain of interest will mean loss of another party.
Although undertaking of the great unification has common basic interest for the whole mankind, basic interest often conflicts with viewed interest, or in other words, long-term and basic interest of a person or a group is often inconsistent with the instant and surfaced interest. Long-term and basic interest will be understood by wisdom and thinking, and only rational ones will be resolute to insist and protect such interest, while instant and surfaced interest will be insisted and protected by most people, even if the former is much more important than the later, there will still be many that will sacrifice the former for the later. So in the process of promotion of great unification undertaking, there will certainly be a group of extremely selfish ones to step out to block the wheel of history.
III. Resistance Analysis
If resistance for reform from national society to the greatly unified society mainly because viewed interest of some groups will be harmed in the process of reform, then viewed interests of which groups will be harmed in the undertaking of great unification, and how large resistance will thus caused? To make this question clear, we can start analysis from following contents.
First, as for common people, the biggest beneficiaries in aspect of viewed interest will be poor countries, particularly medium and small poor countries.
The major reason for poverty of poor countries is that these countries were treated unfairly in history, some of them were ravaged by wars, while others had been bullied by colonialists, all these make them far lagged behind modern civilization. Backwardness leaves these countries vulnerable to harms, in cruel international competition, the poor will become poorer, because rules of international competition are formulated by rich and powerful nations. What’s more, competition in modern society is actually competition of science and technology, but medium and small poor nations are extremely short of capital, talent and management ability, their ability in technology development, particularly technical innovation and transfer of science and technology to productivity is very weak, and modern civilization has been far away from them, so their backwardness and poverty are obvious.
When great unification is realized, the world will be uniformly governed by world regime, poor areas will receive fair treatment and help from the whole world, and management of these areas will gather global wisdom. What’s very important is that, though development of science and technology will be restricted in the greatly unified society, present safe and mature science and technology will be popularized and applied. In national society, those medium and small poor countries are unable to do the promotion and application, but in greatly unified society, with global talents and wisdom, the most suitable scientific and technical results will be popularized and applied there. With such promotion, application and popularization, these areas will soon shake off poverty and step to richness.
Second, rich nations needn’t to make special sacrifice to the great unification undertaking.
When the great unification is realized, people will easily think that benefits of poor countries are because of aid and sacrifice of rich ones, then will people in rich countries suffer great losses thus? Actually not, because development of poor countries mainly benefit from popularization and application of safe and mature scientific and technical fruits at present. The major investment will be investment in technical talents and management talents, talent cultivation and aid do need investment, and rich nations need to make sacrifice while fulfilling their duties, but compared with direct economic help, such investment is much less, and investment of the rich countries will be returned through other ways.
As we know, in national society, confrontation between nations often express as war, so every nation gives top priority to military construction and investment, and military spending is very large. In the greatly unified society, the whole globe is an integral whole. Confrontation between nations will disappear with perishment of nations, ethic and religious fusion, and foundation of non-competitive society, war and crime will be rare in human society, main tasks of army are to maintain social stability and rescue in natural disaster, so military spending will constitute just a small part of social spending, even less than one tenth of present military spending in general, which means that over ninety percent of present military spending could be invested in other aspects, such spending will be very considerable capital for development of poor areas.
In fact, the greatly unified society could save fees in other aspects also. For example, with perishment of nations, the top authoritative organ will disappear, and there will be one top authoritative body—world regime left, so there is only one top authoritative system also, which will greatly reduce expenditure of administrative fees. Another example, with perishment of nations, barriers for international exchanges between different regions will disappear, particularly trade barriers, which will save various expenditures. If these expenditures saved could be used to help poor areas, then poor areas could shake off poverty.
Third, people is moderately well-off nations will benefit greatly in aspect of economy, and people in rich nations will also benefit to a certain degree.
After the world is unified, with popularization and application of safe and mature scientific and technological fruits at present, the world will tend to be an equally prosperous world, the richness degree will be similar to or slightly higher than level of developed countries at present. The reason for why developed countries are rich is that they have applied most advanced science and technology widely, if these advanced sciences and technologies are widely applied everywhere in the world, then the other areas will be as rich as developed countries at present.
What's more, some scientific and technological fruits haven't be applied yet, these fruits will certainly be popularized and applied. Not any developed country could have the most advanced science and technology in every aspect, the greatly unified society will collect the most advanced science and technology, and apply uniformly, so the science and technology used then will be more advanced than any developed country at present. So people's living standard in the greatly unified society will be even higher than developed countries at present. People in moderately rich countries will greatly benefit from great unification, and people in rich countries will also benefit from great unification to a certain degree.
Fourth, viewed interest of leaders at middle and low levels will not change greatly.
When the great unification is realized, if leaders at medium and low levels are still within their tenures, scopes and industrial departments within their management scope will not change greatly, there are leaders and management departments at higher levels, so their viewed interest will not change seriously in aspects of size and scope of power.
Fifth, top leaders and top leading class of medium and small countries will lose most viewed interests, while top leaders and top leading class of large nations will be the largest beneficiaries.
In national society, the highest authority body is nation, decisions and behaviors of the top leaders and top leading class will not be interfered or influenced by higher level, because these decision are final. They not only enjoy the honor and right of the top leaders, but also enjoy many privileges and viewed interests.
In national society, many nations co-exist with each other, every nation has its own top leaders and top leading class, but when great unification is realized, there will be only one highest authoritative body, top leaders and staffs in top leading class will both be very limited, in the process to promote great unification, the possibility for medium and small nations to act as leading actors in the undertaking of great unification will be very small, so it will be more possible that they will lose rights and privileges because of realization of the great unification, and what they lose will be top rights and privileges. So their loss of viewed interest is the largest.
While situations for top leaders and top leading class of large countries are just opposite. Generally speaking, large changes of political map are always driven by large countries, the significance of transform from national society to the greatly unified society will exceed any social reform in history, so it’s doubtless that this social reform will be driven by strength of large countries, and top leaders and top leading class of large countries will definitely play as leaders and leading groups in the transform.
What’s particularly important is that the undertaking of great unification will save mankind, and bring common happiness to the whole mankind. Its justness is definitely unprecedented. To act as an leader in such a meaningful undertaking will be dream of any competitive political leader. If they could achieve some accomplishment in the undertaking of great unification, these leaders will leave names on the scroll of fame, while people that are most possible to be able to shoulder this heavy responsibility will be top leaders and top leading class of large countries, so they are the largest beneficiaries in the undertaking of great unification.
To sum up, the greatly unified society is not only beneficial to the whole mankind, common people could benefit from the undertaking of great unification in aspect of viewed benefit also, people in poor countries, well-off countries and rich countries could all benefit from this process. If they are educated about this truth, they will become the most large-scale strength that will push the undertaking of great unification, and this strength will form a powerful torrent.
Among leading classes, leaders at medium and low levels will not lose many rights in aspect of viewed interest, and will be beneficiaries of economical benefits to be brought by the great unification undertaking. What’s more, the great unification undertaking will save the whole mankind, and benefit everyone in aspect of basic interest, so they will become supporters and promoters of the great unification undertaking.
The largest resistance for the great unification might come from top leaders and top leading class of medium and small nations that are many, because they will lose both powers and privileges. I think quite many of them will obey rightness of the whole mankind, and become promoters of the great unification undertaking, but a small part of them which are extremely selfish will overlook overall existence of the whole mankind and happiness of our posterity, and keep to their powers and privileges, becoming clowns that block the great unification undertaking.
If these people are against the great unification undertaking, the resistance will be quite large. They will use the convenient conditions as top leaders and top leading class, try everything to mobilize national people to block process of the great unification, and will disturb people’s understanding, making people unable to recognize necessity and feasibility of the great unification and various practical benefits the great unification may bring, so these people will become major and also the strongest power to resist the great unification undertaking.
To the contrary, top leaders and top leading class of large countries will probably become active promoters of the great unification undertaking, because they might become the largest beneficiaries in the great unification undertaking. What’s more important is that, these people will have very strong power, they will use the conditions as top leaders and top leading class of the large countries, and mobilize the whole nations to support the great unification undertaking. Meanwhile, power of large country is not limited to itself, large countries could lead and influence some regions and even the whole world. Though there are just few large countries in the world, their power is worldwide, and their ability is incomparable for some small countries.
Top leaders and top leading class of large countries will not only be possible to drive process of the great unification, but also be the most capable strength to promote the process. If top leaders of some most powerful nations decide to act jointly, the world could change fundamentally, so they are the most reliable strength for the great unification undertaking.
Above analysis shows that, though the transform from national society to the greatly unified society is unprecedented social reform in human history, resistance for the unprecedented social reform will be relatively small, because basic interest of the whole mankind is same, and viewed interest of mankind is widely consistent, what’s more, top leaders and top leading class of large countries, the most powerful groups, are the largest beneficiaries in aspect of viewed interest.