It’s doubtless true that the original intention of putting forward and setting up the greatly unified society is for overall survival of human being, but setting up the greatly unified society, thus guarantee that development of science and technology is strictly restrained worldwide, and ensure that human race will not be extincted is just the first objective that we intend to achieve. People’s pursuits are far more than simple survival. As a kind of intelligent and civilized life-form, human being has many value needs, such as happiness need, enjoyment need and entertainment need. The social system we build should serve our value needs, and maximize our value.
As a kind of completely new social system, the greatly unified society is unprecedented in human history, and there will be no former example to refer to, which not only predicts that we will certainly face many difficulties in setting up the completely new social system, but also indicates that we can draw the most beautiful picture in a blank paper. Now that we have no heavy historical burdens, we could travel freely, and design and build the greatly unified society as the society that suits people’s ideals best.
Section I General Assumptions about Greatly Unified Society
So far as present, the greatly unified society should be the final social morphology of human society, because only in the greatly unified society could people really act uniformly, and restrain development of science and technology jointly, thus avoid extinction of human being. We get this conclusion because with our present ability of intelligence, we can’t solve the problem that development of science and technology will bring the disastrous result of extincting human being. So far as present, human being’s evolution hasn’t reach the degree that it could develop and use science and technology fully rationally, with further evolution, mankind’s intelligence and mind may reach the degree that it could develop and use science and technology completely rationally; if there is really such a time, then all conclusions of this book will become outdated. Although we truly hope that there is such a time, it is a matter that concerns biological evolution, while in view of time regularity of biological evolution, if there is not dozens of thousand years, the lowest requirement of time can’t be met, not even to say such result of evolution.
Our thought and design of the greatly unified society are all based on the major aim, that is, the greatly unified society will be built as a society that will save mankind from extinction, and also a society that accords with ideals of human being.
The greatly unified society will last millions of years, it will not only be longer than the time since people have written records, but also longer than the time since people have textual research. It will be such a long period, that we cannot even make sure whether future human being is same as present, as human race is evolving also. Nobody could be wise enough to judge and predict all future problems accurately; for most problems, estimating for a relatively long period will be very difficult.
So all researches of the greatly unified society in this book, including method, process and conclusion, are based on present’s horizon, and are carried out by method system and value system that are generally recognized today, what’s more, the conclusion is only framework assumption. With development of various conditions of human race and human society, everything will be outdated someday.
I. Completely New Non-Competitive Society
I. Non-competitive and Friendly Society
(I) Completely New Non-competitive Society
As we should build the greatly unified society as a society that will save mankind from extinction, and also a society that accords with people’s ideals, we should make clear what kind of society is the society that accords with people’s ideals.
In this book, we think the social system that conforms to “maximum value principle” is a social system that accords with people’s ideals, or could be called ideal society for short. It tells us that on basis of the whole mankind, a society that could make sure as many people as possible to have value realization as large as possible could be deemed as an ideal society.
As among all values, value of survival is ranked No.1, and value of happiness No.2, followed by other values, overall survival and happiness of human being is very important, what’s more, overall survival of mankind is the precondition detrimental to other values, to design an ideal society, we need to carry out in-depth research with overall survival of human being as the start, and with overall happiness of mankind as an important aspect.
The reason for why human society should develop from national society to the greatly unified society is the conclusion after serious consideration of overall survival of mankind, if such transition is not realized, people will soon extinct. The main reason here is that in national society, many countries co-exist with each other, which will inevitablely lead to competition among countries, such competition will cause rapid and unrestrictable development of science and technology, threaten to overall survival of human being just comes from the power of science and technology that human being mobilized itself.
A country will try its best to make the whole country in an atmosphere of competition so that to make it invincible in international competition, for example, the country will mobilize enterprises’ competition passion, to make enterprises raise labor productivity and develop new products now and then; the country will mobilize schools’ competition passion, to make schools cultivate talents required in competition and deliver more research fruits; the country will mobilize everyone’s competition passion, to make every citizen charge forward for national benefits…as every country is such a country, the whole human society becomes competitive, therefore, present human society is a competitive society.
Competitive society will not only cause threaten to overall survival of human being, but will also result in threaten to survival of groups and individuals and happiness of mankind. For example, the major cause of war, the factor that poses most serious threaten to survival of groups of mankind, is competition among countries, nationalities and religions, such competition will inevitably cause confrontation, so war breaks out; take malignant violence that poses most serious threaten to survival of individuals as another example, malignant violence is also result of competition and confrontation among countries, nationalities and religions, and it is also caused by competition and confront among individuals in general competitive environment of the whole society.
I will primarily address competitive society’s influence to people’s happiness value. Most nowadays historians think that the ancients are happier than us at present, even people that had just walked out of cave in Paleolithic time are happier than us today, because people’s desire could be satisfied much easily, and they had enough time for entertainment.
Competition is fiercer and fiercer now, knowledge shows explosive growth, people still need to upgrade their knowledge after years of hard study, or otherwise, they will be eliminated; the whole society tries to keep up with the Joneses, they compare educational background, wealth and social position, such forever lasting comparison urges everyone to strive and work hard for a life’s time, and still unsatisfactory, and leave many regrets when completes the tiresome life; meanwhile, as war and malignant crimes often occur in competitive society, people have to suffer the pains of losing their families, and various losses and inconveniences caused by wars and crimes, so they lack sense of safety very much. Therefore, it is very difficult for competitive society to bring happiness to human being.
In terms of the whole human being, harms of competition to value realization of human being is various, the most typical one is that competition directly causes threaten and challenge to survival and happiness of groups and individuals of mankind, and when groups and individuals are required to handle affairs that concern integral benefits, basic benefits and long-term benefits of mankind, it becomes very difficult for them to deal with such affairs rationally and calmly.
For example, nation is the highest authoritative body in human society, not any power could constrain competition among nations, so war often becomes the final solving method for such competition, which means cost to loser in such competition will be the country be conquered and nationality be perished, faced by such disaster, nobody could give up development of science and technology for consideration of integral benefits of mankind, because science and technology is focus of competition among nations, even if the cost will be extinction of mankind, because overall survival of mankind is an issue for everyone, and it will happen in future, while existence of a nation is the country’s own thing, and it is immediate. So science and technology shows explosive development now, and it is unrestrainable.
Also because of above reasons, it is very difficult to handle a series of problems, such as resource problem, environment problem, pollution problem and poverty problem, that concern integral benefits, long-term benefits and basic benefits of mankind. The reason is simple, faced by fierce international competition, when survival and happiness of one’s own may be threatened at any moment, it will become impossible for anyone to control exploitation of non-renewable resources for benefits of our descendants, nobody could neglect present development and invest huge amount in environment protection and control, or control increase of population with practical method, or sacrifice his own benefits to help poor countries and vulnerable groups.
To sum up, as mankind is the only intelligent and civilized life-form in life history on earth, fate of mankind and development of human society shouldn’t be simply compared with another species, mankind is extremely strong which makes it impossible to have any opponent, and it is impossible for general natural forces to endanger survival and happiness of mankind, which makes the major enemy of mankind be itself. To a species, this means that competition within the species will be the major threaten that endangers mankind, it not only threatens survival of human being, but also endangers realization of happiness and other values of mankind. Therefore, to realize the maximum value of mankind, such competition must be weakened.
While present society isn’t a society that will weaken competition, but to the contrary, it is a society that intensifies competition, what is very terrible is that, the highest authoritative body—nation is wild about such competition, just because the nations lead and intensify such competition with their unique strong powers and advantages about mobilizing resources, and drive such competition within species to the utmost, and make the most obvious characteristic of mankind as competition.
To ensure realization of various values of mankind, so that people could enjoy maximum safety and happiness, we must get rid of such competitive state, and transfer human society from a competitive society to a non-competitive society that is completely new, let all human beings fully enjoy safe living and spiritual happiness in a peaceful and serene environment.
But what needs to clarify is that everlasting competition is a nature of mankind, competition is inevitable where there are human beings, non-competitive society in this book doesn’t mean a society absolutely without competition, such society is impossible, it only means to weaken competition to the utmost.
In fact, there used to be non-competitive social morphology in human history, in ancient gathering and migration society, land was boundless, and people rare, land was not wealth, and didn’t worth people’s fight, different groups were separated from each other. Competition between groups was rare, and it was very peaceful inside many groups, with competition rarely occurred.
Of course, precondition for us to build a greatly unified society as a non-competitive society has changed fundamentally long time ago, and we are not willing to return to that primitive, unenlightened and uncivilized society, though it was non-competitive.
Scale of mankind is quite large now, various traffic and communication measures gather all human beings in a small global village, mankind’s civilization has reached a quite high level, and people’s cognitive ability is far stronger than the ancients…global non-competitive society set up on above bases will be quite different from the non-competitive society in primitive and gathering period, for example, ancient non-competitive society formed naturally, while future non-competitive society will be result of rational and scientific design; living standard of ancient non-competitive society was low, productivity and civilization were low, and scale small, while living standard of future non-competitive society will be high, productivity and civilization will be high also, and scale large…, therefore, future non-competitive society will be completely new society, such non-competitive society could bring people with common happiness and enjoyment, and is a society people longing for.
(II) Possibility of Non-competitive Society
In 1970s, some isolated tribes were discovered in Philippines, New Guinea, America, etc. Combat characteristics of these tribes are very different. For example, Tasaday tribe that consisted of 27 persons was discovered in Philippines in 1971, they lived on gathering, and were isolated from the world. When the tribe was discovered, it showed its characteristic as almost absolutely without combat, they hadn’t such words as weapon, war, rage or hostility, even after they had contact with outer world, and they got to know various tools and weapons like broadsword, lance and bow and arrow, they were interested in such tools like broadsword that could be used in daily life and production, and they thoroughly refused such weapons as lance and bow and arrow. They fairly divided foods gathered to everyone in the tribe, and there was rarely any dispute or combat.
Indian Hobi tribe and Zuni tribe discovered in America were such tribes also, they didn’t combat, and enjoyed peaceful mind, such life continued for several centuries.
To the contrary, competition awareness and aggressiveness of some other tribes are very strong, such as Fentou tribe consisted of 30 persons and discovered in New Guinea, everyone in the tribe was ferocious and bellicose. Indian Comanche tribe and Apache tribe in America are such tribes also, these tribes are all wild about fostering their children as fighters.
All these demonstrate that plasticity of such competition characteristic of human being is very strong, and not only highly competitive society as current could be possibly formed. In isolated groups, because of many contingencies, historic continuity and value orientation of group leaders, some groups are non-competitive, while some others are competitive. This demonstrates that whether a society is competitive society is not congenital, but determined by its social system. Social system here refers to generalized system, such as people’s joint agreement, historic rules and value orientation of tribe leaders all could be deemed as social system for a small tribe, while for a large society, such as nation at present, contents of social systems are wider, including policies, systems, requirements and measures in aspects of politics, economy, culture, military and various social fronts.
Because of continuity of history and various inevitable and contingent reasons, the isolated tribes could possibly become competitive groups, but could also possibly become non-competitive groups. No matter they are competitive groups or not, or even there is only one competitive group among many, and all the other are non-competitive, if these groups have contact, they will soon evolve to be competitive. Because competitive groups are all characterized by competition, they will attack other groups now and them, if non-competitive groups keep non-competitive when attacked, they will certainly be robbed and slaughtered, human nature has decided that they will resist, and while thinking about defending, they will think about how to attack the opponent and other groups, therefore, the group evolves to be competitive naturally.
Just because of above reasons, human society evolved from non-competitive to competitive society. When human social morphology entered village and tribe stage after gathering and migration stage, groups of human beings settled down, and surplus wealth of villages and tribes were more, contact and intercourse between villages and tribes were more frequent, these villages and tribes evolved from primitive gathering groups, some of which were competitive, while others were non-competitive, just because competitive villages and tribes often attacked non-competitive villages and tribes, and influenced the non-competitive ones, competitive atmosphere formed all over the society, and large-scale competitive society appeared.
When human society entered national society stage, above circumstances were continued, so it is inevitable that national society is competitive society, or in other words, because many countries co-exist in the world, some countries are competitive, these competitive ones often attack other non-competitive countries, and influence other non-competitive ones, therefore, it is inevitable that national society is competitive society.
But it’s certain that in different countries that are all in national society, even in different areas and different groups in the same country, competition awareness and competition atmosphere are quite different. Social systems promoted in some countries encourage competition, innovation and adventure, so overall competition atmosphere in these countries are tenser; while social system of some other countries also emphasize harmony and amity of society besides encouraging competition, innovation and adventure, so competition atmosphere of these countries is weaker.
Take Laos in southeast Asia and Bhutan at the Himalayas as examples, both of them are small inland countries, external disturbance to them is weak, and both of them recommend Buddhism, so people there are simple and honest, people’s mind is fairly peaceful, and competition atmosphere is relatively weak also.
While analyzing countries, we could find out that competition atmosphere in cities is generally tenser than rural areas, because cities of all countries are at center of competition, such competition atmosphere results in comparatively high psychological pressures of people, cold relationship between people, and generally weak sense of happiness; to the contrary, as rural areas are far from competition center, habits and customs get down from history are kept quite good, competition atmosphere there is comparatively weak, and people’s psychological pressures are relatively small in such atmosphere, relationship between people is generally close, and sense of happiness is strong in general.
Anyway, highly intensified competition is doubtlessly prevailing in national society, major causes of such competition are competition and confrontation between countries that are the highest authorities. Things of greatly unified society will change fundamentally, there will be only one highest authority in human society then, though the greatly unified society will inherit characteristics of competitive societies in national stage, as world regime has unmatched authority and power, uniqueness of the regime will make it has no matched competitor, and vanishment of competitors to such highest authority is the most important condition for building human society as a non-competitive society.
As we know, whether a society is non-competitive society is determined by social system of the society, then who is designer, promoter and controller of the greatly unified society? It will definitely be unified world regime. While uniqueness of world regime will bring mankind a unified and uniform social system, once the stage in which many highest authorities co-exist ends, it is very possible that the greatly unified society could design and build human society as a non-competitive society. What’s more, this non-competitive society is the only society, there is not any other competitive society to disturb or influence it, and therefore non-competitiveness of greatly unified society could be continued permanently, rather than dying when it is young.
To build a non-competitive society, world regime could mobilize all state apparatuses to serve this purpose, and design and popularize a series of system measures, like erecting a kind of non-competitive moral and value concept, particularly a happiness view suits with it; adopting unified ethic and region fusion policy; recommending non-competitive living; creating peaceful and friendly social atmosphere; and building a common prosperous society that could provide good welfare and fully protect human rights. After these systems and measures were carried out one after another, a non-competitive society will be set up certainly.
II. Common Prosperous Society
To ensure common happiness of mankind, the greatly unified society should be a common prosperous society, because happiness occurs in comparison, in a society with wide gap between the rich and the poor, few rich people will coexist with many poor ones, which means that in a society with wide gap between the rich and the poor, most people can’t have the sense of happiness. Separate governance of the nations and application of science and technology have determined that national society must be a society with wide gap between the rich and the poor, in which most people can’t have the sense of happiness.
The greatly unified society will adopt global uniform governance, the world regime will consider the globe as a whole, and create the precondition for balanced development of mankind. Besides, the greatly unified society will restrict development of science and technology, the world will enter a stage of stable development. As the ancestors have completed creation and invention of science and technology, future mankind will be beneficiaries of science and technology. What’s more, the greatly unified society will popularize scientific and technological fruits that are safe and mature at present to the whole world. The process of application is also a process of balancing wealth. The greatly unified society should be, and could be built as a common prosperous society. So the greatly unified society will be built as a society in which the whole mankind will have common happiness.
What needs to be clarified is that the so-called common prosperity doesn’t mean absolutely even, but generally even and reasonable wealth distribution and allocation. In fact, an absolutely even society shouldn’t be advocated, because absolute even will result in people that will not work to reap, and people that work hard not have what they deserve, so that to cause unfair social wealth distribution.
There is further elaboration about issue of common prosperity later.
Section II Some Specific Problems
In this section, I will estimate and design some specific problems of the greatly unified society according to the maximum value principle. The greatly unified society will face many problems, what I hereby put forward are only some most important ones.
I. Problems about Nation, Nationality and Religion
Throughout history after mankind entered national society, the most stable, and also the most powerful groups among human societies are nation, nationality and religion, particularly nation, which is the highest authority in national society.
Concepts of nation, nationality and religion are deeply rooted in people’s heart, people from the same country think they all belong to a same collectiveness, likewise, people from the same nationality or having the same religion think they belong to a same collectiveness. People are often far away from home, but when such two persons that are mutually strange meet, the relationship between them will be much closer after he learns that the other one comes from the same country or same nationality, or has the same religion with himself; when conflict breaks out between different persons, or war between different groups, enemy and friend is naturally separated by country, nationality or religion in people’s mind. We call such characteristic of country, nationality and religion as “group identity role”.
The inherent group identity role of nation, nationality and religion could integrate society and cohere groups, and we call this role as society cohesion role of nation, nationality and religion.
While corresponding to above roles, country, nationality and religion also have “group rejection role” and "society dissociation role". For example, if a large country consists of many small countries used to independent, then in governance of the large country, mutual rejection and hostility between these previous small countries will often occur, or some of these small countries will try to get independent again; in multi-nationality country, it is inevitable that the nationalities are enstranged from each other, with conflicts occur often, and some nationalities often trying to get independent or self-governed; in multi-religion country, it is also inevitable that different religions are antagonistic to each other, with some group linked by religion trying to get independent.
Group identity role, society cohesion role, group rejection role and society disassociation role are all component parts of roles of country, nationality and religion, which refer to both kinds of roles that are antagonistic.
Just because nation, nationality and religion have such unique functions, these three groups are playing an irreplaceable positive role in human society. For example, powers of nation, nationality and religion have accelerated expansion of human groups, promoted spreading of fruits of human civilization, and created many incredibly amazing social miracles, in process of which human evolved from primitive tribe to modern society, and from barbarism to civilization. But it is also obvious that most of the bloodiest wars in human history and terrorist attacks were caused by these three powers also. Almost all positive functions of nation, nationality and religion to human society correspond with equivalent negative functions, and all these are results of interaction of inherent functions of the powers.
By further analysis of two kinds of functions of nation, nationality and religion, we can find out that group identity function and society cohesion function of nation, nationality and religion functions within a nation, nationality or religion, while to the contrary, group rejection function and society disassociation function of nation, nationality and religion functions externally, or in other words, different countries, nationalities and religions tend to reject and separate from each other.
Because of such rejection and disassociation functions of nation, nationality and religion, and the greatly unified society need to unify all nations, nationalities and religions in one society, the functions of nation, nationality and religion that will take effect in the great unification undertaking will not be group identity function or society cohesion function, but group rejection function and society disassociation function only, and such rejection and disassociation function will certainly become barrier and ruinous factor in the progress of great unification. Furthermore, as nation, nationality and religion are the strongest power in human society, their roles will be detrimental to the great unification undertaking, and to handle problems in these three aspects correctly is the most important work of the great unification undertaking.
Comprehensive analysis shows that damages of nation, nationality and religion to social cohesion and negative effects to social stabilization and harmony are different each other.
When the greatly unified society is realized, nations will have perish, with what left as a kind of national consciousness only, the so called national consciousness is the consciousness of seeking for regional independence, which is a kind of typical disassociation consciousness. As national consciousness exists, it will inevitably exert negative effects, to fundamentally eliminate negative effects of national consciousness, national consciousness in people’s mind must be removed as clean as possible.
Thus, we should weaken previous nation’s regional concept, so that to weaken people’s national consciousness occurred because of their national identity. To achieve this purpose, the most effective method is to encourage free flow of people, particularly long-distance flow. There are many methods to encourage free flow, including encouraging global economic activity to integrate global economy, which is also promoting and encouraging free flow of people.
There is another kind of national consciousness, which is the pure hope of governing an area independently. To get rid of such national consciousness, publicity of harms of country must be enhanced. What is equivalently important is to keep balanced development of different regions. If global development is almost in the same level in aspects including economy, culture and society, people naturally will not have the feeling that his region is quite different from others, and passion of regional disassociation will be rare.
Again on nationality issue, as long as nationality exists, negative effects of nationality factor to the greatly unified society will inevitably exist. To eliminate negative effects of nationality factor to the greatly unified society, the most effective method, also the most fundamental solution is to eliminate national concept.
To eliminate national concept is to continuously mix nationalities, assimilate them, and form an integral at last, or in other words, mix different nationalities, never separate, there is the concept of “human being” for the whole world, and make nationality a history.
In a world without nationality, hatred and disassociation activities caused by nationalities will disappear also, what’s more, all negative effects like ethnocentrism, national prejudice, national inferiority complex and national revenge caused by nationalities will all disappear naturally.
Ethnic fusion includes two aspects, respectively as blood fusion and cultural fusion. In aspect of blood fusion, the greatly unified society should encourage intermarriage between different nationalities and races. Cultural fusion comprises many contents, including not only cultural identity, but also uniform language, characters, belief, moral and ethic consciousness and behavior criteria, all of which should be greatly promoted by the greatly unified society.
Only when human being has realized fusion both in aspects of blood and culture, can we announce that nationality has perished, and there is only one name that is “human being”.
As regarding to religion factor, it is likewise that as long as many religions or sects co-exist with each other, negative effects of religion will not be eliminated. Unification of religion will be much more complex than ethnic fusion, in real life, we could feel that people are more willing to accept wife or husband of a different skin color than to accept wife or husband of different religious belief. We may also feel that even a life-time’s ideological work will be useless to convert a Muslim to Christian, and to convert a Christian to Buddhist is also very difficult. Features of religions show that different religions will deny and repel each other, the more mature the religions are, such denial and hatred among religions are more intense. Please think, how can a religion that claims its god is the only true god to get along well with other religions? So it is impossible to achieve religious fusion. The only possibility of religious unification lies in scientific antitheism, because antitheism represents truth itself, what it reflects is the objective reality, rather than a god that could be never improved. What’s more, conflict of antitheism with religions is weaker than conflict between religions. Mao Zedong once dealt a lot for propaganda of antitheism in China, and had achieved great effect, but with pass away of Mao Zedong, promotion of the work is weakened greatly.
The antitheism’s unification of religions will be a long and difficult process, even longer than ethic fusion, because people’s religious belief is a kind of spiritual need. People need spiritual solace, and are willing to believe even if they are clear that nothing exists (this is because of self-deceiving nature of mankind), what’s more, such belief has not any false content.
This improves that when antitheism could unify all religions, and previous religions will all perish, but after many years of compulsory promotion of antitheism, people do need a kind of religion to comfort their spirit, the greatly unified society could consider to promote a religion of the whole mankind to meet people’s spiritual requirement. Meanwhile, the greatly unified society could also use this religion for the whole mankind to integrate the greatly unified society, cohere mankind’s feelings and unify moral value of the whole world.
II. Relevant Political Issues
The most important specific representation of maximum value principle in political aspect is democracy principle. According to this principle, not any individual or group could represent the whole mankind; of all mankind, any individual is a just a member, no matter his profile is high or low, where he comes from, which times he is born to, of what age and gender. Anyone is equal, and should be entitled to freedom. Everyone should have basic human rights, including the right to pursue happiness and enjoyment, and right to protect justice. All these rights shouldn’t be deprived.
Democracy principle specially emphasizes that the greatly unified society must endow equal political rights to every citizen. On selection of major leaders of world regime, raise and promotion of significant policies of world regime, every citizen in the world will be entitled to express his opinion, and to vote or be voted through equal and reasonable procedures. Whether democracy principle could by thoroughly implemented and people’s democracy won’t be deprived by dictators will be determined by rationality of political system to a great extent.
According to experience of social governance in national society, if people transfer too many political rights to hierarchs, they might lose control of hierarchs, so that to lead to autarchy in the greatly unified society. If this is the situation, people will lose democracy, and master will become slave in front of dictator. To prevent autarchy, ensure hierarchs act according to people’s will, and ensure orderly power shift, to use power to restrain power is very necessary.
Democratic political theory today is generally comes from Montesquieu’s thought of separation of powers. He thought that national power could be divided as legislation right, administration right and jurisdiction right, and also thought that to prevent abuse of power, we must use power to restrict power.
In Montesquieu’s opinion, abuse of power is common, even in democratic nation, of which the government is selected by people, if rights are too much centralized, and are beyond the scope that could be controlled by people, rights from people will turn to dictatorship’s tools, and various malpractices in political area, such as corruption and power politics will be inevitable. To avoid dictatorship, national powers must be separated, that is to endow legislation right, administration right and jurisdiction right to different national organizations, and regulate in laws that these three powers will restrict each other and keep balanced.
Montesquieu’s theory is called “separation of three powers”. Practice has improved that such separation of powers and power balance are effective. I think the separation of political powers adopted in national society, as well as power balance theory are also applicable to the greatly unified society.
It should be specially emphasized here that the greatly unified society must be a legal society, everything must be transacted following laws, no body is allowed to breach laws, and anyone that breaches laws must be punished by laws.
Legal society is associated with power balance. According to human nature, when someone’s power has no restriction, his desire will expand unlimitedly and will do as he wants, laws will become a piece of waste paper in front of him. If world regime’s powers are not balanced, the greatly unified society can’t be ensured to be a legal society, tenets of the greatly unified society can’t be achieved in a non-legal environment, and most important principles will be easily breached.
In view of overall target of human society, the greatly unified society is much significant than national society. Original intention and the most important target of the greatly unified society is to save mankind from extinction, which is more important than anything else, so tenet and important principles of the great unified society are not allowed to be breached.
As the greatly unified society will last for a long time, laws should not only be perfect, but also fairly stable, what’s particularly important is that there must be a fairly stable world constitution with very strong restriction ability.
As the basic law for the greatly unified society, world constitution will cover many aspects, including both restriction of development of science and technology, issues about political system, economic system and social system, and moral value. Some of these contents could be revised with process of society, and should be revised with change of time and conditions, but some other contents shouldn’t be changed easily, for example, strict restriction of development of science and technology is such content, except fundamental evolution occurs to human race, the principle shouldn’t be revised.
Then how to ensure that specific contents of world constitution not to breach important principles, but could be timely adjusted with change of times, and ensure world constitution have strong global sanction? I think a world constitution similar to national constitution is not enough. For example, nation usually sets a “threshold” for revision of constitution, such as suggested by several parliament members or are agreed by some people, and could determine revision content. But some contents of world constitution in the greatly unified society can’t be revised, and sanction of these contents should be very strong, so simple constitution can’t meet these requirements. To protect the most important principles for the greatly unified society, there should be a “law on protection of constitution” at higher level than constitution.
The so-called law on protection of constitution is raised regarding to the most important principles in constitution. Law on protection of constitution will clearly require that the most important principles in constitution should have much stronger sanction than general principles, and requirement for revision of the most important principles is much higher than requirement for revision of other principles. Protected by law on protection of constitution, sanction of the most important principles in constitution will be very strong, anyone that breaches such principle will be severely punished. Also because of the law on protection of constitution, no one will dare to breach such principles, particularly people that master highest rights.
Meanwhile, the most important principles in constitution will not be revised as common constitution revision. Law on protection of constitution has clearly regulated very high “threshold” for revision of these important principles, so that revision or change of such principles is almost impossible, except human race encounters great change or more awful difficulty.
The greatly unified society will have an army controlled by central government. But as nations have perished, and there is only one highest regime in the world, with disappearance of defense and attack opponents, war will disappear also, army’s functions will change accordingly, and military expense will be far smaller than national society. Functions and features of army could be summarized as follows:
First, maintain world unification. Army is controlled by the central government, it is deterrent force maintaining world unification. Just because of existence of military force, separatists dare not to implement their separation desire. Second, put down rebellion. Common social security should be maintained by police, once social instability evolves into rebellion, and police becomes unable to quench, army should quench the rebellion with its strong power. Third, take part in disaster relief. Army has strict disciplines, when natural disaster or other disaster occurs, the force that is easiest to be organized and mobilized, and with the strongest battle effectiveness is the army. To take part in disaster relief will be an important responsibility of army. Fourth, counter invasion of ET, asteroid impacts on earth and other threats from universe. Though possibility of threats from universe is very low, the damage will be serious once such threats occur, and military force should shoulder the holy responsibility to protect the globe.
III. On Economic Issues
In economic aspect, the greatly unified society is different from national society at least in two aspects: the first is different economic operation environment. For example, economic development has greatly benefited from scientific and technological innovation, while the greatly unified society will restrict development of science and technology strictly; different nations adopt different economic systems and policies, and economic development levels of the nations are quite different also, while the greatly unified society will take full account of the whole world, and adopt harmonious and uniform economic operation mode under management of the world regime. The second is different economic operation target. In national society, every nation will try to maintain sustainable, stable, healthy and rapid economic growth, so that the nation will not be eliminated in fierce international competition. In the greatly unified society, as there are no confrontation and competition among nations, economy needn't to grow very fast, the emphasis is to realize common prosperity and bring common happiness to the whole mankind.
So we can forecast economic issues of the greatly unified society as follows:
First, the greatly unified society is a common prosperous society.
Economic development in national society is very unbalanced, and gap between the rich and the poor is wider and wider, of which the main reasons lie in following aspects: the first is historic reasons. Some nations have been in primitive closed state, when the world entered industrialization times, these nations still kept in uncivilized environment. These nations have long been enslaved by colonialism, and have lost economic autonomy, with economic structure seriously distorted. So there are gaps between nations even at the starting line.
Second, different nations adopt different economic policies. Degrees of policy makers are very important to economic development. Generally speaking, the poorer the country, the less talents are there, so the degree of policy is lower, while the richer the nation is, the higher the education level will be, and the more talents are there, so the degree of policy is higher also, this is an important reason for why the gap between the rich and the poor is wider and wider.
The third is different national characteristic. Different nationalities have different cultural traditions, different living habits and different moral values. Some nationalities are very endurable of hardship, and are diligent and good at developing economy, while other nationalities are quite lazy, can't endure hardship, and are not good at developing economy. Results for nationalities that are quite different will certainly be very different in aspect of economic development.
The fourth is uneven popularity of science and technology. Science and technology have become the major impetus for development. Efficiency of the same worker will be hundreds of times different between using modern operation measure and primitive manual operation.
Developed countries have widely applied various advanced technological production means, and have been strengthening their R&D ability continuously, while underdeveloped countries are still using primitive production and farming methods, not even to say scientific R&D ability, so it's certain that the gap with developed countries will be wider and wider.
Use of science and technology also intensified the unbalance of wealth distribution. Rapid development of science and technology, as well as the application in production, has greatly strengthened enterprise's ability to create wealth, boss and the management are certain major beneficiaries, while employees' incomes will be quite varied. So innovation and application of science and technology are also major causes for wide gap between individual wealth.
The greatly unified society will change basic features of national society fundamentally: first, to help poor areas to develop will be an important work of world regime. The whole world will be in jurisdiction of the world regime, so there will be only problem of balanced development, but no intention to favor any area. It won't look on poor areas indifferently, but will attach great importance to helping these areas. What's more, world regime controls global resources, and is completely capable to help these areas in various ways, so that to narrow gap between poor areas and other areas and ensure balanced development of the world.
Second, policy of the greatly unified society is uniform, which means that the policy will be made by the same department, so actual situations of different regions will all be considered when the highest decision making department formulates economic development policies and allocate various resources reasonably, keeping balanced development of the world as the base of all economic works, which will avoid widening gap between the rich and the poor inevitably resulted by independent development of different countries in national society.
Third, the greatly unified society will promote fusion of nationalities, religions and regions. There will be only one notion--“mankind” for future people. To promote fusion of the world, the greatly unified society will promote a series of moral values and living habits that are favorable to global uniform governance and development, then the whole mankind will share same internal quality, which is also an important factor for balanced development of the world.
Fourth, while restricting development of science and technology, the greatly unified society will collect and check technologies that are safe and mature at present, and then decide which to use and popularize, with deepening of such promotion, most areas of the world will use technologies at generally same level, difference of application of science and technology will be reduced to the lowest degree, so productivity of different regions will tend to develop to the same level, which is the most important factor for balanced development of the greatly unified society, and this factor will greatly narrow gaps among personal wealth.
To sum up, various basic features of the greatly unified society will accelerate balancing of wealth distribution. With continuous development of the greatly unified society, wealth distribution in the society will tend to be even, so the greatly unified society will be a common prosperous society.
Common prosperous society is very favorable for people to enjoy happiness, because happiness occurs in comparison. In a society with wide gap between the rich and the poor, few rich people and many poor ones will coexist, so many people can't have happiness in comparison of happiness. What's more, in a society with wide gap between the rich and the poor, various crimes will arise, in a society with frequent crimes people can't feel safety, not even to say happiness.
Second, in the greatly unified society, economy will develop steadily.
In national society, application degree of scientific and technological fruits is very different in different nations. Such difference will be brought to the greatly unified society to a great extent. As development of science and technology is restricted, in aspect of economy, the ideal result is to popularize technologies that are allowed to be used everywhere in the world, if we are really able to do so, then these scientific and technological fruits will be fully used, this is also a major target of economic development of the world regime.
In process to attain this target, economic development will show features as follows: the first is to popularize technologies that are allowed to be used everywhere in the world, and the second is to simply enlarge production scale at present level of science and technology.
But economic development is also restricted by market demands. As development of science and technology will be restricted, no new technology will appear, if present scientific and technological fruits are popularized worldwide, production scale will be enormous, and such enormous production scale will far exceed people's demands for common products. What's more, the greatly unified society will advocate frugality, luxury will not be encouraged, so one product could be used for a long while, and speed of mankind's consumption of products will be greatly reduced.
What's more, as the world regime will definitely control world population, global population will tend to be stable, so most people will be able to get what they hope to get because of the stable population, and scale of demands on global market will tend to be stable, global economy will tend to be stable also. Such stability of economy will be realized under the precondition of common well-being of the whole mankind and people's demands could be fully satisfied, rather than economic stagnation caused by insufficient production.
IV. On Social Issues
The writer hereby sets general target of the greatly unified society as “peaceful and friendly society”, and advocates “medium payment, medium harvest, frugal living, some saving” as a kind of living concept of the greatly unified society. Reason for such design is that such target is most favorable for social stability, and most favorable for the whole mankind to have common happiness. Political, economic and cultural measures, as well as policies and measures in various social aspects are all designed for this target.
Peaceful and friendly society can’t be realized in national society, because realization of national interests needs protection of national strength, so every nation will try to raise its national strength, ask its army to be brave and insuperable, and require its enterprises to innovate and be good at competition. Because of all these factors, moral values advocated by national society and political, economic, cultural and social policies adopted by national society must be competitive and adventurous. So the national society, the human world after industrial revolution in particular, is full of competition, adventure and confrontation, because of such competition, adventure and confrontation, it’s impossible for peaceful and friendly social atmosphere to form.
The greatly unified society will completely reverse this situation. Because of perishment of nations, and fusion of nationalities and religions, and after disappearance of such preconditions as national, ethical and religious confrontation, restriction of development of science and technology will also require restriction of fierce competition, over risk and acute confrontation be restricted. With disappearance of the toughest barrier as national, ethic and religious confrontation, it will not be difficult to realize the general development target—to build a peaceful and friendly society.
When above targets are realized, a picture as follows will open in front of us:
In a peaceful society, people yearn for quite and peaceful life. People's living pressures will not be heavy as today, with application of science and technology that are safe and mature at present, medium efforts will exchange for medium harvest. Though people will have medium harvest, they prefer frugal life, so families will have some surplus, and people will live safely and surely.
Meanwhile, people will become very friendly, people will often help others, no matter they are neighbors, colleges, classmates, friends, or strangers. Friendly behaviors are everywhere, though people live frugally, they are generous when facing needy people, regardless of personal gain or loss. Frugality is not miserliness, but a kind of value and living style that is commonly considered as noble.
People are quite indifferent to wealth and position, and will not be rapturous at what they gain, or be deeply grave at what they lose. People will make best of things, live a normal living, try to have more moral harvest, be different towards interests, seek for stable living, harmonious relationship in families and with neighbors, be far away from competition and risks. In such society, war and crime will be rarely occur, and global resource regeneration will be balanced with mankind’s consumption.
Now, we will discuss several questions as follows: firstly, common and good social welfare will be a basic feature of the greatly unified society, the purpose is to increase people’s sense of safety in living, and weaken social competition. Good social welfare and sound social safety system need material base. In the greatly unified society, safe and mature scientific and technological fruits will be promoted and applied widely, such promotion and application will not only narrower the gap between the rich and the poor, but the material wealth thus created will be completely enough to bring people living conditions even better than the developed countries at present, and this is the reliable material guarantee for establishment of social welfare and social safety system of the greatly unified society.
Secondly, the greatly unified society will advocate middle level education. Higher education, particularly higher education that involves natural sciences, shouldn't be advocated, but also should be strictly restricted within certain people, because the more people to learn natural sciences, the more ones that will master natural scientific knowledge, and the more people that have keys to sciences, so restriction of development of science and technology will be more difficult.
Thirdly, the greatly unified society will attach great importance to population control. The standard is to keep balance between mankind's consumption of resources with global resource regeneration ability. With restriction of development of science and technology, people will not gain alternative resources by science or technology, to live permanently on earth, people must keep balance between resource consumption and resource regeneration, of which the most important factor is population, because the larger the population is, the more resource consumption there will be.
V. Morality and Value
In the greatly unified society, the whole mankind is included in a unified world, so the greatly unified society will need a uniform morality system. People could fuse together only under uniform moral and value system. What's more, features of the greatly unified society also requires a uniform moral and value system that suits the greatly unified society in general. Such uniform moral and value system is different from that of the national society in many aspects, at least the emphases of many aspects of moralities and values are different.
The writer puts forward a series of assumptions of moralities and values of the greatly unified society. What needs to be clarified is that all these assumptions of moralities and values are standards that people are required to meet according to features of the greatly unified society. Some commonly recognized good and evil standards, such as no killing, no stealing and no adultery, are not elaborated here, because these basic moral requirements are self-evident, and need no special emphasis. I think there are eight moral values that must be emphasized in the greatly unified society—peace, friendliness, frugality, diligence, tolerance, mercy, credit and integrity .
Peace refers to quietness, calm, harmony and generosity. Do not be rapturous at gain, or deeply grave at lose. Face everything peacefully, get along with others harmoniously, be generous always, seek for medium payment and medium harvest, do not rack one's brain in scheming for private interests, and face the whole life peacefully and calmly.
Friendliness refers to sincere friendly behavior and the attitude to get along well with others. If there is some difference between politeness and friendliness, then the difference is that politeness might contain some fake content, while friendliness is sincere; politeness may contain some purpose for leaving good impression to others, while friendliness is from one's heart.
Frugality means thrift and simplicity. Frugality is opposite to waste and luxury. No matter individual expense, family management and social governance, frugality will always be a principle. Be frugal everywhere possible, and try to save money everywhere possible. Do not eliminate any product that could continue to be used, and this is principle of frugality.
Diligence is to be hardworking, and replace harvest with labor. Diligence seems to be conflict with peace and frugality, but it is actually not, what peace and frugality pursue is to exchange medium harvest with medium payment, which means that there should be payment first, then comes harvest, and the payment needs spirit of diligence. Diligence here doesn't mean ergasiomania-type hard work, but it emphases that part to exchange harvest with payment, and goes against reaping where one has not sown.
Tolerance refers to lenience, forgiveness, magnanimity and acceptance. It’s opposite to rancor and narrow-mind. It asks people to tolerate everything with broad mind, to forget rancor, forgive enemy, stop retaliation, and return good for evil. It asks people not to care others’ irreverence, but see people’s advantages, and get along well with others. Tolerance also requires people to be tolerant towards everything, do not resort to arms for trivial. Without tolerance, people can’t get along well with others, or build a harmonious and peaceful society.
Mercy means kindheartedness, goodness and lenity. Mercy is bestowal to others, is to give what previously belongs to you to others willingly. Such bestowal is sincere care, generous giving, friendly greeting and tolerant forgiveness.
Credit refers to honesty, sincerity and fame. It represents sincere communication between people and real products provided by enterprises, as well as promises kept by governments.
Integrity asks people to have sense of justice, and to be responsible and brave to maintain social justice.