After above discussion, we are clear that science and technology at present level could meet hard technical requirements of the great unification. Although transition from national society to the great unification is the most significant social reform in history, the blocking strength is comparatively weak and total resistance is relatively small. All these have clearly improved that the target of great unification could be realized through rational operation, and it might even be realized after a short while.
We will discuss how we could realized the target, that is, by which way could we realize the great unification.
Section I Measures and Procedures
I. Basic Thought: Peaceful Interim
In the process of great unification, national society will develop into greatly unified society, nation will perish, and the whole mankind will live in a unified society led by world regime and in which the whole world will act uniformly. In the greatly unified society, the highest administrative right is transferred from national government to world regime, and highest rights will be transferred from many national regimes that co-exist with each other to the only world regime. Such transition is unprecedented great undertaking in human history. To finish such transition and protect mankind from self-extinction is the most fundamental and basic interest of mankind.
But great unification will damage viewed interests of some people, and some of these people might obey basic interest of mankind, and promote the great unification process, but they might also go against basic interest of mankind, and block process of the great unification, or even resort to armed confrontation.
So there are two kinds of measures for great unification, respectively as peaceful measure and war.
Generally speaking, big change of political map can't be realized only by peaceful negotiation or war. Peaceful measure means pure peaceful negotiation without any coercion by war, and the so called war means pure war without any peaceful negotiation to reduce losses and casualties.
In aspect of procedures, there could be also two kinds of great unification plans, respectively as one-step plan and interim plan.
One-step plan means direct entrance into the greatly unified society from national society, and direct transition from human society jointly governed by different nations to the society governed by world regime.
According to interim plan, there will be an interim stage between national society and the greatly unified society, in which factors disadvantageous to great unification or long-term stability of the greatly unified society should be effectively fathered, adjusted, reformed or removed.
Primary goal of great unification is to save mankind from extinction. As an unprecedentedly just undertaking, great unification should adopt just plan, so war is not first choice, and peaceful measure is the starting point of our design.
By above analysis, we can conclude that as the whole mankind's basic interests are consistent in the great unification, what’s more, in aspect of viewed interests, most groups' interests are consistent, and leaders of large countries that control highest authorities and widest resources are largest beneficiaries of viewed interests, peaceful measure becomes possible, and war could be avoided.
Then let's turn to steps of the great unification. It will be very difficult to unify so many nations and regions by one step.
Firstly, the nations are too different. In aspect of economy, income per capita of the richest nation is hundreds times of the poorest nation. Because of such economic gap, it is very difficult for the rich and the poor to reach agreement. What's more, wide gap between economic bases will lead to very different education levels and overall qualities, so living habits and characteristics thus related will be very different also, and it will be very difficult to fuse people of the nations in a unified society.
Secondly, in aspect of nationality, feud exists between many nationalities, so it will be very difficult to fuse nationalities between which feud has existed for many generations. Even if these nationalities could be unified in the greatly unified society, hatred between these nationalities will be root of turmoil, and killing in revenge will occur often. All these will seriously injure world people's recognition of the greatly unified society, and will be a curse to long-term stability of the greatly unified society.
Thirdly, religious problem will also be an important factor blocking process of great unification. Historic hatred between some major religions in the world have lasted for nearly a thousand years. Discrepancies both in aspects of religious consciousness and religious rites are serious. Because of religious strength, it's very difficult for disciples of different regions to accept each other. What's more, a handful nations in the world are religious extreme nations, which consider any concession made by heretic as betrayal to religion, because of religious feeling, they are unwilling to be influenced by heretic, which sets a toughest obstacle to agreement between nations.
In fact, there are many factors that will influence process of great unification, much more than factors listed above, for example, because of cultural difference and difference of political tradition, it's very difficult for people in different nations to accept each other. If culture and politics of any nation are quite different from future greatly unified society, realization of great unification will be influenced.
The most important factor might be attitude of national leaders which might be able to decide realization of the greatly unified society. National will is often represented by national leaders. While instilling his own will to people, leader of democratic nation may consider people's will more than a dictatorial nation. In a dictatorial nation, the ruler often imposes his own will to the people, and ruler's will could often become national will unconditionally, so ruler's will will decide everything. As for one-step realization plan, we will take all nations in the world into consideration, some of them are democratic nations, and others are dictatorial ones, so it's doubtless that the conditions will be very complicated. It's certain that among so many nations, leaders of some nations will try everything to stop progress of the great unification.
Because of a series of factors as above, it’s certain that there are many difficulties for realization of the great unification by one step, so interim plan is more feasible, then peaceful measure and interim stage are basic thoughts for our design of great unification plan.
During interim from national society to the greatly unified society, at least several works as follows should be done properly:
Balance world economic and social development
For example, to help low-income areas to catch up with developed areas, popularize mature and safe scientific and technological fruits to these low-income areas, then income per capita of different areas will tend to be generally same when these safe and mature scientific and technological fruits are popularized everywhere in the world.
Promote regional fusion
To promote regional fusion and realize transition from national society to the greatly unified society are both primary task and final target of the interim period. Works in this aspect are various, including continuously weakening concept of nation and emphasizing concept of mankind, popularizing uniform moralities and values, language, characters, and living habits, and promoting ethic fusion and religious fusion. Set up a uniform environment by a series of works as above elaborated, so that the whole mankind could live harmoniously as a big family.
Prepare hard environment for the unified world step by step
Present technical conditions are completely enough to meet hard condition requirements of governance of the greatly unified society. Every large city has wired and wireless communication equipment, airplanes and automobiles. Television and radiograms are highly popularized. By these means, unified governance of the greatly unified society will be realized. But development of the world is very uneven, there are still many nations that have no highways, many areas have no electric light, telephone, radiogram, and many places can’t even be reached by automobile. So there is a heavy construction task in the interim period, that is to connect the whole world step by step in the principle of easy and convenient communications, with world unification as the standard, to create hard environment for realization of the greatly unified society.
Besides above works, a series of effective management methods should also be tested and summarized in the interim period. What’s more, the interim stage is different from national society in many aspects, certain conditions for restriction of development of science and technology are ready, so actions restricting development of science and technology should be adopted when the time is right, which is very important also.
II. Basic Selections: Close Absolutely Advantageous Group
To arrange an interim stage between national society and the greatly unified society is to realize transition from national society to the greatly unified society smoothly and effective, stable and long-term stability of future greatly unified society also. During interim period, many factors that will endanger realization of above purposes must be adjusted, fathered or removed, so that to ensure smooth progress of the greatly unified society.
There are many interim plans, every of which could be selected as the interim plan if it is favorable for realization of above purposes.
In fact, selection of interim plan greatly relies on political standpoints of political leaders and the mass’s attitudes in national society. We could be certain that no plan could make everyone completely satisfied. If there are many plans for people to choose, different groups and nations will certainly choose different plans, but the final selection must be made by the most influential political leaders and nations. Such selection might not be the most rational, but that’s practice of human society.
Theoretically speaking, we could analyze and research real situation of human society, confirm the most rational plan, and influence the mass and political leaders using the most rational plan, and thus make preparation for selection of a most suitable interim plan.
Transition from national society to the greatly unified society could be understood as combining all nations into a whole, so in the interim stage, some nations will combine with others to form large entities.
Peaceful method often used to enlarge political entity in history is league of nations. In the following part, we will carry out analysis with league of nations as a starting point, and give rise to various questions that the interim plan should consider, so that to find a feasible interim plan at last.
(1) Different forms of unions
National Union refers to a powerful community of nations, which is combined by several countries with different forms taking the alliance as the transition form and different relations as the linking tie.
This kind of national union is established with the sole goal of pushing ahead the process of grand unification. According to the maturity of the times, it will continuously strengthen close links among these nation members and expand the scope of the union until eventually incorporate all countries in the world as a whole so as to realize the grand unification worldwide.
Maybe, the original intention of some unions is to pushing ahead the process of grand unification, some others may be for the other purposes. If countries can form a national union freely, then, the objective of the union must be various. Though the idea of grand unification is widely accepted worldwide, it is not likely that the objective of all national unions is for the cause of grant unification.
Forms of union may be different. It can be classified into economic union, political union, military union, as well as comprehensive union according to contents of the union; from the perspective of closeness, there will be close union, semi-close union and loose union; based on the connecting tie, it can be divided into regional union, alliance between nationalities, union of civilization, and union of ideology.
It is safe assumption that, however, some kinds of union are destined to fail to shoulder the important responsibility of pushing forward the grand unification. For example, it is difficult for such unions tied by economic links to shoulder heavy responsibility of grand unification; and for example, any loose national union can’t do this too.
A union, which is striving for leading grand unification and can shoulder the heavy task, will be the close-type one that contains the most important contents of politic, military and economy, and the one with the world’s major powers as its members and with powerful strength, such strength is strong enough that one big power can’t counter against. Only this kind of national union can win the recognition from other non-union nations by its power. An unknown union formed by small countries can’t own the authority to commanding the whole world, and of course, can’t hold the responsibility to leading the grand unification.
At present, there are so many kinds of national unions that it is difficult for analyzing and summing up. For example, European Union and the Association of South-East Asian Nations are regional national union, while, the League of Arab States is a national union linked by nationality. the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and Warsaw Treaty Organization in history are national unions which include political and military contents, while, North American Free Trade Area(NAFTA) and South Asia Free Trade Area are national unions which just involving economic content. Such unions as Commonwealth Country are so tightly connected that, actually, they become a country. While some unions are so loose that there is no any restriction among them. The national unions we are researching is well targeted, that is, the unions which can directly push forward the process of grand unification and is likely to play a leading role in this process, which, to a great extent, narrows the scope of researching.
(2) Characteristic of National Union under Free State
In history, basically, unions among countries could be formed freely at their will. As a supreme authority body, country is basically free to the restriction of the outside force. They can the ascendancy which can determine their action, determine the subject, form and content of the union according to their own demand.
1. Unions are set up either result from confrontation, or result in confrontation
Generally, National unions under Free State are set up for the purpose of confrontation. Even it is not for the purpose of confrontation, objectively, the establishment can break some force balance, thus resulting in the confrontation. Some of the confrontation is for the reason of economy, some is the culture, some is the politic, some is the military, and some have the feature of the combined confrontation including politics, economy, culture and military.
For example, Islamic civilization had no ability to strike back against the Christian civilization due to the invasion of western countries. In order to fight against the Christian civilization, Pan-Islamism thus appeared with the purpose of uniting all Islamic Nations into a large union so as to fight against the invasion of western countries.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and Warsaw Treaty Organization during the period of Cold War is similar with this. At the earliest time, when the NATO was established by western countries led by the Britain and France, it compete with the Soviet Union. Under the threat of the NATO, the Soviet Union unites other East European countries to set up the Warsaw Treaty Organization to effectively counter back with the NATO.
In order to dominate the world, occupy Europe and get the living space for Germanic peoples, it is necessary to set up a national union with overall strength can compete with the Great Britain, France and Soviet Union. So Hitler, by joining hands with Italy and Japan, set up the Axis Powers. Under the attack of the Axis Powers, the European countries with loose state are not able to fight against with the Powers. So, the Great Britain, France and Soviet Union set the Alliance, and get America and China involved in it later.
In order to counter against the powerful nations such as China, Japan and India to avoid being marginalized, countries in Southeast Asia is striving to set up Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Economic Community, and take it as the substantial content of ASEAN. Of course, confrontation of economy is far less intense than military and political ones, so it causes less concern.
Unions, which take economy as the starting point, are also set up for the purpose of confrontation. For example, In order to carry out economic competition with the united European nations, America, Canada and the Mexican jointly set up North American Free Trade Area (NAFTA)
The League of Nations after the WWW I and the United Nations after the WWW II, which are striving for incorporate all the nations in the world, don’t belong to the particular national union. In other words, if the League of Nations or the United Nations could fully and effectively influence the world affairs, then it could directly change from Society of States to the society of grand unification, thus it is not necessary to discuss here.
2. The union under the free state is multicomponent
Union in free state either originates from confrontation, or will generate confrontation, so confrontation will certainly have targets. When a union is established, its confrontation target is fixed also. No matter whether the union indicates its confrontation target openly or only, someone will seat by number.
Rearrangement of the nations’ strength is the comprehensive cause of union of nations. To protect advantage of their strength or enhance their strength as much as possible, the targeted nations will soon contact countries having common interest and set up a confronting union.
Just because union of nations has the feature of confrontation, union of nations in free state will not be single, but will be various, or in other words, there will always be two or more than two unions of nations of the same type co-exist in the world, they might be established at different times, but such difference will not be large, no matter it is economic league, cultural league, military league or political league, the feature is even much obvious for political league and military league, because political and military issues concern survival of a nation directly, the interest is very serious, and not any country is willing to be inferior in confrontation.
3. Confronting Leagues Will Expand Continuously
After a league of nations is founded because of confrontation, a confronting league will be set up accordingly. Every league will try to enlarge its strength to overpower the counterpart, and no party is willing to lose in the confrontation, particularly political league and military league, because if any party is obviously inferior means that it will doubtlessly lose in the war if it breaks out, as it concerns life or death, not any nation is willing to be inferior. After establishment, to enlarge scale and strength, every league will consolidate and expand its scale, and win over and absorb new members, rather than keeping the original scale. As confronting leagues are all making efforts like this, scale of the league will expand continuously.
Before the World War I, after allied with Russia, France also sought alliance with the UK, and thus set up the Allies with core as the UK, France and Russia. This was just start of the alliance, with progress of confrontation with the Central Powers, contending for alliances became fiercer, even Italy, previous member of the Central Power was also won over, and Rumania and Greek both joint the Allies later. In Far East, two large countries—China and Japan were also won over, and at last, America was won over, which fundamentally changed strength of the Allies, and became the most important factor for the final victory.
The Central Powers’ achievement was also excellent. Turkey, the country that occupied an important strategic position then, was an allied nation of the Central Powers, and Bulgaria joint with it later. Bulgaria did not only occupy an important strategic position as it was adjacent to Rumania, Serbia and Macedonia, but it also had a powerful land force. What’s more important, before defeating the Allies, the Central Powers successfully coerced Russia, a most important member of the Allies, into signing a treaty, according to which, Russia did not cede territory and paid indemnities, but also quitted the war, thus removed the oriental threat of the Allies.
During the Cold War, NATO had only 12 members at first, and Greek and Turkey joint with it later. When West Germany joint with the alliance, NATO was quite powerful already. In fact, power of NATO is not restrained to west Europe and North American countries, Japan, Korea and Taiwan of China in Far East all obey NATO’s order.
While the confronting Warsaw Treaty Organization was doing the same, it did not win over South Korea, Vietnam and China, but also alienated the important countries like France and West Germany from NATO.
4. Semi-close League Could Easily Cause Conflicts
Actions of members in a close league are coordinated, and the member will handle every important action prudently under the agreement. What’s more, because most sovereignty has been transferred to the league, the league acts as a nation in dealing with external affairs (today’s Federal country is such league).
But a semi-close league is quite different, on one hand, the countries have reached agreement about helping each other to guard against external, such agreement was binding; while on the other hand, many unilateral actions of the countries are beyond constraint of the league.
So a problem crops up, every country will act independently from the league. Every country has interest independent from interests of the league, and driven by such independent interest, the country will easily act unilaterally, which means conflict with another country in a confronting league. The more the members in a league are, the more the countries that will act independently, the larger of opportunities of such conflict, and more frequent of such conflict.
While on the other hand, after conflict arises, the other countries in the same league will doubtlessly join in the confrontation with the confronting country, driven by obligations of treaty of the league and in consideration that it will need support of league when similar things happen to the country, even if they can’t be very clear of issue. While members of the confronting league will certainly have same attitude and action, so confrontation between two countries could easily lead to large-scale conflict between leagues.
To put it simply, trouble of a single country will easily get the whole league involved in the conflict, and the possibility that a country gets into trouble is very large, so semi-close league will easily cause conflicts, and often large-scale conflicts.
Take cause of World War I as an example, Austria-Hungary and Serbia conflicted with each other, because Austria-Hungary, the member of the Central Powers, had been coveting territory of Serbia, assassination of Austrian grand duke was only an excuse. But Austrian’s invasion into Serbia conflicted interest of Russia which was a member of the Allies. After Russia adopted pertinent actions, Germany, another member of the Central Powers, didn’t want to sit out, and joint in the confrontation with Russia resolutely. In fact, without support of Germany, Austria-Hungary would not dare to invade Serbia, and without backup of the Allies, Russia couldn’t resist Germany and Austria-Hungary itself. After the war broke out, France, which also belonged to the Allies, joint with Russia in the war later, and prelude of World War I thus started.
Such conflicts could rarely occur between completely loose leagues, because trouble caused by unilateral action of a member country will be ignored by other members, and unilateral action is rare to close leagues, so such unilateral action that could easily get the whole league involved will only happen to semi-close leagues.
(III) Leagues in Free State Could Barely Complete the Important Task of Transform to the Great Unification
The emphasis of transform by league is to continuously combine the countries, to make the league larger and larger, and relationship among countries closer and closer. When the whole world is included in one league that is close as one country, the great unification is realized then. What will happen if we try to realize the great unification by transform of league in free state?
As there will be various leagues in free state, and the leagues will become larger and larger, scale of the league that intends to unify the whole world might be as large as half world, while the other half world belongs to another such league.
Because the league that intends to realize the great unification will have two kinds of members, the first of which will be countries that want to dominate the process of the great unification, this kind of country is very powerful and large scaled; the other kind of country hopes not to be marginalized in the process of the great unification, and safeguard its own interest. This is a major consideration of many medium and small sized countries that must rely on a large country to safeguard their own interests. So the league that intends to realize the great unification will be dominated by large countries and will enlist many medium and small countries.
But not every large country could be a dominator in the great undertaking of unification, nor all medium and small sized countries will be marginalized. Those large countries that can’t be dominators are certainly elbowed out by the ones that could be dominant, and those marginalized are certainly pushed aside by countries not marginalized, so the leagues will certainly compete and confront with each other.
Development of leagues will follow the rule—after people reach consensus of the great unification, if someone starts to set up the league that intends to realize the great unification, it will certainly stimulate other countries, and many leagues will thus emerge. After emergence of these leagues, every of them will try its best to absorb new members to enlarge its strength so that to scramble for leading position in the great unification.
If no large scale wars break out during this period, and everything develops fluently, following changes will happen in metaphase of development of leagues: some leagues will be lagged behind in aspects of development speed and scale both, their ability can’t match with their ambition, and couldn’t enlarge their strength anymore. Faced by fierce competition, they have to admit the fact of their inferiority and give up the original intention of dominating the great unification, and start to seek for not being marginalized instead. Such small leagues will merge into some large league, while large league could enlarge its scale by absorbing such small leagues, so it is certainly willing to merge such small ones.
Following circumstance may also happen—some medium sized leagues sense deeply that they are no match of the much powerful leagues in the fierce competition. Because of the sense of crisis, two or more than two medium leagues will combine into one large league. Above two circumstances may cross and complement each other.
In middle and late period, after long-term merge and absorption, the most possible result will be co-existence of two super leagues that no one will give way, with half the world belongs to one league, and the other half belongs to the other league. Both the leagues want to lead the historic process of the great unification. So confrontation thus caused will be confrontation between one hemisphere with the other.
In early and middle period of league development, most leagues will be semi-close, because purpose of most countries to join in a league is to avoid being marginalized in the process of the great unification. Forced by the general trend, the countries could not be subordinate in the league, and few countries could be dominant. As regard to most countries, both the people and leaders of the countries are unwilling to transfer all rights to the leagues, but forced by general trend, the countries will have to gradually transfer their rights to the leagues step by step. To win more members, the leagues will certainly not require all rights at first, and there must be a process before close leagues are realized, while completely loose leagues have little real meaning to promote the greatly unified society, so most leagues will be semi-close in the early and middle period.
Just because of above features, possibilities of armed conflicts between leagues are increased. What’s more, league that intends to realize great unification will be very large, with many members, which means that possibility that member country in the league getting into trouble is very large, and such trouble will inevitably lead to world war with disastrous damages. It might be a real world war with half world fighting the other half, and a real extinction war in which all high-tech killing methods will be used.
In view that league in free state could easily cause disastrous world war, which goes against our wish of realizing the great unification by peaceful means, so league in free state will not be able to shoulder the heavy responsibility of transforming to the great unification.
(IV) Conclusion: Absolute Advantage Could Avoid Slaughter
In view that league in free state could easily lead to disastrous world war, to avoid such disastrous war, to avoid diversification of leagues so that to avoid confrontations between leagues should be the key. First, free association of countries should be prohibited, or in other words, free establishment of leagues should be prohibited. Only a specific league that consists of certain nations is allowed to develop, and absorb countries that could meet the requirements at the right time, so that the league will grow continuously and enter the greatly unified society when conditions are ripe.
Key of this assumption is to restrain free combination of nations that are the highest authorities in national society. Only a few specific countries are allowed to establish league of nations, rather than allowing countries to set up leagues freely. What’s more, there will be only one league that intends to promote the process of great unification.
In fact, partial right of most countries will be restrained, or in other words, countries’ right to set up leagues freely is restricted. Such restriction will be unprecedented, because international organizations including the UN are all unable to do so.
Then what kind of strength could influence a nation’s action in national society?
In NATO, members all obey order from America, while in WTO, members obey order from Soviet Union, because America is the most powerful in NATO, while Soviet Union is the most powerful member in WTO.
Over 2,000 years ago, during Spring and Autumn Period in ancient China, there were many countries large or small in China, strength of kingdom of Zhou was declining, and among all these five most powerful countries that were called five hegemonies in Spring and Autumn Period appeared successively. They dominated China at different times, and were called hegemonies. No country cared order issued by emperor of Zhou, but was very obedient to order of hegemony at that time. This improves that strength will determine a country’s action.
Global organizations like the League of Nations and Union of Nations are unable to restrict a nation’s action, but large country could. A small country may be supercilious in front of the UN, but it is obedient to order of the large country. France and Germany challenged America as the authority of NATO successively, because France and Germany were also very powerful; while in socialist camp then, China challenged Soviet Union, and broke away from the camp centered in Soviet Union, also because that China was fairly powerful and needn’t show deference to Soviet Union.
Let’s discuss diversification of leagues. To prohibit free association of nations, there should be an absolutely strong power that could restrict the nations from free actions, and such absolutely strong power could only comes from nations that refer to not any single nation, because a single nation will not be powerful enough to rein the whole world, but only a group that is closely associated in aspects of politics, military and economy could be that powerful. The group should be powerful enough that not any nation could challenge it. The group to a nation outside of the group is just like a giant to a baby. It is impossible that a baby could challenge a giant by force. Even there is such force challenge, it will not be serious, because loss caused by confrontation between the parties with wide gap of strength won’t be large, even if the confrontation develops into war.
It is a rule that confrontation and war between parties with wide gap of strengths will not cause large death or damage. It is clear by analyzing wars broke out between large country and small one in the history:
In 1983, when America seized Grenada, only around 130 soldiers fell in the war, and most of them came from assistance force of Cuba. America occupied the whole Grenada in only 3 days. In 1989, America occupied Panama, and sent president Noriega of Panama to America for trial. America controlled the whole Panama in only 4 days, and casualties of the parties were only over 3,000, over half of which were civilians. The Gulf War in 1991 could be reckoned as a large-scale war, but death in the war was less than 20,000. Death of multi-national force led by America was less than 100, and only 42 days later, Iraq retreated fully from Kuwait.
The reason for such result is that compared with these countries, America is absolutely advantageous in aspects of military, politics and economy, particularly when compared with Grenada and Panama.
WTO’s occupation of Czechoslovakia in 1968 was such an example also. WTO, led by Soviet Union, seized the whole Czechoslovakia in 1 day using tanks and planes, and the casualty was less than 100. While casualty of NATO in the war with League of Communists of Yugoslavia was almost zero, and casualty of Yugoslavia was only several thousand.
While damage of Iran-Iraq war that lasted from 1980 to 1988 was much larger than the Gulf War between America and Iraq. Iran and Iraq were matchable enemies, the war between these two medium sized countries lasted 8 years. Total casualty of the countries reached 2.5 million, and they spent over 900 billion US dollars in the war. Both of them had spent the last penny in the war. The result is that none of them could defeat the other, and the previous rich oil countries became poor ones after the war, with both countries hurt.
The World War I between the Allies and the Central Powers and the World War II between the Allies and the Axis were both wars between matchable military camps, so they brought over half a world down to the abyss of war. Both the wars made record-high casualties in war history, and the wars led to collapse of economy, and destruction of various architectures and cultural facilities. People had no means to live, with countries split.
Numerous historic issues and wars have improved the truth that wars developed from confrontation between matchable parties will definitely be very cruel ones, while cruel wars could be avoided if strengths of the parties differ greatly.
This issue contains the truth: when strengths differ greatly, not only the weak one will be willing to obey government of the strong, but the strong party will also treat the weak mercifully.
Take relation between countries as an example, when facing a weak country without any aggressivity nor any aggressiveness, a large country is usually clement and merciful, because it senses no threat, it will certainly show its merciful and peaceful image. It’s just like a giant facing a baby, the giant will not hurt the counterpart in general, but matchable boxers are hostile to each other.
So absolute advantage could inspire mercifulness, kindness and peace of the country or league. To the contrary, advantage that is not obvious could result in further expansion of the strength, and inspire ambition of war. To make countries or leagues co-exist peacefully, their strengths must be kept greatly differed, general difference of strength is not able to realize the target, but only the difference that is large enough could attain this purpose—making them coexist peacefully.
So, if several very powerful nations could form a close league with absolute advantage, and the league’s strength is large enough that not any country or league dare to confront with it, then this league could frighten other nations in the world, and could easily prevent the countries from set up leagues freely. The free state of nation will change then.
If there is no large scale war nor large confronting entity, this league with absolute advantage is definitely able to ensure that there is only one league (that is the league itself), so that it could drive the world towards the dream of great unification under the precondition that there is no disastrous war.
This truth could be further generalized, or in other words, during the interim from national society to the greatly unified society, to avoid large-scale war, we must use large countries’ strength to restrict free actions of other nations, rely on strength of absolute power to lead undertaking of the great unification, and let the absolute power to restrict other countries from doing damages to undertaking of the great unification and things unfavorable to world peace, thus ensure that undertaking of the great unification could process humanely and peacefully. It means that the absolute power will act as helmsman and leader of the whole world.
Not any single country could be strong enough to act as the absolute power. Only league of nations could be that strong. Besides league of nations, other forms of association might be possible also. We call such association of nations as absolute advantageous group, or advantageous group for short. To ascertain and choose the scheme of advantageous group is to ascertain and choose interim plan, and the realization plan of the great unification also.
Section II Three Principles
After the point that an interim stage is needed between national society at present and the greatly unified society in the future and we should rely on the absolutely advantageous group to control and lead the undertaking of great unification, the discussion of great unification plan has become discussion of organization and operation plan of the advantageous group.
The writer thinks that reasonable organization of advantageous group and operation plan should comply with three principles as follows: legality principal, feasibility principle and justice principle. Legality means that advantageous group should comply with international laws; feasibility means that the plan should ensure advantageous group could be organized smoothly, and the advantageous group set up could successfully promote undertaking of the great unification; justice is to weigh interests of different regions and groups, take full consideration of democracy and human rights of every region and group, and try to ensure that everyone is satisfied in the process of great unification.
I. About Legality of Plan
(I) Legality Issue
Because issue of legality of advantageous group falls into scope of international law, we must learn about international law first before researching legality of advantageous group.
Most people know domestic laws more or less, because people will accept education about domestic laws intentionally or not, and are restrained by domestic laws. Domestic law is formulated by legislation organ in due procedures. Domestic law has sanction over natural persons living in the nation, legal persons and state organs in the country, as well as relevant natural persons, legal persons and state organs. Natural person, legal person and state organ are subjects of domestic law. Domestic law is compulsively maintained by army, police and court of the country, which ensure that domestic law is executed efficiently. Domestic law is valid within the country, but invalid in other countries.
International law, also called public international law, is completely different from domestic law both in aspects of nature and feature. Subjects of international law are nation, inter-governmental international organization and liberation organization that seeks for freedom. International law adjusts relationships among above subjects. It doesn’t adjust relations among subjects of domestic law in general. International law is valid in the whole international society, and is binding to all subjects of international law.
Compared with domestic law, international law has two features: the first is source of law, principles and systems of international law are formulated by treaties, conventions and agreements in the principle of equality and negotiation of sovereign states and other subjects of international laws. Another important source of international law is international custom which has been used repeatedly in international practice, and has been generally acknowledged as law. The second is supervision and execution of law. There is not any organization above nations to force implementation of international law. International law could be executed willingly by subjects of the law or forced to be executed by collective strength of international society.
For example, the Peace Treaty of Westphalia signed in 1648 when the Thirty Years’ War ended is a document with effect of international law; the Covenant of the League of Nations that was set up after the World War I is also a document with legal effect, and the Charter of the United Nations founded after World War II was also such a document with legal effect. Some other treaties signed in small areas, such as the Treaty of Holy Alliance signed by Russia, Austria and Prussia in 1815, the Quadripartite Treaty signed by America, the UK, Japan and France in 1921 and the Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assistance signed between China and the Soviet Union in 1950 also have effects of international law.
From features of international law, we can tell that international law is inseparable from international relationship, which is base for international law. No matter treaty, covenant or agreement signed between countries, or international practice of international affairs, all these origins of international law reflect international relationship. To a certain degree, international relationship will determine international law.
Legality of international law changes with times. Some law that is legal in an era might be considered as illegal in another times. Likewise, behavior that is illegal might become legal some years later.
Because of above features of international law, following aspects need be elaborated:
Firstly, establishment of completely new international relationship usually needs a large scale war.
Take modern and contemporary international relationship as an example. Framework of modern and contemporary international relationship is set up on relics of the world ruled by feudal theocracy in middle ages. The religious reform in the 16th-century affected every country, and influenced the European society profoundly. While Austrian House of Hapsburg was the major defender of European feudal system then, so its contradiction with protestant was acute.
The Thirty-Year War that lasted from 1618 to 1648 broke out because of religion, but it soon evolved into a political war that almost got the whole Europe involved. The Thirty-Year War ended with the House of Hapsburg defeated. Signature of the Peace Treaty of Westphalia marked not only the end of the war, but also the establishment of completely new international relationship. The world sovereign under Roman theocracy before the war was broke completely, the House of Hapsburg was coerced to admit sovereignties of vassal states. The international relationship that ruled by religious theocracy and feudal imperial power was completed broken up. The new international relationship system is called Westphalia system.
In Westphalia system, the major participants in European affairs were the UK, France, Russia, Prussia and Austria before the French Revolution. France was a strong country then. The French Revolution influenced world politics and international relationship profoundly. To stop French Revolution and help House of Bourbon to restore the throne, European powers—Russia, the UK, Austria and Prussia fought with French First Republic at first and later the First Empire of France for over 20 years. The war was called Napoleonic Wars in history. Winner of the war rearranged Europe, and a new international relationship system was set up, which was the Vienna system.
The system followed Vienna system is Bismarck system. Disorganization of Vienna system and establishment of Bismarck system are results of a series wars including European revolution, Crimean War and German unification war.
The unified Germany accomplished by German unification war soon developed from a country coldly treated to a power to a major power in Europe. German premier Bismarck was a far-sighted politician good at balancing relations. Dominated by Bismarck, an international relationship system with German alliance as the core was formed, this system was so-called Bismarck system that lasted till World War I broke out.
Casualties in World War I were tens of millions, and result of the war led to disorganization of Bismarck system and establishment of the new international relationship system, which is generally called Versailles-Washington system.
Disorganization of Versailles-Washington system and establishment of the new international relationship system were result of World War II. The international relationship system formed after World War II was called Yalta system. In Feb. 1945, when World War II was to end, leaders of America, Soviet Union and the UK—the winning countries met in Yalta and made new arrangement of world pattern after the war, so the international relationship system thus formed was named by the meeting address Yalta.
Secondly, international relationship decides international law principles
International law is related to international relationship. International relationship is basis of international law, and it also determines principals of international law. From sources of international law, we can tell that major composing contents of international law are international treaty and international custom, while both international treaty and international custom are reflection of international relationship. So international relationship is decisive to international law. Appearance of new international relationship will definitely lead to changes of international law, because new international relationship is confirmed by a series of important international treaties and covenants, and international custom will also change with international relationship. It is certain that specific contents of international law will change.
Legality of specific contents doesn’t equal justice of the contents. As establishment of a new international relationship system is often accompanied by large scale war, the dominator in establishment of international relationship system will certainly be the winning countries. The winner will doubtlessly put interests of its own on top of others. Only when the winner’s interest is fully considered, interests of other countries might be considered then. The winning country will impose unfair conditions to the defeated country by the form of treaty. The defeated country is unable to resist, but has to accept the unfair conditions. Such conduct of putting interests of a particular large country on top of the other countries, and imposing unfair conditions to defeated countries is common. Although such conduct is not fair nor reasonable, it is legal in view of international law, because the unfair conditions have been settled down in the form of treaty and have been seemingly agreed and recognized by the parties.
(II) Seeking for legal plan in the United Nations system
We will seek for legal plan for advantageous group in today’s international relationship and system of international law. As advantageous group is unprecedented, there will be no legal provisions or legal cases to refer to, we will have to carry out objective judge, after analysis of forming history of present international relationship and international law system.
Establishment of contemporary international relationship and international law system starts from World War II. The most important and influential event to establishment of international relationship and international law system after World War II is foundation of the United Nations and subscription of the Charter of the United Nations. Confirmation of the United Nations as center of international affairs is the most obvious feature of international relationship after World War II. The Charter of the United Nations is generally recognized as the major source of contemporary international law, which is the most obvious feature of international law system after the war.
Judging from functions and operation mechanism of the United Nations, among various organs, organizations and groups, role of the United Nations in global affairs is most similar to world regime. In view of roles of the United Nations to international relationship and international law system, and many factors including that functions of the United Nations that are most close to world regime in global affairs, to set up legal advantageous group in the United Nations becomes natural.
In fact, people always consider the United Nations as an interim system from international anarchy to world regime, because functions of tenets of the United Nations have many similarities to world regime.
Today, 192 countries, over 95% of world total, have become member countries of the United Nations. What’s more, all major countries have become members of the United Nations, and they are all obligated to act in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations. In fact, scope of power and harmonization scope of the United Nations both are not limited to member countries. It has become completely global. Take the United Nations’ role of protecting world peace as an example, as regulated by the Charter of the United Nations, if it is necessary for maintaining world peace and security, the United Nations should make non-member countries abide by rules it set up. So the United Nations’ position as center in harmonization of the world is complete.
1. Organs of the United Nations
To seek for legal plan of advantageous group in the United Nations, we will further analyze organs and operation mechanism of the United Nations. The United Nations has six major organs as the General Assembly of the United Nations, Security Council, Economic and Social Council, Trusteeship Council, International Court of Justice and Secretariat. There are a series of auxiliary bodies under the major ones, and each of them is responsible for some specific areas.
(1) General Assembly
General Assembly is the major resolution organ of the United Nations. The General Assembly is made up of member nations, with one ballot for each nation, and representatives of a single country no more than 5.
Main functions of the General Assembly are: to discuss general principals of cooperation of nations in aspect of maintaining world peace and security (including principles for disarmament and arm control), raise suggestions on above principles to member nations or the Security Council, and propose the Security Council to pay attention to circumstances that are serious enough to endanger world peace and security; research and promote international cooperation in aspect of politics, gradually advocate and promote development of international law, and formulation of international law as well; promote international cooperation in sectors including economy, culture, education and hygiene, promote human rights and basic freedom of all human beings; accept and resolute work reports other organs submit; appoint secretary general according to recommendation of the Security Council; vote to select non-permanent members of the Security Council; discuss to admit new member nation as recommended by the Security Council, or discuss to remove any member nation upon suggestion of the Security Council; and discuss to determine budget of the United Nations and member nations’ subscription proportion of membership fees. The General Assembly could discuss various problems, except problems being discussed by the Security Council.
The General Assembly of the United Nations is convened and presided over by assembly chairman. Assembly chairman is elected by votes of the previous assembly. There are 21 vice chairmen besides. Office of the assembly chairman is assumed by the regions in rotation, quotas of chairman and vice chairmen are as follows: 6 for African countries, 5 for Asian countries, 1 for East European countries, 3 for Latin American countries, 2 for West Europe and other countries, 5 for permanent members of the Security Council.
(2) Security Council
Security Council is made up of five permanent members and ten non-permanent members (previous 7 non-permanent members, increased to 10 in 1965). The five permanent members are China, France, Russia, the UK and America. Non-permanent members are selected through votes of the General Assembly, the tenure is two years, and no re-election nor consecutive term is allowed.
Main functions of the Security Council are to maintain world peace and security, and preside over and promote international disarmament and arm control. Besides, the Security Council also implements trusteeship function of the United Nations, selects judges of International Court apart from judges selected by the General Assembly, adopts measures to execute sentence of the International Court, recommends candidate of secretary-general and new members to the General Assembly, and suggests the General Assembly stopping rights or removing membership of member country.
(3) Economic and Social Council
Economic and Social Council is made up of 54 members (previously 18 members, increased to 27 in 1965, and 54 in 1973), tenure of the membership is 3 years, the General Assembly will reelect 18 members every year, when the tenure expires, consecutive term is allowed. Economic and Social Council is responsible to harmonize international economic, social, cultural, educational and hygiene works, and raise suggestions on these works. Besides, it also provides information and assistance requested by the General Assembly, Security Council and other organs of the United Nations, and convenes international conferences within its authority.
(4) Trusteeship Council
Trusteeship Council is responsible to supervise affairs of mandated territory, censor report of trustee countries, accept petition of people on the mandated territory jointly with management countries, and visit and inspect mandated territory. Trusteeship Council is made up of three kinds of countries, respectively as member countries that manage mandated territories, permanent members of the Security Council that don’t manage mandated territories, and other members (with a tenure of 3 years) of required number selected through votes of the General Assembly. With gradually decrease and completely disappearance of the management countries, now members of the Trusteeship Council only include America, China, France, the UK and Russia—the five permanent members of the Security Council.
(5) International Court
International Court is an organ that is specially responsible to consider and handle international legal problems and solve international disputes through judicial means. The Court is made up of 15 independent judges with different nationality each other, independent judges are recommended by nations and are selected through specific procedures.
Authority of International Court includes appeal jurisdiction and consultation jurisdiction. It doesn’t accept case of individuals. If any party disobeys or refuses to execute sentence of International Court, then the other party could appeal to the Security Council to adopt measures to execute the Court’s sentence. The Court’s advisory jurisdiction includes providing advisory opinions on legal questions raised by the General Assembly and the Security Council at any time. Authorized by the General Assembly, other organs of the United Nations could also ask International Court to air advisory opinions on legal issues within their work scopes.
Secretariat is administration organ of the United Nations. It is made up of one secretary-general and some deputy secretary-generals, and other administrative staffs. The secretary-general is recommended by the Security Council and appointed by the General Assembly. The tenure is five years, and consecutive term is allowed. As administration head of the United Nations, the secretary-general manages and supervises work of other work staffs of the Untied Nations, exercises authority in the name of secretary-general in major organs of the United Nations, and perform other duties and works entrusted by these organs as well.
2. Core right of the United Nations lies in the Security Council
The United Nations adopts three voting systems to censor motions, respectively as unanimous consent with one ballot for each country, majority consent with one ballot for each country, and weighed voting system with several ballots for one country.
Majority system with one ballot for every country means that every member country has equal voting right, or in other words, every nation has one ballot, and the motion will be approved only all members required to attend the meeting vote to consent the motion. E.g. concurring votes of large countries of the Security Council is vote of such voting system. In fact, this kind of voting system endows every member country with equal veto.
Majority consent with one ballot for each nation means that every member nation has equal voting right--one ballot for each nation, the motion could be approved if majority of nations that attend the meeting vote affirmatively. Majority consent with one ballot for each nation could be divided as simple majority consent and qualified majority consent. Simple majority means that the motion could be approved if affirmative votes are over half the total, while the later requires for consent of qualified majority, such as 2/3, 3/4 and 4/5. The General Assembly and many other special organs of the United Nations all adopt the voting system of majority consent with one ballot for each nation.
Weighed voting system with several ballots for one nation means to set up specific standards according to certain rules, such as national strength, responsibility and contribution, giving member country certain ballots or voting rights. For example, the five permanent members of the Security Council hold not only the positions as permanent members of the Council, but all have veto over all issues other than procedural proceedings, which has definitely increased weight of the five permanent members.
The most important organs in the United Nations are the General Assembly and the Security Council. The General Assembly is the highest authority set up according to the Charter of the United Nations, while according to the Charter of the United Nations, the Security Council is the only organ that is authorized to make decision that all member countries are dutiable to obey. Resolution of the General Assembly has no overall sanction, only resolution of the Security Council is really binding. So core right of the United Nations lies in the Security Council, rather than the General Assembly. The Security Council is the most importation implementation organ of the United Nations.
A nation that wants to join in the United Nations must be recommended by the Security Council first, the General Assembly will discuss and vote about it later, while the Security Council could decide whether to recover the membership of the nation whose membership has been frozen; the General Assembly should not discuss or vote on events discussed and being implemented by the Security Council without petition of the Security Council; the organ that will accept complaint that the sentence of the International Court can’t be executed and will have right to enforce the execution is the Security Council, rather than the General Assembly; the General Assembly could only provide suggestions to maintenance of world peace and security, but has no right to make decision, while the Security Council has such decision making right.
According to the Charter of the United Nations, “In order to ensure prompt and effective action by the United Nations, its Members confer on the Security Council primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security, and agree that in carrying out its duties under this responsibility the Security Council acts on their behalf”. To give effect to its decisions, the Security Council may call upon the members of the United Nations to apply such measures as “complete or partial interruption of economic relations and of rail, sea, postal, telegraphic, radio, and other means of communications, the severance of diplomatic relations”. What’s more, should the Security Council consider above measures be inadequate, it may take such action “by air, sea, or land forces as may be necessary”, “such action may include demonstrations, blockade, and other operations by air, sea, or land forces of Members of the United Nations”. On call of the Security Council, all members of the United Nations should undertake to make available to the Security Council “armed forces, assistance, and facilities, including rights of passage, necessary for the purpose of maintaining international peace and security”. To take actions, regional organization and organ must be authorized by the Security Council.
Thus it shows that the Security Council does not only have wide scope of authority, but has the strongest coercive strength also. In fact, authority of the Security Council is far wider than what have been mentioned. The Security Council is responsible to prepare disarmament and arms control schemes, excise trusteeship functions of the United Nations, select judges for International Court, recommend secretary-general to the United Nations, suggest the General Assembly stop membership or remove membership of some nation, and take part in revision of the Charter of the United Nations.
Above narration is enough to show that the core of right of the United Nations lies in the Security Council. While as an organ with general representativeness, the General Assembly functions as “world forum”. If the United Nations could be compared to sovereignty, then the General Assembly functions as parliament (in fact, the Assembly’s role is not as large as that of the parliament), while the Security Council is the government that holds real power.
Right core of the Security Council is the five permanent members--America, China, Russia, the UK and France. Each member has one ballot. Procedural proceedings will be decided by affirmative votes of 9 members among the 15 total, while non-procedural pratical matters will be decided by affirmative votes of 9 members together with unanimous consent of the permanent five, or in other words, every permanent member has veto, but absence or waiver of the permanent member doesn’t constitute veto.
What should be mentioned is that the permanent member could excise its right of veto in discussion of a proceeding to reject it as a procedural question, no matter it is procedural or non-procedural. While the permanent member could also excise its right of veto during votes on a proceeding that is dealt with as procedural. This is “double veto” of the permanent five. Essential meaning of double veto is that the permanent five could directly or indirectly excise right of veto over all issues discussed by the Security Council.
The Charter of the United Nations endows special rights to the Security Council, and very important rights to the permanent five of Security Council on some issues. In fact, issues of the United Nations are always influenced by the permanent five. This is the fact of the United Nations, and it is legal, no matter reasonable or not.
(III) Specific Plan
As core of contemporary international relationship is the United Nations, and major source of international law is the Charter of the United Nations, legality of organization plan of the advantageous group could be confirmed according to principles as follows: select members of the advantageous group within the United Nations, with the Charter of the United Nations as the guideline, integrating features of nations at present.
First-step reasoning: endow power to the advantageous group by comparing to the United Nations.
To set up a legal advantageous group, let’s review functions of the advantageous group and rights the group should have.
The advantageous group is to lead all mankind to develop from national society to the great unification. During transition from national society to the great unification, the advantageous group functions as lead of the whole world. Although nations still exist in the transition period, the nations have enfeoffed some rights (e.g. the nations are not allowed to set up league free willingly, obey lead of the advantageous group in the undertaking of the great unification, etc.) to the advantageous group, so their sovereignty is not complete.
Then what principles should we follow in setting up an advantageous group as world lead, so that the advantageous group could comply with rules of international law?
As the advantageous group is unprecedented in human history, it is impossible for us to completely imitate ready articles in international law, but could only set up principles according to basic rules of international relations and international law by reasoning.
To sum all factors, there is a point very important—a key legal challenge faced by the establishment of the advantageous group is that the advantageous group should be made up of which countries so that it is most qualified to lead the whole world? Or in other words, which nations should be selected to be members of the advantageous group that will govern the whole world so that the group meets with principles of international law best?
Then which organization at present is comparable to the advantageous group? Among various groups, organizations and organs, the most suitable and the only suitable candidate is doubtlessly the United Nations which is truly reining the whole world.
Because of features of organs in the United Nations and according to contents of the Charter of the United Nations, the nations have endowed the United Nations with various rights, of which the primary is to maintain world peace and security, so the United Nations could adopt any necessary measures, including military forces, to cope with events that endanger world peace. Meanwhile, the United Nations is also responsible to promote international cooperation, promote development of human society and protect human rights, etc. Its jurisdiction involves almost every major sector of human society, including politics, economy, military, culture and society. It’s jurisdiction almost covers every aspect of human society in theory, so it is for all the mankind and is global, and its jurisdiction scope is same as the advantageous group.
As the United Nations is an international organization, it is different from the advantageous group in two aspects in its exercise of rights, firstly, tempo of the United Nations’ exercise of rights is not as strong as the advantageous group. The United Nations has no army of its own, even for peacekeeping operations, the United Nations still needs to rely on military forces of its members, so compulsory force of the United Nations’ exercise of rights is not strong enough. The advantageous group should have overwhelming advantage in aspect of military ability, and tempo of the advantageous group’s exercise of rights should be much larger than the United Nations.
Secondly, depth of the Untied Nations’ exercise of rights is not as deep as the advantageous group also. For example, the Untied Nations can’t interfere domestic affairs of the nations, and it admits sovereignty of the nations. While the nations are required to enfeoff some rights to the advantageous group in interim period, so the nations will not have complete sovereignty. The reason is that as world leader, the advantageous group will lead all mankind to realize the great unification, it has to take partial right from nations so that it could exercise its rights as leader of the whole world, if it doesn’t take such partial right, it will not be able to lead the whole world.
To set up advantageous group, by reasoning method of laws, we could recognize the two features as above approximately as follows:
Firstly, the advantageous group will just increase tempo of exercise of rights compared with the United Nations. The United Nations’ disability to exercise rights effectively is a kind of deficiency itself. It’s a pity that the United Nations, an organization for the whole world, couldn’t effectively serve all the mankind, and it is the advantageous group that will make up this deficiency. So the advantageous group is much favorable to fundamental interests of the whole mankind. This has improved that the advantageous group should have rights comparable to the United Nations, and its tempo of exercise of rights should be stronger than the United Nations. It complies with international law by value judgement.
Secondly, the United Nations has all rights required for maintaining fundamental interests of the whole mankind. These rights are endowed by the Charter of the United Nations, the broadest multi-lateral agreement signed by members of the United Nations. In fact, rights of the United Nations are enfeoffed by nations. Rights of the advantageous group and rights of the United Nations both are enfeoffed by nations, so origin of the rights is same. What is different is that rights of the advantageous group will be more profound, which requires more rights to be enfeoffed. To avoid extinction of mankind, and protect overall existence which is higher than all the other values, it will be worthwhile for nations to enfeoff more rights to the group, and it complies with value principle of international law.
Second step reasoning: the advantageous group should be set up comparing to framework of the Security Council
The United Nations is an international organization. Sovereign states will become members of the United Nations by signing the Charter of the United Nations, and will enfeoff some sovereignties to the United Nations, so that the United Nations could rein the whole world to a certain degree. To set up the advantageous group comparing to the United Nations, two factors as follows must be considered:
First, sovereign states willingly endow some rights to the United Nations, only the states sign the Charter of the United Nations willingly, could the independent sovereignty principle (independent sovereignty principle is one the most important principles of international law at present) be complied with;
Second, only members of the United Nations will sign the Charter of the United Nations, or in other words, only when a nation wants to become a member of the United Nations, will it be willingly to transfer some of its rights to the United Nations.
Founding members of the advantageous group will be quite limited, maybe several or a dozen nations, but there are around 200 countries in the world, then over 90% of the nations couldn’t be founding members. Most nations will not be willing to give away their sovereignty to the advantageous group founded by quite a few nations, even if they sign some international treaty similar to the Charter of the United Nations to enfeoff their sovereignty to the advantageous group, the agreement will probably be signed under coercion. If this is the circumstance, the way through which the advantageous group gains power is illegal.
To solve this problem, we will start discussion by taking organization setup and right distribution of the United Nations into consideration.
Among organs in the United Nations, the General Assembly is the symbol of the highest authority. The General Assembly that is made up of all member nations adopts the voting system with one ballot for each nation. But in such a huge organization, many nations and their representatives could not exercise essential rights. In fact, resolution of the General Assembly has no general binding effect. Compared with state sovereignty, the General Assembly is similar to parliament of the nation that could only exercise the right of deliberation of political affairs. In sovereign state, state government holds the real power, while the United Nations endows its core right to the Security Council by the Charter of the United Nations. Although the Security Council is made up by quite a few members, decision of the Security Council is binding to all countries.
We can infer that the United Nations has power worldwide (although such power is not complete, but we could treat it like this approximately), and core right of the United Nations lies in the Security Council, so we could approximately deem that the Security Council has the right to lead the world on behalf of the United Nations.
With above reasoning, the problem faced by foundation of the advantageous group will be readily solved. The Security Council could be approximately deemed as the world leader on behalf of the United Nations, and the Security Council is made up of just a few members, if the advantageous group set up has same features with the Security Council, then the advantageous group should also have legal rights to lead the whole world. Or in other words, to make the advantageous group legal to lead the whole world, the advantageous group should be set up to have same features with the Security Council, then the purpose could be attained.
On basis of above conclusion, we may also research representation of the United Nations’ rights from members of the Security Council. We will find that to set up the advantageous group by comparing to members of the Security Council will be more suitable for legality of the advantageous group according to international law.
As we know, the Security Council is made up of 15 nations, five of which are permanent members, and 10 are non-permanent members. These countries are all the largest and most powerful ones in the world, and also the most representative countries. Following analysis will show representation of rights of the United Nations clearly.
The United Nations has six major organs, respectively as the General Assembly, Security Council, Economic and Social Council, Trusteeship Council, International Court and Secretariat.
The Security Council holds core rights of the United Nations, and member nations control the Security Council, so the core power is held by the member nations in fact. What’s more, we also found that the permanent five of the Security Council are the whole members of the Trusteeship Council, so power of the Trusteeship Council is held by members of the Security Council in fact.
Besides the Security Council and Trusteeship Council, the Economic and Social Council is also an execution organ of the United Nations. The Economic and Social Council has 54 members. As members of the Security Council are very influential in the world in general, so most of them are members of the Economic and Social Council that play very important roles in the Economic and Social Council.
Then let’s have a look of their influence to and role in the General Assembly. It is natural that every member of the Security Council has a position in the General Assembly. What should be mentioned is that the permanent five of the Security Council occupy five positions as regular vice chairman countries among the 21 vice chairmen, this is special arrangement for the permanent five of the Security Council, not any other country will enjoy such treatment. What’s more, non-permanent members of the Security Council that are very influential may become chairman country or vice chairman country of the General Assembly also.
We should notice that the permanent five of the Security Council could certainly influence most members in the General Assembly on every topic for discussion, because of their strong power and global influence, leaving non-permanent members of the Security Council not calculated.
Influences of the Security Council to the International Court are as follows: 15 independent judges of International Court are voted and approved by majority affirmative votes of the General Assembly and the Security Council, which means that the Security Council could veto appointment of any independent judge. In usual practices, the permanent five of the Security Council will have independent judges from their own nations in the International Court, so at least a third of independent judges will come from the permanent five of the Security Council.
Let’s have a look at influences of the Security Council to the Secretariat. The Secretariat is administration organ of the United Nations. As administration head of the United Nations, the secretary-general is appointed by the General Assembly upon recommendation of the Security Council, which shows that candidate of the secretary-general is actually decided by the Security Council.
So it shows that the Security Council members’ roles in and influences to the United Nations are not only reflected as that the core rights of the United Nations are completely controlled by the members of the Security Council, but also that their influences to other organs are large and actually decisive. So association of these members could be deemed approximately as organization controlling the whole United Nations, which has further increased legality of the foundation plan of the advantageous group, and the foundation plan thus prepared will be a much advanced plan.
Whether the advantageous group must have 15 founding members? Or in other words, whether the number must be similar to that the Security Council, which is 5 (permanent five) + 10 (non-permanent members)? It is unnecessary in theory.
Analysis of decision-making process of the Security Council shows that all decisions made by the Security Council need affirmative votes of 9 members, and non-procedural proceedings could be only approved that none of the permanent five exercise veto, then all resolutions could be approved if the permanent five and 4 non-permanent members vote affirmatively.
Although the advantageous group is made up of many members, nation is no longer independent after it joins in the advantageous group. It will merge into the group, and become part of the group. As every decision of the advantageous group is made by the group, rather than by individual members, we can infer that every decision of the advantageous group will get unanimous consent of the members.
Conclusion of above analysis is that if 9 nations with broad representation could found the advantageous group, then the requirement of legality could be met. The precondition is that these 9 countries must have representation broad enough. Such representation should be comparable to that of the Security Council. The permanent five must be members of the advantageous group, because tenure of the permanent five is “permanent”, and every nation of the permanent five has veto. If any of the permanent five is not selected as founding member of the advantageous group, when this nation opposes lead of the advantageous group or disagrees with policy of the advantageous group, the circumstance will equal veto of the nation, which doubtlessly means that the advantageous group has no authority, or execution of policy of the advantageous group is illegal, and all these equal that the advantageous group itself has lost legality. This requirement could be met if there are 4 suitable nations besides the permanent five. This requirement could be called 5+4 requirement, namely America, Russia, China, the UK and France plus 4 other suitable nations.
Of course, composition of the advantageous group should consider other requirements. 5+4 is the minimum threshold. The advantageous group foundation plan should not refuse to increase member amount if it is favorable to foundation of the group and exercise of roles of the group.
II. About Feasibility of the Plan
To consider legality only is far from enough for foundation of the advantageous group. Another issue that must be considered is feasibility, or in other words, whether the advantageous group could be founded easily, whether the advantageous group could easily merge other nations, and whether the group will have enough power the lead the whole world to the great unification.
To make the foundation plan feasible and practical, several principles should be set in following aspects:
1. Number of Founding Members of the Advantageous Group
It is certain the less founding members of the advantageous group, the easier for the group to be integrated. Because the less the founding members are, the smaller the difference will be. Both religious conflicts and national conflicts will be less, and difference of people’s living habits and economic gap will be small also, so the negotiation before foundation will be easier, and disordering factors will also be less when the nations get associated.
But founding members of the advantageous group can’t be too few also. Firstly, if the founding members are too few, representation of the group will not be broad enough. Secondly, if the founding members are too few, strength of the advantageous group won’t be large enough. There are a group of powerful nations in the world at present, if these countries are not absorbed as members of the advantageous group, it will not only result in insufficient strength of the advantageous group, these powerful nations that are independent from the advantageous group will also become threat to the advantageous nations. What’s more, if these independent powerful nations get associated, leading position of the advantageous group will be shook fundamentally.
Founding members of the advantageous group shouldn’t be too few, or too many, this is a basic requirement. In aspect of feasibility, the members could be increased only if it will not influence foundation of the group by the core nations and fusion of the group.
2. Economic Scale
Economic scale of founding members must be as large as possible, because economic scale is base of a country’s strength. Advantageous group must have strong power to rein the whole world. As it is impossible for the advantageous group to have too many founding members, and every founding member should be strong, in aspect of economy at least.
3. Territory and Resource
Territory and resource actually mean the same question in broad sense, that is resource. Territory is a part of resource, while resource includes more contents, oil, iron ore, water, forest, etc. all belong to resource. Some countries are small, but are very rich of resources, the other countries have vast territory, but scarce resources. It’s very complicated to analyze resources of every country specifically, so we will simplify resource problem to territory problem and take it as a standard.
There are three reasons for such simplification, firstly, generally speaking, territory is directly proportionate with total resource; secondly, though some area has no resource at present, situation may change in the future, take Middle East as an example, there used to be a vast barren desert, but it became rich oilfield after oil was discovered; thirdly, another significant meaning of area of territory is above concept of resource, analyzing from view of military strategy, vast territory means deep strategic depth, so military strategic advantage is large. Because of small territory and too limited strategic depth, a small nation’s resistance to continuous attack will be very limited even if the nation masters advanced weapons and enormous economic strength.
So using the standard of territory to simplify resource problem and the denotative strategic problem, could not only simplify the problem, but also could review strength of founding member from a wider aspect.
In aspect of territory, there is another important factor that should be considered, that is connection of territory, or in other words, we should not only try to choose nations having large territories to be founding members of the advantageous group, but also consider whether territory of the advantageous group could connect to form a whole piece.
Of course, selection of founding members should consider many other factors, if it is really necessary to select a nation whose territory couldn’t connect with others as a founding member, such nation should be quite particular. Major parts of the advantageous group should connect to form a piece.
4. Military Strength
Without absolute military strength, peace will have no safeguard, what’s more, the direct reason why the advantageous group could lead the whole world is military advantage of the group. Because of such advantage, all nations are willing be obey the group’s lead. Military strength of founding members constitute military strength of the advantageous group, total of military strength of founding members is military strength of the advantageous group, so military strength of nations is also an important factor that advantageous group foundation plan should consider.
5. Consistency of People’s Living Standard
Consistency of people’s living standard means that gap between people’s living standards of founding members of the advantageous group shouldn’t be too wide, because too different living standards will certainly cause quite different lifestyles, education levels and behavior habits. When such discrepancy reaches a certain degree, it will become very difficult for different groups to get along in the society, which may cause many troubles to governance of the advantageous group.
It is also impossible that living standards of the founding members are completely same. In fact, people’s living standards within a nation are also uneven, take China as an example, per capita income of Shanghai is 11 times of Guizhou, this gap is quite wide, though the gap brought many social problems, stability of China society is quite good in the world at present.
When selecting founding members of the advantageous group, to confirm a proper standard for the gap, other factors should be considered also. In principle, the narrower the better, but it is a solid fact the living standards of different nations are quite different. When setting standard of income gap, that the gap shouldn’t influence fusion of nations will be a principle requirement. Generally speaking, if gap of per capital incomes between member nations isn’t over 10, it will not influence fusion of nations to a great degree. When calculating per capita income, purchasing power parity method is more scientific than calculation by exchange, because purchasing power parity could remove unreasonable factors in calculation by exchange, and could better reflect people’s real income.
6. Factor of Religious and National Extremist
Religious and national extremism is an important factor that causes social instability. With extremely mad religious and national passion, terrorism appears. Religious extremist rejects and hates other religions, likewise, a national extremist also rejects and hates other nationalities. Religious extremism and national extremism are incompatible with spirit of the great unification.
It is not advisable to select religious and national extremist nations as founding members of the advantageous group, but that doesn’t mean forever rejection. After the advantageous group is set up, it will use its leading position to require and lead the nations to improve their policies according to requirements of the great unification, including weakening religious and national concept and abandoning extremist policies. When such improvement has reached certain degree, the nations could be able to meet requirements to be members of the group, and the advantageous group should timely accept the nations as its members.
III. On Justice of the Plan
Justice principle is to ensure that the advantageous group foundation plan could represent principle of equality and rationality, and whether it grants equal opportunities and rights to different regions and groups. By simple analysis, we can conclude that to meet justice requirement, members of the advantageous group must have wide representation, because only wide representation could fully represent democracy and human rights, ensure that the advantageous group has wide supports, and the nations are willing to obey lead of the advantageous group. What specific factors should be considered for justice of the group?
1. Nation Amount and Population
It’s doubtless that if all nations are members of the advantageous group, representation and justice will be the largest, but it is impossible, because the situation is final objective of the advantageous group, the great unification, rather than foundation of the group. While vice verse, if there is only one founding member, the representation is too limited, and justice is the lowest, it is more like unjust governance by a super power, rather than the advantageous group.
In aspect of difficulty in founding advantageous group, the former is the most difficult, while the later is the easiest, but both extreme types are undesirable, because the former is actually very difficult to be realized, we will choose the transform plan of advantageous group, and the later does not only go against the principle of justice and legality, but also couldn’t meet leading ability requirements of the advantageous group, because not any large and most powerful country in the world could rein the whole world independently from other large nations. To found advantageous group under the principle of legality and justice, with suitable nations as founding members and certain representation is guaranteed is reasonable and practical.
In view of population, representation of advantageous group with quite small population will be weak, while conditions for an advantageous group with population over two or three billion will be quite different. The advantageous group with population almost equal to population beyond the group will be quite convincing, and its representation is very wide also. What’s more, the nation usually compares its population with population of the advantageous group, so its conflicting emotion will be little if it is led by an advantageous group whose population and strength are both much larger than the nation’s. So the larger population of the advantageous group, the better, but other conditions of the members should meet requirements also.
2. Issues about Nationality and Race
The advantageous group should have wide representation in every aspects, of which nationality representation is doubtlessly very important. There are over 10,000 nationalities in the world, it is impossible to include all nationalities in the advantageous group, and it’s unnecessary to do so either. As racial problem is much simpler than nationality problem, and racial problem contains national factors, we could simplify the representation of nationality as racial representation.
Generally speaking, global races include white race, yellow race and black race, or in other words, Europeoid race, Mongoloid race and Equatorial race (someone will further divide Equatorial race into Negroponte type and Australia type—the black and the brown, as population of brown race is very small, to avoid complicating the problem, we will not divide further), which distribute in nations. While selecting members of the advantageous group, to use race to replace nationality as index of scope of representation will make the problem much easier.
Wide representation of race means that founding members of the advantageous group should contain nations with above three races, and should not only contain founding members that have some race or some two races, so meaning of wide representation of race could be extended as representation of nationality.
3. Regional Representation
According to regional distribution of mankind, the whole world could be divided as Asia, Europe, Africa, North America, South America and Oceania. Regional representation is an important composing part of wide representation of the advantageous group.
Different groups of people live on every continent, regional features have decided different situations, living habits, cultural backgrounds and histories for difference races, as well as regional concepts more or less. If such regional feeling is overlooked in selecting members of the advantageous group, then the whole continent might resist leading position of the advantageous group, such resistance is from a continent, so its strength is much larger than resistance of a medium or small nation.
What’s more, wide regional representation itself is a composing part of justice. As lead of the just undertaking of mankind, the advantageous group should handle all issues in the principle of justice and legality, so in aspect of regional representation, it’s very necessary to select members of the advantageous group in the principle of justice and rationality.
4. Religious Representation
Religion is important spiritual sustenance of mankind. Mankind’s belief in religions runs through human society from its beginning. At present, there are over 100,000 kinds of religions, but most of them are new sects, because in some nations, anyone could register a religion if he wants. Though there are many religions, main ones are few. The commonly recognized religions are only Christianity, Islamism and Buddhism. Some religions are not world religions, but are very large scaled and very influential, such as Hinduism and Judaism. Some religions will have many sects, for example, Christianity is divided into Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy and Protestantism, and Islamism is divided into Shiah and Sunni.
To ensure wide religious representation doesn’t mean to include all over 100,000 religions in the advantageous group, because members of the group will be very few, and it’s impossible to include all these religions. Though there are many religions, the really influential ones are few. In aspect of wide religious representation, the feasible way is to include nations that have major religions as national belief as members of the advantageous group. Religious extreme nations shouldn’t be considered as members of the advantageous group, because it’s very difficult for religious extremists to get along with disciples of other religions. It’s certain that three world regions should be considered.
Wide religious representation is very important, it’s not because of requirement of justice, but also because religious belief is more important than other believes. Religious feelings occurs from religious believes are deeply rooted in disciples’ hearts. Wide religious representation could cohere feelings of disciples, and effectively avoid conflict, resistance and killing caused by religious hatred, and avoid problems of religious feelings and discrepancy and conflict in the advantageous group, so that to create stable external environments for effective leading of the advantageous group.
Section III Two Assumed Plans
According to theoretical principles elaborated in previous sections, two plans will be put forward in following part. What needs to make clear is that the plans are only imaginative plans that are suggestions only, rather than compulsory choice. To realize the great unification with peaceful measure, the most important mean will be political negotiation among large countries, so attitude of leaders of large countries is the key factor that is decisive to the final plan.
I. Plan I: Core Nation Transition
(I) Basic thought of the plan
Basic thought of core nation transition plan: by three principles of legality, feasibility and justice, associate major large nations in the world to form a group with absolute advantage. From confirmation to realization of association, the advantageous group should enter the stage of close combination, in which the association is as close as a real nation, after loose and semi-loose states.
To be exact, the advantageous group in this state is fully eligible to be called a nation, a nation with special meaning. Common grounds that this special nation shares with common nations are relatively fixed territory and people, unified regime agencies and policies and statutes promulgated by these agencies, and uniform national governance thus result in.
Its difference from common nations is that this nation shoulders a great mission—leading mankind to the greatly unified society. It should annex mature countries now and then, so that it could expand continuously, it asks and supervises the nations to restrict development of science and technology, it needs to harmonize world development of economy, society and culture, and it also needs to probe political policies, economic policies and social and cultural systems for the future greatly unified society. It is the world’s flagman and leader of the nations.
This nation is called the core nation, of which “core” means world center and world leader, while other nations are called common nations. Common nation will have partial national sovereignty, and it is dutiful to obey lead of the core nation in aspect of policies concerning the great unification undertaking.
Unification of the core nation is ensured by its constitution, and maintained by powerful national machines. Government, parliament, court, army and police are all strong tools that will ensure long-term stable unity. Although the core nation is evolved from concept of the advantageous group, it has get rid of many essential features of the group, and it’s quite similar to a unified nation.
International law should endow the core nation which is an absolutely powerful nation the responsibility, duty and corresponding rights to lead the world to the great unification. Its relationship with common nations should be leader and the led, which means that many policies of the core nation should have certain administrative compulsion, and common nations should obey lead of the core nation.
Foundation of the core nation doesn’t mean realization of the greatly unified society, it’s just the first step towards the great unification, there is a lot to do and a long way to go to realize the great unification. After foundation of the core nation, there will be a quite long interim, which is a process to integrate nationalities, religions, languages, societies, economies, cultures, arts, people’s living habits, morals and values of common nations and different regions. After a series of such integration, the great unification will be realized when conditions are ready.
(II) Specific Assumptions of Core Nation Foundation Plan
According to legality principle, to make the core nation legal in the sense of international law, it must meet the lowest standard which is 5+4, or in other words, founding members of the core nation should include the permanent five of the Security Council, and at least 4 other nations that comply with the requirements. 5+4 is actually the basic framework for foundation of the core nation. Selection of other members besides the permanent five of the Security Council should follow feasibility principle and justice principle.
1. Analysis of the Permanent Five
Feasibility should consider strength of core nation first. The primary requirement is that founding members of the core nation must have quite strong power. In this aspect, as the most powerful nations in the world, the permanent five are doubtlessly qualified in aspect of feasibility. But overall strength of the core nation will not be strong enough if founding members are only permanent five, so other powerful nations should be included in the core nation also.
Justice should consider wide representation of the core nation first. As the core nation will has members besides the permanent five, we should get clear of representation of the permanent five so that to analyze wide representation of the core nation as a whole.
There are four indexes for representation which justice principle should consider first, respectively as population, race, terrain and religion. In aspect of population, population of the five nations is over 1.8 billion, the number is huge, so representation is not any problem in aspect of population, and requirement of population of other member nations will not be influenced by these five. So it is unnecessary to discuss population separately, and only race, terrain and religion need to be discussed separately.
Race: Though over 10% population is black, and there are some Chinese and Indians of yellow race, over 80% population are white, so it represents the white;
Terrain: America represents North America;
Religion: Americans believe in Protestantism and Catholicism. To not complicate the problem, we will not subdivide religious sects, so America represents Christianity in the broad sense.
Race: Represents the white.
Terrain: Russia crosses Europe and Asia, though most of its territory is in Asia, its centers of population, economy and politics are all in Europe, so Russia is deemed as a European nation in general. Russia represents Europe;
Religion: Russian believes in Eastern Orthodoxy, which is a branch of Christianity in the broad sense, so it represents Christianity in broad sense.
Race: Yellow race;
Terrain: Represents Asia;
Religion: Though some Chinese have belief, over 90% Chinese are antitheists, and China used to be a nation with quite light religious color, so China represents antitheism. By further analysis, Buddhism originated from India, but flourished in China, and China was the most important spreading source of Buddhism. Today, though proportion of Chinese Buddhists is very small in Chinese, the proportion of Chinese Buddhists against the world total is very large, so China represents Buddhism.
(4) the UK
Race: Represents white race;
Terrain: The UK is a European nation, so it represents Europe;
Religion: Over 80% believe in Protestantism, and some believe in Catholicism, so it represents Christianity in broad sense.
Race: represents white race;
Terrain: represents Europe;
Religion: believes in Catholicism, so it represents Christianity in broad sense.
By above analysis, we can get conclusions as follows:
In aspect of race, China represents the yellow, other nations all represent the while, so there is no nation representing the black;
In aspect of terrain, America represents North America, China represents Asia, and other nations represent Europe, so there are no nations representing Africa, South America and Oceania;
In aspect of religion, China represents antitheism and Buddhism, other nations all represent Christianity, so there is no nation representing Islam.
With above conclusions, we could further narrow scope of selection of other members.
2. Select Other Members
According to 5+4 standard, after the permanent five of the Security Council become members of the core nation, if 4 other suitable nations are selected, then the legality requirement of the plan could be met. But this is the lowest requirement, to have enough strength to lead the world and ensure abundant justice, the core nation must include the most powerful nations, and its members must have wide representation.
Analysis of representation of the permanent five shows that in aspect of terrain, there is no nation to represent Africa, South America and Oceania, in aspect of race, the black has no representing nation, in aspect of religion, Islam has no representing nation. Members of the core nation should include such representing nations, or otherwise, the core nation will not have wide representation, and its justice will be not sufficient.
What’s more, while selecting members, for feasibility of the core nation, whether the core nation could be easily governed and fused should also be considered. To be in specific, whether territory of member nation connects with the core nation, gap of living standard between the nations and whether the nations are nations of national or religious extremism should be considered.
In aspect of territory connection of the core nation, it’s doubtless that if all members could connect to form a whole piece is the ideal situation, but by simple thinking, we know it is impossible. If members should have wide representation in aspect of territory, then it will be impossible that all these members could connect, at least South America and Oceania can’t connect with other major members of the core nation. Then requirement in this aspect is that major members of the core nation should connect, but few particular members could exist as overseas territories of the core nation.
As for gap of people’s living standard between different nations, the writer thinks that if the gap is larger than 10 times, it will be very difficult for national fusion. It is an empirical estimate, rather than a final conclusion. If 10 times is the upper limit, then the highest per capita income in the permanent five should be standard of the highest income.
As for whether a nation is of religious and national extremism, there will not be any specific measuring index. The judge will rely on comprehensive analysis and general comment of international society.
After above analysis, we can get the primary conclusion about selection of members of the core nation. The most powerful nation that could present the core nation in every aspects, but will not influence governance and fusion of the members will be first choice of the core nation. While nation without representation, but is very strong, shouldn’t be excluded for consideration of feasibility of the core nation, because if such powerful nation is excluded outside the core nation, it will not only mean loss of strength of the core nation, the free nation will also pose threat to the core nation.
II. Plan II: World Commonwealth Transition
(I). Framework Assumption of the Plan
Similar to the plan of core nation transition, world commonwealth is also designed according to the facts and theoretic principles that the United Nations is center of international relationship and the Charter of United Nations is core source of international law. What is different from core nation plan is that the world commonwealth plan will carry though democracy and human rights more profoundly. Its thought is as follows:
During transition of world commonwealth, the world will be governed by world commonwealth, and the world consists of a central state that is under direct jurisdiction of the world commonwealth and many free states that are highly autonomous. The central state is made up of quite a few most powerful nations, while free states are evolved from other nations. So the central state is actually an advantageous group set up for the great unification.
The central state is made up of the most powerful nations, because government of the commonwealth must rely on an absolutely strong power to rein the world. As foundation of the advantageous group should meet principles of legality, feasibility and justice, requirements for members of the central state are actually same as founding members of the core nation.
Except nations that will make up the central state, all other nations will evolve into free states. Central state is essentially different from nation. Free states will enfeoff partial sovereignty to the world commonwealth, and what are left to the nations are only territory, people and certain regional management right.
World commonwealth transition have both taken the factor that the world needs uniform and effective harmonization and management, and the great disparity of world at present into consideration, so the world commonwealth will rely on strength of the central state to fulfill its harmonization and management tasks, and will continue separate government of regions and people of present nations.
During transition by world commonwealth, the world operates orderly under restriction of world constitution. The commonwealth government manages the world in accordance with world constitution. The central state is the core for the great unification. World regime will absorb free states whose conditions have matured to the central state, so scale of the central state will be larger and larger, while free states will be less. The great unification will be realized when all free states have been included in the central state.
The major difference between world commonwealth transition and core nation transition lies in global democracy and human rights represented by their operation mechanisms. World commonwealth regime in this chapter will adopt democratic regime—Separation of Three Powers (administration right, legislation right and jurisdiction right are separated from each other, and they restrict each other from autarchy) that is commonly recognized at present. What’s more, world regime adopts two-level right separation. The world commonwealth adopts separation of three powers. What’s more, powers are also separated between the central state and free states. Within scope regulated by constitution of the commonwealth, the state will have independent administration, legislation and jurisdiction rights.
1. World Commonwealth Government
Administration right of world commonwealth is held by world commonwealth government (referred to as commonwealth government for short), while the highest administration right of world commonwealth is held by heads of the commonwealth government (referred to as commonwealth heads).
Commonwealth government has two management responsibilities, firstly, direct management of administrative affairs of central state; secondly, the highest target of commonwealth government is to lead the whole world to realize great unification of mankind, so that to harmonize, unify and balance world development according to objective requirements of the great unification undertaking is another important work of commonwealth government.
During transition period of world commonwealth, world constitution will endow certain autonomous rights to free states and certain administration rights to lead the whole world to commonwealth government according to actual situations, and commonwealth government will exercise its rights endowed by world constitution.
So commonwealth heads are general principals of administrative affairs of the central state, commander in chief of the great unification undertaking, and also heads of commonwealth government and government of the central state as well.
2. World Commonwealth Parliament
World commonwealth parliament (referred to as commonwealth parliament for short) is legislation organ of regime of the world commonwealth. Commonwealth parliament is also the highest authority department of world commonwealth in theory. Laws promulgated by commonwealth parliament are standards for the whole world. Jurisdictions of commonwealth government and commonwealth court are both restrained by laws promulgated by commonwealth parliament.
Composition of members of commonwealth parliament should fully reflect the principles of democracy and human rights. Members of parliament will be selected by and dispatched from the states.
As the central state is composed of several most powerful nations, calculating by population proportion, members from the central state should account for a large proportion, while free states are evolved from previous nations, some of which are very small, and calculating by population, they might have not even one parliament member, but such small free state also has right to express its opinion, so distribution of parliament members should incline towards free states.
Besides formulating and voting various laws and resolutions, another important responsibility of parliament members is to take part in voting commonwealth heads. As parliament members represent people in their states, commonwealth heads are voted by commonwealth parliament, so democracy and human rights of the whole mankind are fully represented.
Another responsibility of commonwealth parliament is to participate in deliberation of political affairs. It will supervise and deliberate administration of commonwealth government, demonstrate and debate on significant guidelines and policies. As for commonwealth government that is disqualified, the parliament could impeach commonwealth heads when the affirmative votes reach certain proportion.
Besides commonwealth parliament, every state will have its own parliament. Commonwealth parliament is responsible to the whole world, while parliament of each state is responsible to people in the state only. As the central state shares heads with the commonwealth, so commonwealth heads will be supervised and quested both by parliament of the central state and parliament of the commonwealth. When commonwealth heads deliver addresses and speeches in conference of parliament of the central state, they are certainly based on interests of people in the central state, but when they deliver addresses and speeches in conference of parliament of the commonwealth, they will pay more attention to the whole world.
3. Supreme Court of World Commonwealth
The supreme court of world commonwealth (referred to as commonwealth court for short) is the judicial organization of regime of the world commonwealth. Its major responsibility is to maintain the great unification undertaking in judicial aspect, ensure that the world commonwealth is the only transitional organization to the great unification, ensure that duties, rights and obligations of the states endowed by world constitution are implemented, and protect world constitution.
Commonwealth court will not accept lawsuits of cases within each state, or in other words, lawsuits within jurisdiction of previous national laws are beyond jurisdiction of commonwealth court, and will be dealt with by judicial departments of the states. While jurisdiction of cross-state civil right dispute, or cases within jurisdiction of private international law, is also beyond jurisdiction of commonwealth court, and will be dealt with by special juridical department.
Half grand justices of commonwealth court will come from the central state, and the other half will come from free states. This arrangement is made because in transitional period of world commonwealth, the central state will absorb free states that could meet requirements, number and population of free states will be both very small, so proportion of members from free states in the commonwealth will be very small, and voice speaking for free states will be very low. To prevent free states and interests of their people from being impinged on, there should be some strength in juridical department to speak for them. If grand justices from autonomous states account for half the total, then autonomous states and interests of the people could be guaranteed to a certain degree. Meanwhile, such factor that when strength of the central power is very large, there will still be certain mechanism to restrain it from getting on its own way is also considered.
Commonwealth court is entitled to interpret commonwealth constitution, and declare that commonwealth heads or statutes of commonwealth parliament breach the constitution. Commonwealth court accepts various litigations, and will judge and sentence various cases that breach constitution.
(II) Selection of Commonwealth Heads and Parliament Members & Representation of Democratic Principles and Human Rights
Commonwealth heads hold the highest administrative right of world commonwealth, so whether selection of commonwealth heads could reflect general democracy and human rights of the whole mankind is an important index to weigh justice of world commonwealth.
To design the procedures of democratic selection of commonwealth heads, let’s analyze features of rights of commonwealth heads first.
As elaborated ahead, commonwealth heads directly manage administrative affairs of the central state, and will rein the whole world with strength of the central state, thus dominating process of the great unification undertaking. So commonwealth heads have quite large leading rights over autonomous states, and absolutely highest command right over various affairs that involve process of the great unification. They are both heads of government of the central state and government of the commonwealth.
With basic facts as above, we could conclude that commonwealth heads will come from the central state, because they directly manage affairs of the central state, and will lead the whole world relying on strength of the central state. As commonwealth heads are responsible and entitled to manage and harmonize world affairs, heads of autonomous states should have voting rights to select commonwealth heads.
As for why commonwealth heads should come from the central state, there is also a reason that seems not very just, but very important to feasibility: the central state is made up of the most powerful nations, if commonwealth heads come from the central state, nations in the central state may feel that they are ruling the whole world, the “evil” in human nature make such feeling become a great impetus for large nations to be devoted in the great unification undertaking and positively join in the central state. As establishment of the central state is a key to success of the transitional plan of world commonwealth, this reason that seems not very just is actually an important factor that is decisive to success of the plan. So we may use the “evil” in human nature to promote the great unification undertaking, and try to weaken this “evil” effect in design of world commonwealth transition plan and design of relevant systems, to achieve a justified result from the origin that is not very justified.
So we will have a specific plan as follows: in aspect of selection of commonwealth heads, the central state could only recommend two candidates that have won most votes among candidates (government heads of the central state are also heads of commonwealth government), or in others, there might be many parties or independent candidates, but the central state could only recommend two candidates with highest votes to commonwealth parliament, where these two candidates will be voted by parliament members. This means that commonwealth heads are selected in commonwealth parliament, rather than in the central state.
As number of parliament members for each state is determined by population of the state, including both the central state and autonomous states, and distribution of parliament member quota will incline to autonomous states, so the central state has not any privilege. Meanwhile, as parliament members represent people in their states in theory, their political inclination and voting inclination will certainly represent their own states and willing of people in the states. Head candidates recommended by the central state will be voted by commonwealth parliament means that the selection will be supervised and approved by people of the whole world in theory, so the selection is fairly democratic to the whole world.
While selection of parliament members could be different in different state. The state could have its own procedure and method of selecting and dispatching parliament members to commonwealth according to history and actual features of the state. Parliament member selection and dispatch method of the state is regulated by each state, rather than by relevant policies or laws and regulations of commonwealth.
Parliament members come from different states will not only exercise the right of voting commonwealth head on behalf of people in their states, but also exercise other rights, such as legislation right, right to deliberate political affairs and supervision right on behalf of people in their states, because jurisdiction of these rights is for the whole world. So the transition of world commonwealth will reflect democracy and human rights in the supreme regime of the world in many aspects.