Section IV Radical Choice-establishing of a Monolithic Society
Seeing that it has been a failure of the two supreme efforts for a unity based dream for all of humanity in history as the foundation of the international alliance and the UN, what is the reason and how can we achieve the target of humanity unity? How can the restriction on development of science and technology be fulfilled finally?
I. The origin for limitations to the role of international organizations
(1) Conflicts between interests of country and international organization for granted
The international alliance and the UN are both founded in world war. Their foundation results from the realization after the bloody slaughter. Such international organizations all stands for the side of humanity unity by coordinating benefits of different countries to achieve the goal of preventing war, disarming, maintaining peace, eliminating poverty and benefiting the world. But, in the practice of the international organizations, the international alliance did not prevent World War Ⅱ, the UN did not prevent hundreds of local wars since World War Ⅱ, the continuous increase of nuclear warhead, the destroy of environment or growth for poverty population.
It should be said that the international organization did not turn a blind eye to all those, to be the opposite, it have stood for the whole benefits of humanity to coordinate each sides actively with all means it could take, once there were affairs against peace or influence benefits for humanity. The international organizations has done all they should and could do only to get little effect.
The first reason of its unable to unity actions of humanity by the international organization is the conflict of benefits between international organizations and countries.
As far as the principle, the international organizations consist of nations, the foundation of the international organizations are sponsored by leaders of each country. So there should not be great conflicts of benefits between countries and the international organizations. However, it is not true. The conflicts for benefits happened frequently which lead to the result that the international organizations can not achieve the goal of coordination for benefits of each country and unity for action of the whole humanity.
Spots in human nature decides that partial interests can gain the upper hand, if there are conflicts between partial interests and overall interests; immediate interests can gain the upper hand, if there are conflicts between immediate interests and long-term interests; temporary interests can gain the upper hand, if there are conflicts between temporary interests and root interests. That is the sense for benefits of humanity view in human nature, which is the result of short-sighted humanity.
Such human frailties are mainly manifested of countries by phenomenon as following: the interest of the country can gain the upper hand, if there are conflicts of benefits between country and the world; the interest of the modern generations can gain the upper hand, if there are conflicts of benefits between modern generations and descendants; partial happiness and existing can gain the upper hand, if there are conflicts of happiness and existing between individuals and the whole humanity.
Generally speaking, the international organizations, among the interests of all quarters above, represent long-term interests, root interests and general interests for us. That is because the origin, original intention and duty of the international organizations imply long-term interests, root interests and general interests for humanity.
Both the international alliance and the UN were founded for the same purpose. Elitisms initiated to create the global organizations of great generality from the view for the survival of humanity as a whole and the fundamental interests and well-being. They did so in view of the enormous destruction and casualties of the two World Wars and in order to avoid such human suffering. It is precisely because those international organizations were founded from the very existence of mankind as a whole starting with the well-being, so they are overall organizations formed for all rather than local agencies founded for the interests of a certain part. Furthermore, the interests of the relationship they represent must be overall interests, long-term interests and the fundamental interests of humanity.
The main purpose and duty for League of Nations was to stop the war and the reduction of armaments. Its focus is the overall interests of humanity rather than local interests and is long-term and fundamental interests, rather than the interests of immediate and surface. Purposes and duties of the United Nations are more extensive in terms of relative to the League of Nations. In addition to safeguarding world peace and the reduction of global arms outside, it also involves social, economic, cultural and other aspects. To this end, the United Nations is committed to the eradication of poverty, environmental protection and the fight against drugs and international crime, etc., all are on the perspective of overall interests, long-term interests and the fundamental interests of humanity.
Of course, international organizations are not doing everything objectively well to the overall situation of human interest, long-term interests and the fundamental interests. For example, the United Nations is not in favor of limiting the development of science and technology, but also to encourage the development of science and technology, this can only say that the United Nations so far has not really recognize the science and technology to human survival, a huge threat to the whole, it can not be said that the United Nations as a whole do not care about the human survival. In another example, in the history of the United Nations, there is indeed some justice contrary to human aggression and the indulgence of the big countries do, it is because the United Nations to stop this aggression can not and do not want to be completely lead to the collapse of international organizations, such behavior is the United Nations last resort, not the original intention of the United Nations is located.
In contrast, countries tend to maintain only the interests of the country, the interests of contemporary people and some people's happiness and survival. They represent the local human interests, immediate interests and surface interests. The reason why this may be true, first of all because the country itself is the concept of a region, the state is necessarily the primary consideration of the governance of their region, and its terms of reference is in the region within the scope of, human beings do not have the overall, long-term and the fundamental interests of the priority requirements. In contrast, the call of duty to country is bound to first consider the interests of the national level, and can not be the whole world.
According to results, we know that the continuous belligerence is the inherent weakness of human nature. In national society, there are many countries co-exist in the world. At the same time, it is inevitable of such belligerence among those countries which appears as competition of national overall strength, comparison of the national standard of living, and the pursuit of achieving political aspirations by leaders of a nation, etc.
In cases that so many countries co-exist, there will always be individual countries with solution of some problems that only has been based on their own interests rather than the overall interest of humanity. Not only the disastrous effect caused by them on interests of mankind will undid efforts of other countries, but also the unilateral action of these countries is bound to make them gain appropriate interests, which eventually enhance national strength. At strong enough strength, the country will be able to oppress the other countries that put the overall interest of humanity on an important place, while ignoring the partial interests of their own country. Therefore, those countries who give top priority to the overall interest of human beings would actually be on the losing side. Furthermore, the losing side here does not mean what we have known before in general. A small and weak country can been oppressed or invaded by great power at the expense of national subjugation and genocide, as well as the lives and blood of millions of people.
Similarly, in cases that so many countries co-exist, there will always be a number of countries that insist on the pursuit of interests for present generation in disregard of the interests for the future to improve the standard of living for present generation constantly. However, those countries who put interests of the future on an important place will meet opposition from modern people for no immediate interests gained, and status of the ruler will be shaken then. Thus, the rulers will have lost right of sovereignty for the country. Also, that usually means that head of themselves will lie at feet together with their family and follower. Understandably, how great the price is for the rulers!
Let us now look at the attitude towards fundamental interests, such as the whole existence of humanity. As we know, the problem of whole existence for humanity is a conclusion drawn through wise consideration rather than an urgent problem lies ahead. Such a conclusion is focused on the future. It is impossible at all for the two as following to consider the whole interests of existence for all mankind at risk of losing well-being and survival of people at home, as well as rule and lives of their own. That is, the countries with fear of being in a passive position under attack from the competition, or the leaders of state with fear of losing leadership positions by not complying with the shortsighted requirements from modern people. Because human survival is a matter for all in the future, and that the national interest is an immediate thing for the country itself.
To sum up the above arguments, you can clearly see that in the national society with the existence of international organizations, conflicts between partial interests and general interests，immediate interests and long-term interests，as well as temporary interests and root interests for mankind have naturally evolved into conflicts between the country and the international organization. The country here is a representative of partial interests, immediate interest and temporary interests. The international organization here is a representative of overall interests, long-term interests and the root interests. As long as there are countries and international organizations coexist, there will be conflicts between country and international organization without a doubt.
(2) International organizations are unable to condition behavior of the country
International organizations are created and constituted by the countries. And their authority is conferred by countries. But when the international organizations exercise their rights, they can find no support by countries. The contrary is indeed true, it is just the county that as the biggest factor to hinder the action of exercising rights by he international organizations.
In July 2004, the China Central TV Station had interviewed The United Nations’ former Secretary Gully. In talking about the Rwandan genocide, Gully came out with the truth that he had sent a request for troops to more than 40 countries, especially to the USA for many a time, since he recognized how serious the situation of Rwanda is. But, there was no one accepted his request, which bred the disaster of Rwanda as a result (there are millions of people died unnatural deaths in less than 100 days of the Rwandan genocide). No country will to see their soldiers die or put hands in pockets for peacekeeping. And the UN did not have the Blue Helmets then, as a secretary, he can only ask for money, troops and weapons, even the aircrafts for transporting troops, to each country.
Gully considered that the UN secretary is both secretary in normal circumstances and captain in an incident for each huge country. Huge countries, however, prefer secretary to captain.
Interviewed by CCTV in October 2004, the then UN’s secretary Anna had said almost the same thing. He said that UN should try its best to be a good secretary in normal circumstances, but it should also be a good captain in an emergency. However, huge countries do not need captain so much as the secretary following directions. The Gully and Anna’s words strongly implicate the embarrassment of the UN. They are the real portraiture of UN’s situation.
The people sovereignty thought is the political thought widely accepted by modern democratic countries, according to which, the power of country is given by the people, that is to say, the relationship between people and country is similar with that between the international organizations and the county. But, a country can regulate the conducts of people by laws, and people must live, study or work within the sphere permitted by law. Otherwise, the country will make use of the regime's organs which is in full effect to persecute. Quite different from that，power of the international organizations is given by the country, and the rules of the international organizations have been signed by all member states, so it is legally binding upon every county, however, the country can be excused from this regulation of international organizations and even had always done things against the international law, but not to be investigated substantively.
The reason is that the countries have a series of means to maintain its own political power and exercise its sovereignty independently, and they also have the capacity to mobilize economic resources and society resources most effectively. However, the international organizations do not have such means and capability. They can only perform their own function by power of the countries. If those countries would like to provide such power, the international organizations can exercise corresponding duty, and vice versa. Especially when a country is powerful enough to a certain extent, it can shake off the restriction from the international organizations.
It has been proved that the roles of all conventions, treaties, agreements, resolutions, appeals, declarations and so on formed by the international organizations are limited. They may be a little useful when all the huge countries reach a unanimous decision. But when there are conflicts with interest of some huge countries, especially the super countries, all above will be only a piece of waste paper. Also, hopes can not be anchored on peace guaranteed by international organizations, because huge countries can destroy such peace carelessly and make the guarantee from international organizations ineffective completely.
It is the supreme authority that makes the power of a country be above that of the international organizations actually. On one hand a country can hinder the decision made by the international organizations, on the other hand the international organizations are unable to control actions of the country. At the same time, each country has separate interests of its own, and those separate interests are quite different from each other. We must take care of the interests of some countries’ at the expense of interests of the others’. Therefore, the target of unification of humanity action can’t be achieved at all by the international organizations whose strength is less than countries’. It can only play a small part at most on co-ordination. Whether the effects of such co-ordination are good or not depends on attitude of country. When there tends to be identity of interests for each huge country, its effect on co-ordination will be better or vice versa.
We know that restriction on development of science and technology will inevitably influence the interests of countries. There are so many issues related with science and technology, such as the strength of a country, the benefits of enterprises, standards of people's living and so on. Therefore, tight restriction on development of science and technology is undoubtedly the serious challenge for interests of a country. To lead the great action of tight restriction on development of science and technology which involved with the long-term interests, overall interests and fundamental interests for humanity and have a bearing on whole existence of humanity, we must rely on a global organization with strong power rather than an international organization. That is because the weak international organizations can not be opponent of the country. Various measures and decisions for uniform of human action of the international organizations will, sooner or later, be obeyed and destroyed by countries with supreme authority and independent sovereignty.
II. Only through international regime can our actions united
(1) International regime and unified society
We can rely on neither the international organizations nor the country, if we want to lead the unprecedented great action of tight restriction on the development of science and technology that lasted millions of years. There are 200 countries around the world today. It is their vicious competition without disorder that leads to the rapid development of science and technology, so that mankind has been in the risk of destruction brought by science all the time. Extreme means as the law of the "triple-gain" is just the inevitable result of station society. In fact, only the elimination of doing its own in each country and united action of all mankind can avoid disorderly competition of countries and limit the development of science and technology. Then mankind will be possible from drowned.
So, what kind of organization or what form of organization can complete this difficult and sacred and great mission?
About 10 thousand years had passed, since we entered the era of human civilization. When we look at all forms of organizations human beings have had, such as villages, tribes, countries and international organizations, or enterprises, associations, societies and a variety of research institutions, etc., it is the country that has the greatest strength as leadership or organization. The country rules its people by using the army, police, judicial and other government agencies. Even in modern democratic countries, all state power belongs to the people on theory, however, a person must act within the law under the control of a country. The state will be able to use their own means of its power to impose sanctions on a person, as long as he or she breaks law of the country. The sanctions range from the punishments involving the economy and the reputation such as fines, exposure and so on to the extreme punishments of deprivation of liberty or the lives such as imprisonment or even execution.
There are too many means for the rule of a country, if classified carefully. For example, economic means, administrative means, military means, propaganda means, legal means and so on. The form of national society we are being in now is an enduring social form and has strong vitality. The era of the national community had begun soon after the beginning of civilized society. Until today, we have reached the level of highly developed civilization. But, the human world is still controlled by the state power. All those mentioned-above is because rule of the society organization form as a country is very powerful and the management of the community is very effective.
However, the state as a powerful means of rule and an effective means of management can only play a role within the country. All rule can be valid within the scope of the state. But we should obey the laws of another country and accept its rule and management, once left the country. Then the another country mentioned-above can have the same powerful means of rule and the same effective means of management, but all are only limited to that country.
It can be seen that under the national social formation, all the countries have formed their own highly independent region which is the country's boundaries. Within the respective boundary, each country has been operating independently and has its own separate interests. The country determines its independent acts according to its own interests. Its regime is extremely powerful and its management is highly effective. No other force can really insert into it.
Well, it is necessary to establish agencies adapted for the force of the rule and management of a country’s regime, if we want to drive the world strongly and unite action of all mankind. But the region for governance of institutions is the whole world rather than one part or a few parts of the world. We may as well call the agency as the world power.
The so-called world power is the establishment of a uniform regime worldwide. The establishment of the world power means the unity of all mankind. Everybody is ruled by the regime, and any region that humans can set foot in is included in the jurisdiction of the world power (including outer space, as well as other planets human beings have landed on). World power has authority and strength of management and rule as the state power. But its scope of governance is all mankind. It will replace the role of country to become the highest authority in human society. Completely different from the national society, the highest authority above is the one and only. It not only rules the whole of mankind, but also considers all by standing for the respect of overall interests and long-term interests and fundamental interests of all mankind. Therefore, only the world power can lead the long-term, great and arduous actions whose influence covers everyone and every region of the world, such as the action of restriction on the development of science and technology which impact such a serious view on many groups and their interests.
The establishment of world government must be on the premise of elimination of the state. It will enable the management of the world to become a whole. The form of human society will transformed from the national society into grand unified society.
Standing on the perspective of our knowledge of the political structure and political system today, we can find the world government is the highest executive authority agency for the grand unified society among the relevant agencies of world power. It establishes different policies and takes different actions with overarching vision for all mankind in stead of partial vision for one country. Furthermore, it deploys resources and formulates administrative rules uniformly from the long-term and fundamental interests of all humanity.
In addition to the unified executive power institutions such as world government, the grant unified society has its unified legislature and judiciary. Everyone in the world is learning, working and living under the control of unified law. Everyone has responsibility and obligation to comply with such a uniform law of the world, and should be supervised or investigated by a unified judiciary.
World Government, world legislative and world Judiciary constitute major component of the world's regime. Of course, there will be much more other authority departments subdivided from the world’s regime, such as the army, police, department for surveillance, department for business management, department for culture management and department for public administration, etc.
(2) The two questionable point for the grant united society
1. The issue of the ability for world power’s control
When talking about the issue of only world power can achieve the limitations of science and technology and use the existing safe established achievements of science and technology well, somebody must argued that many problems in various countries can not still be solved by the state power, how can united society fulfill limitations of science and technology, as well as the rational use of existing scientific and technical success?
There are two ways here to answer this question: first, in national society, the state power itself does not will to meet the requirements above rather than can not and vice versa that it encourages development of science and technology desperately, because the state power will consider a problem only to stand of interest of the country. Only to encourage the development of science and technology can a country be powerful and remain invincible in the competition. The political power of the world in grand united society is based on consideration of all mankind. It has the desire to achieve these objectives above first in order to avoid the extinction of the human being and to ensure the general well-being of mankind. Undoubtedly, a regime with no such desire, or even doing the opposite thing, can not bring that off, let alone well. While the other regime with this desire first can do it at least, certainly it will be better than the one who doesn’t have the desire and even does the opposite thing.
Second, the strength of the regime is very powerful actually. We can not simply approach a problem with the perspective of the strength of today's of political power, for example, the society now is a democratic society (I also consider the democratic society as a good community and I believe that community in the future should also be a democratic society) and a peaceful society on the whole, so the means used by the regime is limited. In fact, there are many contends of political power means not yet clear to some people. The strength of regime is very powerful. To cite just two cases, the first one is that the rule of the Catholic Church in Medieval Europe had lasted a thousand years. As we all know, the Western civilization today is from the classical Greek civilization, but during the reign of Catholic Church, the best achievements of the classical Greek civilization all have been forced out by the Catholic Church and lost so. The Renaissance later is a windfall of the Crusades. Those troops robbed a lot of books from the Arabic region and translated them, so that they find their ancestors such great men. There were rationalist philosophers as Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, as well as great scientists as Archimedes and Ptolemy.
Take one more case of China, during the time of the Sino-Japanese War when the Japanese army run after the Chinese army, Chiang Kai-shek regime blew the big Dam of the Yellow River into pieces in order to block the Japanese army. The monstrous waves drowned a lot of Chinese people and, of course, blocked the Japanese offensive. Such means can not be thought of in times of peace anyway. But in a time of life and death, many a thing can be done.
Then, as a global power, a lot of means can be used when humanity are in the time of life and death. Of course, this does not mean that we do those things above, but it can tell us that as a regime, it has a strong ability to deal with the crisis in fact.
2. The issue of it is possible for grant united society to split
In view of the stories that there has been bound to be unification after prolonged division and division after prolonged unification in the history of mankind, someone must argue that if the grant united society splits one day, will it wreck all the progress that had been made before?
To answer this question, I should first say that means of extinction can not be a means of easy reach. If it can be caught as long as one stretches out his arms, there must be people who use it against humanity. There may also be somebody inadvertently touch it and let extinction forces broke out with carelessness.
Therefore, we need to ensure the means of extinction have a considerable distance to us. Many scientific and technological achievements are to be sealed up, once the great unification of mankind comes into truth. We need to not only ensure sufficient material wealth of mankind, but also seal so many scientific and technological achievements up, so that we will be able to stay away from terrible means of extinction. In once it happens to be backward of a few ages in the development process of human history, that is, no restriction on the development of science and technology at that time that might lead us be much nearer to the means of extinction, people must delay it a little as soon as we recognize that so as to keep a safe distance for us all the time. In this way, even if the grant united society may encounter division and the development of human society may encounter backward in the future history for humanity, we can still keep a certain distance with the means of extinction. So, the humanity is safe. If human beings really do not wake up a long time, which lead us into the abyss of extinction, we can only submit.
(3) Unity of society is not the deliberate pursuit of the ideal society
Historically, many thinkers have envisaged the establishment of an ideal society. Plato described the ideal society in the Utopia as public property, the emancipation of women, the importance of education and promoting public wife. Moore in his book named Utopia also described the ideal society as public property. But communisms advocated are different between Moore and Plato. Plato promoted the implementation of property public in the noble hierarchy,. Moore advocates the implementation of the whole society of public property; Moore advocated the emancipation of women the same, but that should be monogamous. And he also advocated that any person must work to support themselves.
China put forward the ideal Confucian society as a society of great harmony, which also advocated the public property as well as meritocracy. And the Chinese considered the common ground between people of the community as to live in harmony, honesty, and trustworthiness. In the vision of ideal society, there are many well-known thinkers that described it as a public ownership such as Aristotle, Campanella and Marx, etc.
Augustine stated in his City of God that an ideal country should be a Christian country first. This is the description from another point of view the society. Those who hold this view are not a few. A large number of medieval scholastic philosophers had claimed so.
More of modern thinkers started from the political theory with hope of achieving the establishment of the ideal countries by changing the country's political system and national system, such as Hobbes, Rousseau and other Enlightenment thinkers. They put forward a theory of popular sovereignty that considered the country's sovereignty is in hands of its people. In order to achieve democracy in huge countries so that everyone can fully exercise their powers, Paine and Mill put forward the idea of representative government. In order to prevent dictatorship, thinkers such as Locke and Montesquieu made to break down the powers of the state, balance power by power and so on.
All of these ideas are put forward by thinkers for justice, kind or people's happiness and power and other factors. And they thought that human society should be designed as they made and called the ideal society. The so-called ideal society is that the best community in eyes of the thinkers. The purpose and original intention for designing such a society is that the thinkers considered such a society most identified with their political ideas and political standards. Perhaps such a society is only the "utopia"-style fantasy which is impossible to be realized, but in theory, it fits a certain political principles well.
The unity of the world has ever been raised by thinkers. Before the year of 2300, Zeno, the founder of Stoic school, proposed a world-state concept. In his view, ration for people are unified and universal. So are the citizens of the world. They live along the common nature. And there should not be differences of race, status and regions. There is only one type of citizen, that is, citizens of the world; there is only one country in the world, that is, country of world.
Marx and Engels also had talked about the issue of unified world. In their view, communist society is the inevitable trend of development of human society and the communist society will perish one day. The premise of that is that classes no longer exist. Therefore, it needs a long process to achieve the disappearance of the country and the unity of the world.
There have been more thinkers in history to put forward unified world. For example, Kant's "citizen of the world" ideology and Kang's "One World" ideology which contained the idea of world unity. However, whether it is Zeno, Marx and Engels, or Kant and Kang, their vision of the unified world are all proposed on the point of view of the ideal society.
However, here the purposes and motivations of the community on the great unification are completely different. The original intention here is not to find a way to establish a kind of ideal society. The reason for community on the great unification is simply because if we do not make such a choice, there is the danger of extinction for humans. For the overall survival of mankind, we can only achieve unity of all mankind and the establishment of a world power. Because only political power of the world could truly make unified of human action, limit the development of science and technology and avoid the extinction of all mankind by science and technology. In other words, the great unification of the community is just the choice we are forced to take.
Nevertheless, the pursuit of the ideal human society is always the eternal existence of the belief. We have created the world's political power to achieve unity of mankind. We must build up an ideal society which accord with the hopes of the people most, try our best in this direction and strive to achieve it with a variety of better ideas for this ideal community. However, no matter how many hopes we have for future aspirations of the community, we can not be out of touch with the premise of political power from the world. Once out of this premise, it means that the unity of human action and business for promoting the development of restrictions on science and technology could not be realized. We will move rapidly to extinction.
There are many factors involved for human society. We put forward the idea of unified society only to be a kind of overall summary form of human society under the regime of the future world. In fact, the great unification of the human community includes aspects of the politics, economic, society, cultural ideology and so on. Different design and composition of so many elements have a direct impact on the realization of human values. We can’t evade the pursuit of the ideal society, on the contrary, we should seriously focus on the overall interest of humanity to the design a community as good as possible. Only then is responsible attitude to the whole humanity with right point of view for our benefits.