Section II Preconditions for Restriction of Development of Science and Technology
With the conclusion that restriction on development of science and technology is premise for avoid human extinguish in mind, let’s analyze the issue here that whether we can achieve the goal.
I. Social formation today is National Society
Social formation of human society has three stages: primitive migrational society, village community and society of tribes then, as well as national society today.
At the very start, primitive men have been in a state of mass migrations all along. People were leading a migrational life with picking. One group didn't usually have much contact with other groups. It is the revolution in agriculture for animal domestication and vegetation cultivation that enabled us to be settled in. Upon that, villages and trips had been formed. Human social forms developed from the stage of migrations to the stage villages and trips.
Thousands of years after revolution in agriculture, countries formed. The earliest country formed about 6 thousand years ago. The national society is the third stage of human society formation which still remains today.
Nation society is the result of further development of village community and society of tribes. The formation of nation society is necessary outcome of development of human society. The depths of selfish and the length of militancy lead to conflicts among villages and trips. In order to win the war, furthermore, water project construction and project for preventing natural calamities required by agricultural production, more people need to be united. So, a country formed.
Over countless millennia of development, though human society nowadays remains its formation as nation society, but countries nowadays have undergone earth-shaking changes compared to those thousand years ago. Life today of human society is also more colorful and vivid than thousand years ago.
As an organization form of human society, the form of country today is not the only one. There are various organizations. Generally speaking, the most one should be international organizations, with the consideration of scale of organization form. The international organization is a group composed of countries. For example, the United Nations is the largest international organization. As a general international organization, there are 192 Member States in it now, which almost contains all sovereign states over the world. Besides general international organizations such as the United Nations, there are various regional and inter-regional international organizations. For instance, the European Union and Southeast Asian Union belong to regional international organizations, and G-8 belongs to inter-regional international organizations.
Besides international organizations, more are small organization forms existing in great numbers, such as apparatus of government, enterprises, associations, schools, sector of public welfare, social agency and community of cities, villages, towns and streets, etc. . These organization forms exist in every place around us. All of us are inside. Their existence is closely interrelated to life of everyone.
There is one more organization form existed in its invisible presence. It is connected by blood or belief to make everyone related believe in it silently by an intense innermost emotion. That’s peoples and religion. Each of us belongs to a people. Most of us have their religion belief. Maybe we don’t be controlled under one certain organized religion institutions and people organization units. But everyone should not deny its existence. Moreover, everyone related have an intimate and identity feeling towards the people and belief he has been in it.
It may be so, but in human society nowadays, nation is the largest organization with characteristics of most steady contact, most sacred sovereignty and the tightest organization. The formation of human society we are being in today is national society formation. As a particular organization formation, nation is the strongest as well as the most sacred and powerful system for power of modern world (because action of the country is determined by political power of the country, so we may say political power of the country is the most strongest power system of national society). Nation is the only leading force in the modern world. Any organization else is a part of the nation.
Organizations, institutions and groups at the national level go without saying on this point. Furthermore, international organizations are parts of nations actually. A nation can make decision of whether join in or withdraw from those international organizations upon its own benefit. The international organizations are controlled under the states, especially huge countries of these organizations which are always decisive force for decision of action of organization. So, it is nation that takes a" leading role" for international organizations rather than vice versa. It’s a foundation.
People and religion are parts of nation, too. Almost all states contain many peoples and religions. While one people or religion may distribute in different countries. Though everyone has his own nationalist sentiment and religious feelings, fraternal countries of the same people always let slip the dogs of war and different countries of the same religion always flow with rivers of blood for countries interest.
The scared national authorities continue down to the present day, since 6000 years ago the time when human society formation came into the stage of national society. Though religion force had driven above national authority for some time in the interim, such as Medieval Europe when the papacy is above monarchical power, it is only a short process occurred at some time and has been history today. Though there are few theocratic states still, politicians and religious leaders in these countries more achieve the goal of ruling political power of a country with rallying point of religion. Religion still is a part of country actually.
Therefore, we can make an accurate positioning that nation plays a leading role of all actions belong to groups, organizations and individuals of his own country in the national society we are being in today; a nation judge all of its foreign behavior upon its own interest and performed various parts on world stage to control the trend of the world of humanity finally.
II. Competition of country
The inherent failing of humanity leads to action of each individual and group irrational. The adverse of irrational actions from an individual is usually limited. The damage of irrational actions from an ordinary organization and group can be not much enormous, either. However, things are very different when it comes to the irrational actions of a nation. A nation is the strongest form of power. If a nation is dedicated to something, it may mobilize all its resource and no other society force can restrict it. As a result, the destructive effect and harmful effects of the irrational action from a nation will surpass that of any other society forces.
Nations have been in a state of competition all the time, because many countries are co-existed within the world. The competition is endless. It is embodied in every aspect of national life as politics, economic, military, foreign affairs and culture. When competition aggravates the contradictions at some point, it will turn out in the form of massacre as in war. The national society has never got off this principle.
Analyzed in the view of human nature, there are two factors that can determine competition between nations:
The first one is continuous belligerence of human nature.
The continuous belligerence of human nature decided the fact that each country coexisting see other countries as its opponent since the establishment of the country. They have to catch up with and surpass the opponent in every respect. Goal of small countries to surpass is medium-sized country. Goal of medium-sized country to surpass is huge country. Goal of huge country to surpass is superpower. Goal of superpower is further distance from other countries.
Though competition among countries involves every respect for life of nation, its focus is economy and military. If only the strength of economic and military can be enhanced, overall strength of a country will be enhanced along with that. At the same time, competitive strength in every respect as politics, diplomacy and culture can be enhanced accordingly. So, any country will attached priority importance to the construction of economy and military.
The very important aspect that can decide strength of economy and military is scope of territorial, population size, national resources and so on. For example, small nation like Singapore which may win approval and respect of the world for its high level of development and civilization has no impossible to be a huge country leading affairs of the world or small areas; populous and territorial nation like Indian which is a little poor and backward cannot be negligible by anybody for its scale of country. That is why a nation hides its expansion ambition latent at bottom. This attitude goes with the state of competition. Then, the competitive way of a nation will develop to the way of territorial expansion in the process of catching up with the other and finally become a huge country or superpower. For only the way of territorial expansion can enhance the scale of territorial and population size. And only by that way can a nation own more resources. So, strength of the nation will be stronger. And the best way of expanding the territory is the war.
The second factor is extreme selfish of human nature.
It is a selfish act of expansion and protection by wars. Its most characteristic is the fact that one may take delight in other people's pain; take achievement in other people’s loss; take the goal for nation in millions of people’s deaths and injuries which are from not only people in the opposite country but also its own people. The pain is for both. But, the nation can not give up competitive for immorality of expanding and plunder. The extreme selfish of human nature roots deep in bottom of heart, which make expanding of nation unavoidable.
As to that, any nation realizes the point of unavoidable expanding clearly. So, each country is trying to prevent expanding and plunder by others. The most effectual means of that is developing economic and military. For one nation can have sufficient capacity in resisting foreign aggression, only if the strength of economy and military enhances so as to enhance the whole power of nation. Since each nation has that sense of crisis and urgency, it means anyone of them is unlikely to have the sense of security under the circumstances of many countries coexist. The sense of crisis and urgency cause each country run on and on like hell with the fear of delaying even a moment. If a nation hasn’t get others surpassed, they will surpass you. It means to be invaded and killed when your country is surpassed by others.
When the direction of national development controlled by this sense of crisis and insecurity attach certain level with development of economy and military only, a nation can feel inevitably that development of economy and military limited to its own country has been not enough to enhance national power. At such times, ways to continuous enhanced power will instinctively lead to ways of territorial expansion and plunder to foreign countries. This illustrates that country preventing itself from aggression can necessarily turn to a country invading others if only time is ripe.
Given all that, if it is to be said that national competition led by continuous belligerence of human nature is competition with initiative, then, extreme selfish of human nature will necessarily lead a nation to passive competition. Any country who doesn’t take part in such a competition will be died out. Competitions no matter initiative or passive, therefore, will necessarily walk on the way of expanding and plunder. Any country can get rid of the rate as invading or causing to be invaded in national form of human society. No one can maintain personal integrity during chaotic times.
III. Double enhanced effect for stimulus to development of science and technology
National competition may lead to another phenomenon as firm dependence upon science and technology from a country.
The content of the competition is comprehensive strength in total. The keynote of comprehensive strength is the strength of economy and military. But, the strength of economy is basis for the strength of military fundamentally. Basis for the strength of economy need efficiency constantly improved and wealth steadily accumulated. As we know, economic efficient depends on enterprises. The enterprise is source of strength for national economy, as well as that for national power. The whole development and effective of enterprise matters the strength of national power.
In terms of current situation, the globalization of the world economy is major feature for world economic life. With further integrative trend of world economy, this feature will be more and more apparent in future rather that less. Well, what can be depended on, if we want to be a winner in competition of international markets?
In the course of long history since evolution finished, humanity has been in a state of self-sufficient all the time. The capability of adaptation and remodification is limited. We didn’t realize the power of science and technology, until the explosion of industrial revolution in the middle of the 18th century. The train was propelled by a steam engine whose power was stronger than the power exerted by thousands of horse in pulling. The plane took us to fly into the blue sky, which made humanity achieve the dream of flying in fairy tales. Television and telephone brought the images and sounds far from tens of thousands of kilometres away close to eyes. The speed of a computer is faster than that of hundreds of thousands of excellent mathematicians…Potential had never been felt more than 200 years ago was created by science and technology. So, the realization that enormous capacity of creating wealth by science and technology of people increased. Also, people made the conclusion that science and technology are the first productivity. So, competition of modern enterprise become to competition of science and technology.
As the fact that enterprise whole improvement represents the increase of the country's economic strength which make a country be able to increase funding for military simultaneously, so as to increase the strength of a country’s military and the whole strength of a country. Therefore, science and technology become the core element which can influence country's overall interests.
In fact, the development of science and technology can provide more productive means for war directly. Military has priority on the appearance of a new achievement of science and technology ever. Construction of modern national defense has already dated us out the bloody fights of the cold weapon age by the sword and spear. A modernized army needs a series of hi-tech products and hi-tech means. Furthermore, the dependence on science and technology by armies in the future will be stronger. So, the heightened action on the strength of military by science and technology not merely indirectly but also directly and significantly. All those enhance the importance of country interests by science and technology.
Since there are the same interests and requirements between countries and enterprises on the development of science and technology, the relationship will turn on characteristics as interconnected and interdependent on the development of science and technology between countries and enterprises and form logical relations following:
① The enterprise can greatly improve the economic efficiency through the study, development and application of science and technology. Only by dependence on science and technology, can not an enterprise be died out in the fierce marketing competition. As a result, the enthusiasm of study and development of science and technology by an enterprise is irresistible; ② The increase of economic efficiency of an enterprise simultaneously means the relevant increase of strength of a country. Such raising is not only embodied in the strength of economy, at the same time, it can lead the increase of strength of military directly and decide the increase of whole strength of a nation finally. Therefore, a country can achieve relevant interests through the development of science and technology; ③ So, a nation may use its source of power to support the study and development of science and technology by enterprise and to stimuli enthusiasm of study of science and technology by enterprises, as well as try every way to increase the study capability of science and technology of enterprises; ④ The further new increase of economic efficient of an enterprise simultaneously means further increase of whole strength of a country. It made a country stronger to be able to support and stimuli further study of science and technology for enterprises.
The capacity on the study and development of science and technology promotes and enhances mutually between country and enterprise. Thus, it has added infinite impetus to the development of science and technology. The dialectical fortified relationship of development of science and technology between country and enterprise here is called double reinforcement effect of boosting the development of science and technology, or to be called double reinforcement effect in short.
The double reinforcement effect is a necessary phenomenon of national society. It is necessary results of competition among supreme power under the state of many countries co-exist. Especially after the industrial revolutionary, the characteristics of double reinforcement and its trend are both more apparent. The enormous power of science and technology after industrial revolution is clearer. As the energy of science and technology become strong increasingly, the very clear trend made the country and enterprise see the importance of science and technology clearly, so as to make double reinforcement effect stronger and stronger.
Then, though the main factors for promotion of development of science and technology are country and enterprise, the ultimate liability for runaway development of science and technology is the country. While, the ultimate reason is many countries co-exist. For, as the strongest form of power for human world in the stage of national society, nation should have had one lofty duty that charge the world well with the attitude of being responsible for humanity. Any deviation from human Values should be resolutely put a stop by political power of the country. The task of safeguarding the interests of mankind cannot be completed by enterprises.
However, a country is impossible to shoulder the burden. Because if only there are many countries co-exist, human frailties can decide a fact that the relationship between countries must be competitive. And the competition often will represent in the form of wars. The war is the most bloody killing action among human community. Failure of a war will be at the expense of death of the country and race slaughter. So, any country must see the problem of coping with the threat of war and improvement of the country’s strength in competition as the most important ones. This firm attitude will never be changed.
Then, no matter competition of economy and military or whole strength of nation, the key factor is competition of science and technology. This determines that as a country who holds sovereign power in human world, it will not have the decision to restrict the development of science and technology, to the opposite, it may have endless initiative for developing science and technology. This attitude of one country will not falter, even if whole existence of humanity was threatened due to science and technology. Because whole existence of humanity is business for all in future, and the conclusion made finally needs to be thought rationally; the necessary death by failing to competition is business of one’s own in short term, and the conclusion made finally only need to be thought briefly.
III. Humanity unitary action
Restriction on development of science and technology matters many aspects and the task is long and tremendous, so it needs strenuous effort that depends on the strongest form of power for human world. Modest power can not shoulder such burden. Just like that nation is the strongest form of power in the world. It is unthinkable of action on restriction of science and technology without a country’s effort.
But now, phenomenon as following is apparent in the present circumstances that there are many countries co-exist, each country acts of its own free and compete mutually. Nation, as the strongest form of power under this circumstance, is destined to fail to restrict the development of science and technology. Then, how will the condition be can us achieve our goal?
It first needs strong motive on such aspect, if the strongest form of power wants to try this. While it is not enough only to be with the sense of crises for threat of whole existing of humanity, if we want the strongest form of power produce such strong motive. In addition to this, the strongest forms of power should be made sure of the fact that the threat will not fall on themselves for any other’s existing insurance or for ruling position, once they made the decision of restriction of development for science and technology; and also they should be sure of the fact that other forms of power can never destroy the rules to make them fail to succeed by one basket, even as the fact that such destructors may get more benefits.
Obviously, the strongest form of power should not be separated, if requirements above have to be met. Because the phenomenon as each country acts of its own free will necessarily bring competition and confronter, as long as the strongest form of power are separated. In such a case of competition and confronter, all the efforts will melt into nothingness.
Upon that, the conclusion can be drawn understandably: since it is not impossible to fulfill the target of restriction on development of science and technology by the separated form of power, we have to consider taking appropriate measures for concerted action of globalization.
The so-called concerted action of globalization refers to concerted action of the whole of mankind. It requires people all over the world strive together to fulfill the restriction on development of science and technology unshakably and unanimously without any disturbance within local areas. At the same time, the action for restriction on development of science and technology must be uniform and enduring. The line should not be broken through for millions of years.
In relation to the stage of human society as social formation, let’s discuss further the problem of concerted action.
For nation is the strongest form of power of human society in national society, the requirement of concerted action of people all over the world is also the requirement of concerted action of each country. Every country should act up to such a principle consistently. Loss of any country is not allowed. If conduct of only one country is beyond the pale, the effect can be not merely on the fact that there will be more fruits of science and technology produced, but it will lead chain reaction so as to make each country break through all restraint. And it will become abominable like today finally.
The natural weak point for humanity decides the continuous belligerence of human nature. Competition, comparison, vainglorious and pugnacity are permanent characteristics along with human society. Well, if only one country break through the restriction on development of science and technology, it means the strength of its economy and military will be far ahead of others so as to gain a landslide victory to other countries. Once the dominant developed to a significant extent, the country will be accustomed to giving orders and being predominant, even wayward killing to other countries. It cannot be received by leaders and people of any country. From this point of view merely, no country will let the development of science and technology alone by other countries, while itself was numb.
Furthermore, if only one country break through the restriction on development of science and technology，it means the strength of its economy can be far ahead of others and the standard of living for its people can be also in the front ranks of the world. And there will be conducts of science and technology that are more attractive appearing. No matter the rise in income or appearance of new conducts, there will be green with envy for people of other countries. They will not give up easily and will require the government warmly to break through the restriction on development of science and technology. If not, they will unseat the government together. The leader for a nation will never give up his dominace instead of benefits for all.