Based on the comprehensive analysis above, a conclusion can be drawn through a variety of ways. That is, self-extinction of humanity is inevitable, long as we do not stop the continued development of science and technology, and even will be in the near future. It can be calculated by century, or even a short period of time. Compared with the threat from impressed forces to humanity, extinction of humanity by nature can be calculated by hundreds of millions of years. So, the real crisis of human survival is the "suicide" rather than "homicide". Facing with the grim reality of extinction soon, where is the way of mankind?
Section I Understand and Treat with the Science and Technology Correctly
I. Change the concept of extinction
Since ancient times, sense of crisis for the very survival of mankind has always been from the forces of nature or supernatural forces. We have always been focused on the forces of nature, such as floods, earthquakes, volcanoes and asteroids colliding; or the supernatural superstition as fear of the trial of doomsday by God and Allah.
However, historic change for awareness had taken place at a particular moment. It was the huge mushroom cloud rose for atomic bombing in 1945, as well as the instant of destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki that made people suddenly realize that the power we can mobilize to with the use of human wisdom and ability is far more enormous than we had recognized in the past. Compared with the destructive of before the forces mentioned-above, the forces of nature and supernatural we were in awe and fear of is not so important. In the unseen world, humanity seems to be on extinctive process step by step. This is not the extinction of the power of natural forces and supernatural. On the contrary, it is human beings that pull themselves in to the abyss beyond redemption.
The man who worried about it also includes those most distinguished scientists and academics. Called the Father of atomic bombs, Einstein had been appealing for that of his last years. And he published the famous Russell-Einstein Manifesto together with Bertrand Russell who is a philosopher and Nobel prizewinner. They shout in the manifesto: “Shall we put an end to the survival of humanity, or the humanity put an end to the war?”
In the view of Einstein and Russell, as we had had such powerful atomic weapons, if we did not stop the war, human survival would be threatened.
They were beyond their predecessors, because they had come to understand that if human beings did not stop some of their behavior rationally, they will lead themselves to extinction. It was beyond the concept of human extinction before. However, these two respected academics attributed the root of termination of human survival to the "war" only. Because, the possible means for human extinction they can see at that time were only nuclear weapons. And manufacture of such weapons under the conditions then required substantial human, material and financial resources. It must rely on the strength of the state rather than strength of individuals or ordinary groups and organizations. And the state should be a huge country with very strong power. As the time when "Russell - Einstein Manifesto" published, only the United States, the Soviet Union and the United Kingdom have nuclear weapons, in their view, the one who could use those weapons were only to be countries. Furthermore, such weapons that could threaten the survival of mankind may be used only in a state of war.
50 years has passed, perhaps it is out of fear of the risk of human existence that World War III has not broken out and nuclear weapons have not been used for war once again.. However, the rapid development of science and technology has brought us into terrorist extermination much more beyond control. The destruction of humanity caused by biological toxin transformed through gene technology is so large that even nuclear weapons can not be compared; a teenage computer genius may hack into the database of U.S. Department of Defense, or create virus that can cause millions of computers paralysis; scientists are still studying nano-robot which can be copied endlessly, if successfully developed, it may have the strength of the extinction of all mankind; further development of " cloning "technology may lead us to have the ability to copy ourselves ...
In short, results created by further research and development of many of the technology are possible to produce means of human extinction, or at least means with extremely destructive to humanity. Moreover, manufacture and operation of those means will be able to require only very few or even a single person.
This means that the decision-making power for overall survival of the human has been transferred from a few large countries to a large number of human individuals. Human nature decides that the acts of each person can not always been effectively bound by however well social system. Any extreme measure will definitely be used, as long as it appears. So will means of extinction.
The explosions of atom bomb told us that it would cause humanity extinction without certain restriction on some behavior of us. And the means for extinction is the war. Now, just more than 60 years after the atomic blast, the astonishing thing brought by the development of science and technology influenced our understanding further, which makes us learn that both the war and the crime can lead to extinction. Even the careless in an experiment or incompetent users of productions for science and technology may lead humanity extinction.
In fact, the threat of extinction caused by war is not so great as that of the unexpected disaster in the crimes, scientific experiments or usage of productions of technology. The war is collective behavior. Its purpose is to destroy the enemy and conserve one’s own strength. The two sides of a war can do ruinous things to each other but not to be doomed together with the other side. So, they will allow themselves for some flexibility when using slaughter methods. While there are some others whose purpose of crime is just for humanity extinction. The methods they wish to take are those methods which can astonish more with mass destruction and ruthless means. So, they dare to use any methods they gain including means of extinction.
It is the crisis of unexpected disaster in the use of productions of technology and scientific experiment that cannot be ignored. Because of the indeterminate character of science and technology, in future of high developed science and technology, the advanced technologies will be better. Subjects studied by the scientists are challenging. The time when to call force from nature, another devastating force with more power may be called out, too. At the same time, various productions of technology may become more complex and hard to be judged with the development of science and technology. The ruinous powers of them because of improper use will necessarily be greater. When the natural forces to be called with no intention had the strength to make humanity extinct, the way of mankind is ending.
It can be seen from this that the elements of threats to existing for whole existing of human beings have developed from war only to the four factors as war, crime, false in the experiment and usage of productions of technology. And the latter 3 factors are more terrible than the war. When the strength the four forces us to the extinction way, how dangerous we will be. We will be worried about our plight, if only we take that into consideration.
Pondered more deeply, the self-extinction of us humanity can never be simply attributable to war, crime, false in the experiment or usage of productions of technology and so on, all of which only can be said as ways of extinction. The common source of these methods behind is science and technology. Only the science and technology could decide the whole existing of humanity fundamentally.
II. Restriction on development of science and technology
On most occasions, the purpose for study on one technology is to benefit ourselves. But in the meantime, science and technology may produce many negative impacts, the most one of which is the generation of killing methods unexpected. It exists independent of human consciousness. Just like the invention of plane is only for the hope of flying in the sky, but the plane were used into the war as a kind of weapon rapidly and the terrorists even kidnap it to hit the buildings; study on transgenic technology is only for the hope of changeable for genetic make-up of flora and fauna to benefit people, but it was used to the alteration of biological warfare rapidly so as to be tools for slaughter.
However, even though the nations have used science and technology first in war all the time and the development for some science and technology itself are for military use, the methods lead to extinction in the future may not be done deliberately. Because the adoption for methods of extinction means that the researcher may be ruined together except for aberration scientists and some distinct cults. So, methods for extinction should mostly appear behind continuous accumulation of science and technology unmindful. That is to say among the accumulation from countless fruits of science and technology, there will be straws finally that press down on the strong camels.
To avoid falling down of the camels is to avoid putting more straws on it. If the level of science and technology is still be that of hundred years ago, the extinction of humanity will never happen, however rapidly the development be. Restriction on the development of science and technology is the only way for mankind's salvation.
In short, tight restriction on development of science and technology should contain the following aspects:
First, the number of the strength for restriction on study of theories of natural science should be the most. If it is not certain for the Security of the theory, the research should be sealed, because breakthrough for a theory of technology must cause breakthrough theory of a series of scientific concerned technology and branch courses. The scientific power that invokes fear by that has always been unexpected. Like the cases that without theory of quality energy, there will be no nuclear weapons and without theory of biological genetic.
Second, further appliance of the theory of technology nowadays should be restricted tightly. If it is not certain for the research, we can stop it to nip the bud. That is because one technology may provide more space for further breakthrough.
Third, development of new technology should be treated as it is harmful, if we are not sure of the function of it useful or not, for the reason that the right for existing is above the right for happiness. It is much more important for one to make sure of humanity existing rather than to enjoy for some certain aspects. If the affect that a technology brings to may be fortune or harm, we should give up its development without hesitation.
Fourth, productions that have been studied out should be discussed and proved carefully to put into market against unending trouble for an indiscretion.
Fifth, it should be managed in a way that gives due consideration to the progressive course for development of science and technology. Just like many fruits of science and technology in history are accidentally discovered, the appearance of methods of extinction is unexpected results of progress of study on science and technology. But, a hint of necessity rose behind the occurrence. The recursive process of breakthroughs of science and technology is the process from quantitative change to fundamental change behind the accumulation of countless fruits of research. Though it is hard to predict exactly when and how will the science and technology begin to change so, we are sure of the one point that breakthrough of science and technology can not leap, which is like the thing that without countless physicists as Galileo to pave roads there can be no success from Newton and without countless physicists since Newton there can be no theory of Einstein. So, if one wants to prevent more deadly scientific fruits to appear, he should start with every little bit before him.
The tight restriction on development of science and technology requires constant insist. On the basis of fruits of science today, if only we loose control on development of science and technology for one-hundred-millionth or even one thousandth of time in the history of mankind for future billions of years, we may possibly do stupid things as extinct ourselves. That is because one-hundred-millionth means thousands of years and one thousandth still means hundreds of years.
In the quiet of our conscience with intelligence, the tremendous scientific and technological achievements mankind has created toady from the weak foundation of that more than 200 years ago, as well as those scientific and technological strength contained in the great achievements, even the humanity ourselves felt enough fear. Then again based on the foundation today, if the development of science and technology continue to accumulate for hundreds of thousands of years or so, we can completely make sure that mankind will inviting their own destruction..
III. Dialectical attitude towards the Science and Technology
Tight restrictions on the advancement of science and technology is total attitude towards science and technology. Also, it is unavoidable choice for bewaring extinguish calamity that may be brought by superlative development of science and technology. Not that tight restrictions mean denying positive effect of science and technology on human progress, but that we fear the extinction consequence beyond retrieve of its negative effects at the same time; also, not that it means entirely rejecting the development and application of science and technology. In fact, reasonable development and application of science and technology itself concerns the existing and happiness of mankind. Everything has its appropriate degree, however, change comes on the heels of another. So, the dialectical understanding and application of science and technology is the premise that not only benefits mankind but also bewares extinguish calamity might be brought to man.
(1) The science and technology is cornerstone of human and their civilization
To a certain extent, without science and technology, there would have been no man. We have been on the threshold of humanity from a primate and complete the process of evolution finally, all of which are fulfilled in the Chase-running of science and technology. While struggling against nature, our ancestors learned to use fire and stone tools. This original scientific discovery and technical creation stimulated their thinking and inventive faculty enormously. So, their intellectual level has been continuously rising and cranial capacity been rapidly enlarging so as to form we humans as species with unprecedented intelligence for earth's biohistory.
The earliest human ancestors, like other animals, stood up to the test from nature in their skin. But then, they learned to make simple clothing with animal skin which can not only keep a person warm but make human ancestors come to the realization of dignity. Besides, they have learned to decorate themselves with animal teeth and nutshells threaded. All these primal inventions are the result for seeking beauty, moreover, they have driven more of the desire of beauty in mind.
In fact, science and technology itself is carrier of civilization. Domestication of animals and acclimation of plants both sign beginning of agricultural culture; application of steam engine and invention together with improvement of spinner both sign coming of industrial culture. Without so many creations on science and technology, there would have been no human civilization or its continual development to further advance.
Primitive man has had pursuit of music and art, but only to be out of instinct. After this, people found and dug out various metal or nonmetal materials. They also learned various elaborate process technology. Furthermore, the technology mentioned above continues to play a role, keeping improvement. Upon that various musical instruments which sound distinctive tone. And performance from the tune was so divine that it had an electric effect on one’s bottom of heart.
Meanwhile, invention and creation of science and technology made all kinds of greasepaint colorful, methods of expression numerous and diverse. So can our creation of art surprises the whole world and remains for long.
Invention and creation of science and technology also lead the life and survival of our species in all aspects to characteristics differing from all other species. We can feel easily that creation of science and technology made our society much higher civilized one than other species’ through our food, clothing, shelter, transportation and whole life. Thus, we humans can both be called intelligent creature and civilized creature.
Science and technology is also the messenger of human civilizations. The development of it holds forth a precise convenient mean of rapid dissemination. All the means of communication, transport and media are achievements created by science and technology. It is such achievements that promote the exchange and propagation of the cultures between the East and the West. Especially, the accuracy and promptness of culture propagation of achievements of modern science and technology is rather amazing.
So, it is the science and technology that let us off the primitive age and barbarous so as to lead us to civilization. Without science and technology, there would have been no man and human civilization. Without science and technology, we humans would have not been called intelligent creature or civilized creature.
(2) science and technology is a cornerstone for survival and happiness of humanity
The significance of science and technology for humanity lay in every aspect of human species. Human species population had reached 6 billion now. Such huge size brings such enormous materials consumption. In essential food value, total amount from any other species upon Earth is nothing near so large as 10% of that from us. Without the development of science and technology, only to rely on the foundational bounty of nature there can be no impossible to remain human survival. On the other hand, we can also imagine how would a food-short earth which made its human to suffer hunger for the reason of no development of science and technology be happiness
In the long run, reasonable development of science and technology has irreplaceable positive significance to the whole human survival, and even the decisive significance. As we know, not merely science but also the forces of nature can lead to the annihilation of the human race. Extinction led by technology only to be calculated in 100-year, while that from nature should be calculated in one-billion-year. So, we must confine the development of science and technology strictly. However, without so high development of technology nowadays that guard ability has been possesd by many forces of nature may lead to human extinction and enormous injury, there might be a recent business of that led by forces of nature. The conclusion may be considered again as tight restrictions on the advancement of science and technology.
The total survival of our species is under realistic threat from forces of nature. For example, a slightly bigger asteroid collision may lead to human extinction. But because of development of science and technology has made space technology be able to send human beings or various artificial equipments on asteroid. And explosive power of nuclear weapons or impetus of other devices has been able to decompose minor planets or change their trajectory. Therefore, we possess the guard capability of whole human survival. Thus, we could deal with problems of human survival from technology itself by main strength.
In the same way, because of revolutionary breakthrough in genome science field, we can apply possible genetic fall in future someday, only if proper development be in the right way according to existing theory in this field. And so, this human extinct element can be removed for science and technology.
So it does, in the matter of facing with the threat of forces of nature, science and technology will continue our whole survival for many billon years.
The enormous importance on ensuring individual and collective survival of human species is apparent. A typical case is the enhanced ability of resistance to disease which is due to a series of development of medical treatment and technology, especially the ability of resistance to pandemic disease. We can see clearly from the situation shown nowadays, a single malignant pandemic disease can cause death of millions so much as that billions of lives. This phenomenon turned out repeatedly in history, but hardly to turn again towards modern medical treatment and medicine technology.
It does not matter human survival, but also be in relation to human happiness. For good health and continuation of their lives are essential for guarantee for sense of happiness in heart. The average life expectancy around the world nations has generally increased, especially in developed countries. Meanwhile, the physical conditions of humanity has improved noticeably. Both the two were attributed to technology.
When it comes to the fulfillment of value for human happiness through technology, it contributes much. In general, traffic and communication conditions have grown gradually from nothing due to development of science and technology, by which our transportation and communication easily and quickly; also, habitation and wear conditions have grown gradually from nothing due to development of science and technology, by which our daily life in every aspect be much more comfortable than before. All mentioned-above are contribution to value for human happiness.
So, science and technology not only lay the foundation for human existence but a cornerstone for the happiness of mankind. Its extremely important effect and contribution is unique and irreplaceable. The requirement of tight restrictions on science and technology doesn’t mean to deny all those mentioned-above, but to show the fact that science and technology doesn’t need to advance further today, for further advanced science and technology may have large positive affect, while its negative side may create human extinction.
(3) restrict science and technology scientifically and reasonably
In light of science and technology can both destroy and bring benefit to mankind, in addition, we cannot get rid of the dependence on science and technology in fact, we should take dialectical attitude toward the restriction of Science and Technology. Scientific and reasonable restriction of technology also affects the very survival and happiness of mankind.
Consider in principle, we mention restriction of development of science and technology here in order to suppress its negative side on mankind. On the contrary, the positive side to serve and bring benefit to the human should be taken full advantage of rather than restrict; respects hard to control should be limited, while safety content beyond the question should be developed to benefit humans, rather than restrict. So, in relation to the simple requirements to restrict development of science and technology, the following should be treated in scientific reasonable attitude. There are some differences of them.
First is the popularization and application of existing safety science and technology.
The restriction on technology development should not be simple requirement for restriction on technology application. Global population has been a huge degree now, and the trend of that has been continuing. There will be problems instantly for whole human survival without application of science and technology. So, we should attach great importance on popularization and application for existing safety science and technology rather than restrict application of science and technology. That could play an important and unique role in guarantee of quality of life and quantity of materials needed by survival. So, humans can live on the earth happier and longer.
In fact, if existing fruits of safe technology can be popularized all over the world, humanity can meet the requirement of ample food and clothing completely. In the case of huge countries like American, Japanese, Germany, English and French have established powerful countries relying on the fruit of science and technology; in the case of tiny countries like Luxemburg, Switzerland, Singapore and Korea have established affluent societies relying on the fruit of science and technology. Even in the case of my not rich born country-China, the sense is rather deep. Just think, if existing fully-fledged technology can be popularized to sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, the southeastern and southern Asia，how will heritage of humankind be？
Second，reinforcing on the research in the field of science and technology individually
Tight restriction of development of technology is a whole requirement. But, there will be many significant technology problems about survival and happiness of humans to face realistically. Some of those problems even matter whole survival and happiness of humanity a lot. It is also important to solve these problems. So, on the premise of requirement for tight restriction of technology and science, we should research on the science subjects that are safe obviously and in relation to significant problems of survival and happiness.
Typically, we should rely on forces of technology and science to keep away a natural disaster.
For example, hit on the earth by an asteroid may bring not only destruction but extinction of humankind, when it comes to an asteroid big enough. No doubt, we should pay high attention on such disaster. And, we need related research on science and technology.
Another, research on cure medicine and medical therapeutics of malignant infectious disease are subjects should be considered according to the specific conditions, because some malignant infectious disease is the most lethal form for human beings. If not be controlled in a certain degree, there will be enormous thread to survival and happiness of human beings.
But, such research must be handled gingerly to be cautious of its effect on other fields. At the same time, we may also choose the option has posed a grave menace to human definitely. Because, there are many forces of nature that may thread human’s well-beings, for instance, disease, earthquake, volcano, flood, hurricane, etc. If taken careless choice of forces bring destruction knock, we will judge all threat as significant destruction threat. Finally, it will make action of restriction of development of science and technology between the cup and the lip a morsel may slip.
We should also have a full realization of that we'll have to pay for the restriction of development of science and technology. Sense of material comforts may reduce, on the other hand, scientific researches for removing the crisis of individual and collection survival can not start yet. Such as the case that many medicinal drugs cannot be studied at will. Because the very study may lead to human extinction, while manufacturing drugs for relief from disease. We have to admit that restriction of technology study is adverse for relieving the pain of certain patients. but, all above are cost for survival and happiness of an individual or a group, in contradistinction to whole human survival. The latter is obviously more important than the former.
Then, we must facing life, agedness, illness and death of any person squarely to regard them as natural law, when it comes to the choice above. Of course, it doesn’t mean giving up our basic principle of humanitarianism to heal the wounded and rescue the dying. Not unnaturally, we should try best to rescue the sick and wounded. I must emphasize this rather than oppose it. But, here we only encourage treatment in the territory of science and technology. The further technology study without much cogitation should be opposed to.
In addition, study on technology in some more fields also should be considered to be limited within certain premises, such as the problem of substitutes for un-regenerate resources that has related to the issue of long term survival on the earth. Then, it is necessary to arrange some congener research project on the premise of ensuring its security. Still, we should be very discreet at the same time to be aware of magnify.
Third, tight restriction of development of science and technology can not be made in heaven. Scientific discovery and technology creation usually can be gained either consciously or subconsciously. So, in the history of man's future eons, such subconscious achievements will be got, however tight the restriction may be. The right attitude should be that: sift through the right part that can be sure of no dangerous for human survival strictly and make more widespread. Some of the works that can not be sure of have to be imposed the stringent restrictions on.
In fact, those subconscious achievements during the several billion years may lead us to a death way, because the history is so long and intelligence of humanity is so sharpened. Even the total amount of subconscious achievements is enormous, maybe enormous enough for human extinguish. We can only expect that day will come as late as possible with restriction tighter and tighter, best to synchronous with the time space given to us. We pray still that our later generations will bee far wiser than us, so their wisdom is sufficient to find ways satisfied all sides to prevent human extinguish. But that will be happened in the very faraway future.
On the whole, restriction mentioned above must be comprehensive, extremely strict and continuously. Exploitation and study on science and technology are only behavior of careful topic selection in very few fields. Applications of science and technology then requires extensive and universal. But the achievements of that should be filtered modestly.