After we have confirmed that the greatly unified society is the only choice for saving mankind, what comes to our mind first is whether it is possible to found the greatly unified society that is unprecedented in human history. To put in specific, the so called possibility mainly concerns problems in two aspects, the first is whether the greatly unified society could be governed effectively, if the society can’t be governed effectively, then the assumption will be a pure theoretic dream that can’t be put into practice, and we haven’t found a feasible method to save mankind; meanwhile, we should realize how difficult to realize great unification will be, or in other words, to realize great unification, there are how many advantageous factors and disadvantageous factors for great unification at present, and whether these unfavorable factors will influence the process of great unification.
Section I Governablility of the Greatly Unified Society
Historical experience tells us that the prime conditions for governance of large country are traffic and communications. Without convenient traffic and communications, governmental decrees and directives couldn’t be truly carried out, and the nation couldn’t’t be governed effectively.
As we know, the larger territory and population will mean more complicated political, economic, social, military and natural factors that are uncertain. Please think, if serious natural disaster occurs at remote area, information is reported to central government three to four months later, and another four to five months have passed when disaster relief actions are adopted, and relief materials arrive there, then losses caused can't be relieved or covered; if central government decides to implement an important policy according to actual situation of state, but it needs one or two years time from conference notice to start of implementation, then real situation will have greatly changed in this period, and policy previously made will be out of date far ago.
World regime of the greatly unified society will face the whole world, and will handle affairs of the whole globe and mankind, from North Pole to South Pole, including both east hemisphere and west hemisphere. There will be numerous things happened everyday on the earth with population of tens of billion, and world regime needs to issue numerous political orders everyday, without very convenient traffic conditions, communication conditions, and rich and direct medias, governmental decrees and directives of the greatly unified society couldn’t be truly carried out, the society couldn’t be governed efficiently, and the society will lose base of foundation. So convenient, swift, rich and efficient communication conditions that are necessary for true implementation of governmental decrees and directives are necessary conditions that are decisive to foundation of the greatly unified society.
Governance requirements of the greatly unified society concern factors in many aspects, including whether political, economical, cultural and social systems are feasible, regional fusion, ethic fusion, character and language problems, as well as traffic, communication, media and other communication measures. System, religion, nationality, character and language problems could be solved by our efforts, so we call such conditions as soft conditions. While technical conditions like traffic, communication and media will be restricted by scientific and technological levels of the era, the greatly unified society which will strictly restrict development of science and technology will play its role with traffic, communication and media measures at that time, and will have to get used to these conditions, rather than be able to change them, so these conditions are hard conditions, and we call them hard technical conditions, or technical conditions for short.
As soft conditions could change, while hard conditions can’t, whether the greatly unified society could be governed will completely depend on hard conditions at the time, or in other words, whether technical conditions could meet requirements of global governance of the greatly unified society, and the requirement is to make sure that governmental decrees and directives are truly carried out. We will start elaboration on relevant problems in following paragraphs.
I. On True Implementation of Political Decrees
In a broad sense, true implementation of political decrees of the greatly unified society has two aspects, first, there must be laws to observe in the world and in every aspects of human society, and world regime and local regimes at various levels could be selected through legal procedures. “Laws” hereby refer to laws of the greatly unified society formulated through legal procedures, and it is binding to every person, group, organization and institution; second, all necessary decision made and actions adopted by world regime and local regimes at various levels of the greatly unified society within legal authoritative scopes could be implemented effectively and timely, and information feedback could be reflected timely also.
To research the question of true implementation of political decrees, we must get to know administrative measures and procedures first. Generally speaking, administrative measures and procedures could be divided into several aspects as follows:
1. Regime Selection
The key for regime selection of the greatly unified society is selection of world regime. If world regime could be selected successfully and could operate efficiently, then regional regimes could be successfully selected and could operate effectively.
According to regime structure generally used in human society at present, selection of world regime will have two parts in general, the first of which will be selection of heads of world government, and the second will be selection of councilor of world parliament.
In view of hard technical conditions, to select government heads and councilors truly through democratic mode worldwide will be the most difficult way to form world regime, because to select these heads by democratic mode, the first requirement is to let voters know candidates adequately, voters hereby include all people that have rights to vote, and knowledge about candidates include both their political opinions, moralities, administrative ability, and language expression and manners.
To be truly democratic in such a wide area and among so large a group, information on every candidate must be timely, quickly and vividly reflected to every voter, and voter should be able to vote conveniently and accurately, what’s more, ballots should be quickly and accurately calculated, and election results could come into being fluently. Just because of above requirements, democratic election has much higher technical requirements than non-democratic election. Non-democratic election needs discussion within a small scope only, power successor could come into being even by appointment of special staff, so technical requirements of non-democratic mode are not very high.
2. Report of Political Information
The so-called report of political information means that all important issues about living, life, work and study of the general public could be swiftly reported to governmental departments at various levels through multiple channels, then local regimes will timely report the issues to the highest governmental department—department of world regime.
3. Issuance of Political Decree
According to summary and research of political information reported from different regions, relevant departments of world regime will prepare various measures, and decide to adopt various actions within their authority. Some of these measures and actions need to be jointly implemented worldwide, some need to be implemented by some groups, some needs to be implemented by governmental organizations at various levels, and some will be directly implemented by world regime itself. Meanwhile, contents of some political decrees might be new requirements on existing laws and regulations. No matter what decree it is, the political decree must be sent to staffs that will implement the decree, without any delay or change in the process, particular decree about coping with natural disaster, man-made disaster and social upheaval, under which conditions, political decrees of world regime will be required to be sent to relevant staffs directly.
4. Implementation of Political Decree
Implementation of political decree directly follows issuance of political decree. Political decree issued by the world regime that manages affairs of the whole globe will be highly principled, and often needs to be broken down before sending to lower level. Governmental departments will also need to be responsible for specific implementation and operation of some decrees. No matter what kind of decree it is, it must be implemented roundly, truly and timely, no delay or revision of decree is allowed. If every government level revises political decree issued by world regime slightly, then decree will be completely different when reaching final implementation level, if every government level delays implementation of political decree slightly, final implementation of the political decree will be much delayed. The greatly unified society will have much stricter requirements on accuracy, effectiveness and timeliness of political decree implementation, because scopes covered by the greatly unified society are too wide.
5. Supervision of Political Decree
Supervision of political decree means supervision of issuance and implementation of political decree, so that to timely correct delay and deviation of issuance and implementation, and award and encourage good performers in issuance and implementation of political decree, to raise enforcement of political decree. What’s more, contents of political decree supervision also include investigation into problems about issuance and implementation of political decree, such as whether political decree is practical and correct, so that to revise political decree.
II. Modern Administrative Measures
Modern administrative measures are much advanced than before. In these over 200 years after industrial revolution, with fruits of the revolution, administrative measures have undergone qualitative change. These measures could be divided into three categories in general, respectively as communication measure, traffic measure and media measure.
1. Communication Measures
Discovery of the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction provided theoretical basis for application of electricity in communication field. The earliest application of electricity in communication was wired telegram, and later appeared wireless telegram. With appearance of a series of new communication measures, telegram business is being eliminated, and many countries have even canceled telegram business.
The measure with most vital life is telephone. Communication through telephone is very direct, with strong sense of reality and intimacy, so telephone is commonly welcomed. After wired telephone, scientist invented wireless telephone, and after man-made earth satellite was sent to outer space, it become possible for wireless telephone to be used in global communication in any environment.
At present, every nation is dedicated in development of satellite communication, and the upsurge is still growing. Satellite communication systems that could cover the whole globe mainly include “Iridium” satellite communication system and “Globalstar” satellite communication system. With global satellite communication system, we could almost get rid of restriction of geomorphic conditions and could use satellite mobile phone at any place and any time. As for personal cell phone, which is convenient, swift and economical, it has been developing rapidly worldwide recently, and the prevalence rate is rising.
In aspect of telephone communication technology, there is a new development trend –optical fiber communication. Optical fiber communication uses light to replace high-frequency microwave, and optical fiber to replace cable, so communication of larger content, better quality and lower cost could be realized.
Video phone is telephone of another form. People that are thousands miles apart will not only be able to hear voice of the other party, but also see the counter party. Communication with people that is thousands of miles away is just like chatting face to face. Many countries have started use of video phone already. With market demands and further reduction of cost, video phone will be easily popularized.
Facsimile is a kind of communication measure that is connected with telephone. Through telephone network, facsimile apparatus could transmit all contents on paper, including both text and picture, to another place. Combination of facsimile and satellite communication makes real-time writing and receiving possible, what’s more, mobile telephone facsimile apparatus that use mobile phone to send and receive facsimiles has started to be used. Compared with communication technology before industrial revolution, modern communication technology has changed greatly.
In recent years, appearance of computer network has influenced communication technology revolutionarily. The largest computer network is Internet that has ten million websites and over one billion users. Multimedia communication provided by internet, which is outcome of combination of communication technology and computer technology, could present voice, image, data and text. What’s more, user could fully control the process of information exchange. People could chat with friends on the other side of the ocean through internet, or discuss questions with colleagues at different places, or negotiate with remote customer on trade, and could also show samples and contract text in such negotiation.
Through internet, computer hardware resources and software resources could be shared. People could transact on stock market, exchange market and future market that are thousands of miles away, could send E-mail that has contents of text, image, video and voice to several receivers at the same time, could read real-time news and various other information, and could also engage in various entertainments. Virtual company, virtual school, virtual city and even virtual nation have all appeared on internet.
With popularization and application of notebook computer and PC phone, computer communication has developed from wired communication to wireless communication, benefiting from which people could enjoy real-time multimedia communication always. Internet is bringing the world to a new realm with highly developed information communication.
2. Traffic Measures
Although horse, carriage and non-motorized ship are still being used as means of transportation as old and backward traffic tools, modern means of transportation have changed people’s travel modes fundamentally. Fruits of industrial revolution have not only accomplished completely new land and water traffic tools, but have also brought human being to seabed, sky and outer space.
After invention of steam engine, people started to think of the way to apply it in land transportation, to replace traditional carriage and oxcart. Earliest application of steam engine was on train. In around 200 years after invention of train, mankind experienced steam engine times, diesel locomotive times and electric locomotive times. Power of locomotive is enlarging, speed raising, and pollution and noise lowering.
In 1964, Japan built the first high-speed railway in the world, Tokaido Shinkansen Line that connects Tokyo and Osaka. Speed per hour of express train could reach 210 kilometers. France, the UK, Germany and China have also built high-speed railways following Japan. What’s more, speed per hour of train is raising continuously, noise is lowering, and carriage is more comfortable.
Besides Japan, France, the UK, Germany and China that have opened express railways, Italy, Belgium, Russia, Sweden, etc. all have operating express trains. Express train Eurostar that goes through English channel tunnel has connected London, Paris and Brussels. In Apr. 2007, French express train made new record of speed – 574 kilometers/hour.
People tried to use steam engine on water transportation ship after invention of steam engine, and successfully manufactured the first steamship in 1907. Today, major power of shipping has developed from steam engine to diesel engine. With such power, maximum load of ship has exceeded 600,000 tons, weighted as a hill (for example, Emma Maersk container ship is as tall as a 12-story building, and as larger as 4 football fields connected, and its carrying capacity has reached 11,000 TEU), speed of common passenger ship and cargo ship has exceeded 30 nautical miles per hour, while speed of special ship is much higher, for example, speed of police yacht could reach 80 nautical miles per hour.
Nuclear powered ship has also appeared. Nuclear power is often used on submarine. Now, submarine could submerge into ocean trench that is thousand of meters deep, and keep under deep ocean several days without surfacing, but it's a pity that submarines are rarely used in scientific research or travel, but are generally used as weapons in war.
As a land transportation mean, automobile is widely used to replace horse. Automobile has far outweighed carriage in aspects of load, speed, comfortableness and endurance. We could see various automobiles everywhere in the world, highways stretch in all directions, particularly in developed countries. Even in developing countries like China, with continuous growth of economic strength, expressways have developed from scratch, and leaped to No.2 in the world.
Invention of plane brought mankind to a completely new time. The earlies application of plane in civil use was in 1918. Regular postal lines were opened from Paris to London and New York—Washington—Chicago. Plane has become an important traffic tool that connects the world and an important war weapon as well.
From invention to development, plane has experienced a process in which the technology content has been increasing constantly, and flying speed becomes faster. Speed of plane has reached 3,000 km/h already. In Nov. 2004, maximum speed of X-43A rocket experiment plane reached 11,260 km/h.
Speed of common subsonic aircraft that we ride on could also exceed 1,000 km/h. Flight distance of subsonic aircraft is long, for example, Boeing 747-400 could fly around 13,000 km without air refueling. Airbus A380 that was developed not long ago by European Airbus is Suburban true to its name, it could carry 800 passengers if only tourist class is provided, and the longest voyage could reach 15,100 km. Invention of aerial tanker has created conditions for long-distance flight.
After the dream of fly was realized, people started to try to go through atmosphere to fly to outer space. In 1961, astronaut Gagarin of Soviet Union entered outer space riding on “Восток-1” spacecraft, and realized mankind's dream of flying out of the earth. In 1969, Apollo Program of America sent astronauts to lunar for the first time. This was the first time that mankind landed on planet other than the Earth. On Oct.16, 2003, Chinese astronaut Yang Liwei flied into outer space by “Shenzhou V” spacecraft, and China became the third country that had rushed out of the Earth.
Meanwhile, space probes have successfully landed on planets other than the Earth and moon, such as Venus, Mars and Titan. Mankind have closely observed all the seven planets in solar system besides the Earth, and flied out of solar system. We have built space station overhead the Earth, where scientists could stay for a long while and engage in various scientific research, what's more, space station has started to receive travelers.
According to report of volume of Jan. 2007 of American monthly magazine--Popular Science, United States Marine Corps was being responsible to implement a space transportation research plan. According to this plan, landing aircraft could transport army to any place in the world within two hours. It is obvious that this plan could also be used civilly. Technologies needed in this plan, from hypersonic propulsion system to new composite material, all have been researched and developed in depth in military lab of America. It is estimated that prototype of landing aircraft could test flight 15 years later, and business type could be launched in around 2030.
3. Media Measures
Newspaper and magazines in early days were all printed at one place, and then distributed. People might read timely if they were at the place, or otherwise, they would have to wait a long time. For example, in Qing dynasty that was over 100 years ago in China, people in cities south to Yangtze River that were over 1,000 kilometers away from Beijing would have to wait three to four month to see newspapers from Beijing, so news would be out of date then. Generally speaking, newspapers and magazines would not be distributed to rural areas then. All these were because of restriction of traffic and communication conditions at that time.
Under traffic and communication conditions at that time, significant events happened near news office and magazine office could be fairly timely reflected on newspaper and magazines, while it was impossible for significant news in other places, particularly remote areas to be reflected timely.
With inventions of remote and real-time communication measures, such as telegram and telephone, communication situations have been changed fundamentally. Both news communication technology and magazine printing technology have developed greatly.
Today, news of various places could be sent to news agency, news office or magazine office at any time by E-mail, fax and telephone. What's more, application of modern computer editing system combines communication technology and computer technology closely. Journalist and editor could directly edit manuscript on the display, central computer system of news office or magazine office could receive information from any place in the world, what's more, the information could enter computer phototypesetting system directly and edit into print area itself. Benefiting from application of satellite communication technology and optical fiber communication technology, global news has get rid of restriction of regional and topographic conditions, and definition, accuracy and confidentiality are all better.
So important news at any place of the world could immediately appear on newspapers and magazines worldwide. Printing and issuance of newspaper and magazine are completely different from traditional modes also. Editorial office will send print area to different places to be printed there, so large newspaper office and magazine office could all be able to send publications to readers on the day of publication. In developed countries, most rural areas could get newspapers and magazines on the current day; in developing countries, at least most large and medium cities are able to do so. The timeliness and reliability of news can't be even imagined dozens of years ago.
Appearance and application of broadcasting and television are major breakthroughs to traditional medias. Because of directness and popularity of broadcasting, wireless broadcasting became the most popular media measure soon after it was invented. Prevalence rate of wired broadcasting is also very high, particularly in communist countries like Soviet Union, eastern European communist countries and China, where wired broadcasting is widely used in news spreading. Television develops concurrently with broadcasting.
Broadcasting and television form a historical breakthrough to traditional medias, and broadcasting and television technologies have been developing at high speed. Invention and development of broadcasting and television have changed people's life greatly. Take television as an example, even in China—a developing country that is not very rich, almost every family has one television, and prevalence rate of television is very high even in remote poor areas. Television has become an indispensable part in people's living.
With invention and development of satellite communication technology, broadcasting and television are almost able to rebroadcast every news event live not matter where it happens, such as rebroadcasting the climbing of Qomolangma on land, probing seabed in ocean, astronaut's landing Moon, Martian rover's landing on Mars and space detector's entering atmosphere of Titan. Because of directness and sense of reality, influence of broadcasting and television has exceeded newspapers and magazines.
Another important breakthrough of medias is appearance of internet. We can read news of various famous newspapers, magazines, news agencies, broadcasting stations and television stations in the world through internet, as well as news and information issued by governmental organs, institutions, enterprises, schools and research departments, what's more, the information is provided with text, image and voice together. The timeliness, popularity and sense of reality have brought convenience to various readers, so internet is another historical breakthrough to media measures.
III. Political Decrees of the Greatly Unified Society with Modern Measures
1. Regime Selection
Political decrees are issued by political organizations. Regime will be engendered in due process in the greatly unified society. Evaluated by today's political values, the greatly unified society must be democratic, because democracy is common value of present society. Judged by present values and political concepts, democracy will also protect long-term stability of the greatly unified society.
Democratic selection of regime will have a voting process, no matter it is direct deliberation system or representative deliberation system. To select governmental official or deliberation staff, voters must learn candidates first, in such aspects as political opinion, political performance, manner and behavior, and morality and family that voters often concern about.
Thinker Aristotele who lived in city-state era in Greek described ideal country in his work Politics as that population and land area of ideal country should be proper, which meant that one could see boundary of the country, and could hear herald's voice in peacetime and command of the highest commander in war time. According to his description, population of ideal country won't exceed 10,000 to 20,000. The reason for Aristotele's thought was democratic consideration, because only in very small country can everyone participate in national events directly, and cast a holy ballot according to his own judge in selecting official of the country.
But his student Alexandria built a large monarch country that traversed Europe, Asia and Africa.
In modern times, many large democratic nations whose population was over hundreds of millions and land area over millions of square kilometers appeared. It was obviously impossible for such large nations to adopt direct deliberation system in the past, so they generally adopted representative system, which meant that voters selected representatives that could express opinions on behalf of them to make up representation organ, and took part in political deliberation indirectly. As for selection of governmental leaders, some voters will cast ballots directly, and some will vote through representatives.
The election of largest scale and widest scope in the greatly unified society will be election of leaders of world regime and councilors of world parliament, the voters will be the whole mankind, and voting scope is the whole world. Its scale and scope are both much larger than any election in national society in human history.
To be truly democratic in election of such large scale, every citizen that is titled to cast ballot should be able to cast the holy ballot objectively, fairly and according to his own will. To attain this purpose, the prerequisite is that every voter is able to know the candidates, which means that voter should know administrative policies, political opinions, behaviors, manners, appearances and moralities of candidates.
To realize the target in whole world was unimaginable even if it were tens of dozens years ago, but present measures are completely able to do so. Candidates could present their political opinions through broadcasting, television or internet, their appearances, behaviors and manners will be sent to everyplace in the world. If some candidates want the voters to be able to feel their charms, they could fly to every place to meet voters, and the time needed to fly between any two places will not exceed a day and a night.
Voters could cast ballots in a designated place, or cast separately at home through internet. Internet system could confirm identities of voters and effectiveness of ballots scientifically and strictly, global effective ballots could be rapidly processed by central computer system, and statistic result of billions of ballots will come out in a few seconds, or even shorter time.
Many scholars think that under present conditions of information spreading, no matter how large a country is, it will be able to adopt direct deliberation system if it has used modern scientific technologies fully, and all state polities could be decided by referendum. Democratic ideal that could only be realized by small nation and population visioned by Aristotele could also be realized in the greatly unified society, but it all depends on whether it is necessary.
2. Report of Political Information & Issuance of Political Decrees
Comprehensive consideration of reports from various places will be basis for policy making. The highest authoritative organ in the greatly unified society will be relevant organ of world regime, and the organ that is responsible to collect reports from various place will be some relevant organ of world regime also.
In the greatly unified society, political information will come from various places, and involve various aspects including politics, economy, society, culture, nationality and religion, and the whole mankind will be related. Correctiveness and timeliness of decision will be determined firstly by that whether political information of various places could be timely and accurately reported to relevant department of world regime. Some situations need to be dealt with immediately, without any delay, for example, disaster relief will be required immediately after occurrence of natural disasters, such as earthquake, flood and tsunami, large scale crime and social turmoil should be quelled immediately. If these circumstances can't be timely reported to relevant department of world regime, and measures can't be adopted decisively, then a series of very serious results may be caused.
Magnitude of earthquake happened in Tangshan, China in 1976 hit 7.6 on the Richter Scale, 240,000 people lost their lives suddenly, and nearly a million people, many of which were pressed under debris, needed rescue. How to report the disaster to central government became a problem. Tangshan was less than 200 kilometers from the capital Beijing, but as telephone wire was damaged in earthquake, and there was no satellite communication then, reporter had to intercept a truck to went to Beijing, and spent six to seven hours from Tangshan to Beijing. It was just 30 years ago.
It obviously won't work in the greatly unified society to report disasters this way, there must be some efficient communication measure to timely report and rescue natural disasters, or otherwise, loss of lives and assets will be unimaginable.
In fact, present communication measures are completely able to do so, telephone, fax and E-mail all could immediately send information to any other place on the Earth.
Under such communication conditions, political decrees could be issued conveniently, no matter it is oral issuance or issuance in image or textual forms, the political decree could be sent immediately. Even if the original document is required to be sent to executor, the decree could be delivered there in one or two days by such transportation measures as airplane, train and automobile.
Issuance of some decree will need to convene meeting. If people from various places are required to attend a meeting at a fixed place, then time spent from starting out to arriving at the meeting place will be one or two days in general. It was impossible to hold such global conference before the industrial revolution, because from notice to open of the meeting would need at least one to two years time at that era.
What’s more, there are many meeting modes at present. If people are not required to gather at a fixed place, and the meeting is very urgent and should be convened immediately and attended by relevant staffs worldwide, then telephone conference, television conference or internet conference could be adopted.
Science and technology are making the world smaller and smaller. People often compare the world we live in as a small village—the global village.
3. Execution and Supervision of Political Decrees
Execution and supervision of political decrees are closely related to traffic conditions. We may take natural disaster and large scale crime and social turmoil as examples, and analyze from this point.
Under modern traffic and transportation conditions, when earthquake or flood happens at a place, and world regime decides to allocate disaster relief staffs and materials, the first group could adopt airfreight under urgent conditions. Under most unsatisfactory conditions—allocating materials from the farthest place, only a day and a night will be needed. In fact, world government will allocate staffs and materials to cope with such accidents reasonably in the whole globe, and allocate staffs and materials from a place nearby. The first group of staffs and materials could be transported by air, and the coming relief staffs and materials of large scale could be transported by train or ship, which are both very convenient under modern traffic conditions.
To cope with large scale crime and social turmoil, the government will mobilize army whose reaction is very quick and could come and go at the government's order. In the principle of proximity, rapid reaction force could arrive soon by air or land transportation.
As for supervision of political decrees, staffs in different organs of world regime could go to local areas to check and supervise the execution, and timely report what they learn to relevant departments of world regime. Under convenient traffic conditions and real-time communications at present, government supervisors could fly to every place of the world to carry out examination and supervision work. The time spent on the way will not exceed one to two days in general.
If situation of supervision needs to be timely reported, then supervisor could use cell phone, or use notebook, cell phone facsimile apparatus to send relevant images and texts. If personal report and research are needed, then the time spent on way will be one to two days at the most.
To ensure thorough implementation of political decrees, supervise and guide various regions, organizations and relevant staffs to execute governmental decrees actively and consciously, people should fully understand importance of every political decree, so various publicity and education work are needed, and various medias will play an important role in this aspect.
Various convenient media measures will be a reliable guarantee for effective governance of the greatly unified society. Newspapers and magazines could be sent to every place in the world in the current day of publication, news of various places and policies made by governments could appear on newspapers on the current day also; various broadcasting televisions could not only broadcast policies and decisions made by governments, but also broadcast speeches lively worldwide if political leaders think it necessary. By vivid elaboration of leaders, people could deeply understand intension of the government; internet is a kind of important media measure, because of its prevalence and large amount of information, internet is an important measure for world regime to publicize its policies and make sure that they are implemented thoroughly.
It has improved that modern science and technology have provided powerful safeguard to fluent political decrees in the greatly unified society, which is a necessary and sufficient hard technical condition for efficient governance of the greatly unified society.
As we know, Zino, Kant, Marx and Engels all had put forward the thought about unification of mankind, but technical conditions for great unification of mankind were not ready. Even in the ear of Kang Youwei, technical conditions for global management were still very awkward. Only over 100 years ago, the traffic measures, communication measures and media measures were very difficult to govern a large country, but today, all these have changed fundamentally.
What needs to be clarified is that, advanced traffic, communication and media measures that we have today could only improve that present technical conditions could meet requirements of governance of the greatly unified society, and previous elaboration is based on the condition that these scientific and technological fruits could be popularized worldwide. However, these technical fruits are not popularized in fact, particularly in many poor nations and regions where people are living primitive lives, modern scientific and technological fruits haven't been spread there. To govern the greatly unified society effectively, these scientific and technological fruits must be popularized to every region and group in the world, which could be realized by human efforts. What needs to be explained is that popularity of these scientific and technological results doesn't go against strict restriction of development of science and technology, because these scientific and technological fruits are existing fruits rather than further development of science and technology.
Section II Most Fundamental Reform with Smallest Resistance
When we are clear that technical conditions for great unification have been mature, we will know that great unification of mankind could be realized by reasonable efforts of mankind. But there is still a problem of degree of difficulty even if the great unification could be realized by efforts of mankind, if undertaking of the great unification is very difficult to be promoted, and is in the indefinite future, far beyond the period in which extinction means will appear, even far beyond the time when mankind will get self-extincted, then promotion of great unification will be meaningless. So it is necessary to practically analyze magnitude of resistance of the social reform.
I. Cruelty of Social Reform
Throughout human history, social reform is always connected with bloody killings. Cruelty is same for regime change of small country and social reform that is influential to regions or the world.
The basic reason for why social reform always express itself in very cruel mode is that conflict between the party that wants to keep old system and the party that hopes for reform is life-and-death struggle. Major form of social reform is replacement of ruling class in old social institution by ruling class in new social institution. The ruling class will use is ruling position to maintain interests of itself and some certain groups, these interests include economic interest, politic interest and cultural interest. But no matter what interest it is, it belongs to scope of happy value.
If social reform really happens, after new ruling class replaces old ruling class, happy value of old ruling class and interest groups it represents will be deprived, and the deprived happy value will be acquired by new ruling class and interest groups the new ruling class represents. Generally speaking, some people will lose happy value, while others many acquire happy value in social reform. So that party that will lose happy value will certainly try everything to protect its interests, while the party that will acquire happy value in social reform will certainly try to make the reform happen.
This is just start of the question. While protecting its interest, the party that will lose happy value will use measures beyond scope of happy value. The ruling class will use its advantageous position to exile, imprison and torture reformers to deprive happy value of reformers, and will also use measures that will deprive survival value of people, such as killing, or even killing families, friends and partisans to stop the reform.
Likewise, reformer is completely clear that purpose of reform is to win happy value, and to deprive happy value of the ruling class, but the measures used will not be limited to scope of happy value. The purpose will not be realized if ruling class is not completely defeated and thoroughly toppled, so the measures featured as depriving survival value, such as assassination, terrorist attack and war will be used inevitably.
Although all reforms originate from happy value, the measures used include both measures within happy value and measures beyond happy value. The measures used include measures in scope of survival scope, or in other words, all important values are involved, so conflict in social reform is very serious. Just because of this feature, every great social reform is very difficult, as the ruling class will use every measure to protect original system, and measures and resources controlled by the ruling class have obvious advantages.
There is also another reason for why great social reform is very difficult. To maintain its ruling, the ruling class will enforce a series of policies, measures and methods, and use various measures to influence people's understanding and thought, to let people agree to rationality and legality of the ruling system, so it is doubtlessly very difficult for people to accept a system that is more scientific and reasonable. In history, people will use over 100 years to accept a new thought, but the thought would still need hundreds of years to change the world.
For example, renaissance movement's flag is to revive European classical civilization, but its real purpose is to topple feudal theocratic rein of Catholicism. As feudal rein of Catholicism had greatly influenced people, it was very difficult to topple the rein, and various conditions should be created, the process for waking up was quite long. As the first thought liberation movement in modern human society, it took 200 years, from the 14th century to the 16th century, before it functioned practically. During this period, many thinkers and scientists were murdered or persecuted, and final success of the movement was realized through war.
The enlightenment movement that was lunched later and called the second thought liberation movement took over 100 years from initiation to when it functioned practically.
The enlightenment movement in the 17th and 18th centuries directly aimed at the black Middle Ages, enlightenment thinkers held high the banner of rationalism, refuted feudal social institution and political institution, attacked dogmatic theology, and put forward systematic theory and assumption to found rational society and nation, thus paved road for foundation of modern democratic nation both in aspects of thought and theory. Success of enlightenment movement is symbolized by a series of great revolutions and wars, including American revolution, French revolution and Napoleonic war, in which millions of people were killed or injured.
Just because this social reform will be more profound, it will be crueler than normal reforms, and time required for thought preparation will be very long. Besides over 100 years of enlightenment movement, renaissance movement was prelude of the social reform also, then preparation time for the reform is around 400 years.
The communist movement is same. Communist movement aims to topple rein of capital class, to set up socialist nation dictated by proletariat, so fierceness of the social revolution is certainly doubtless, and that the social revolution needs quite long preparation time and will certainly use cruel measures .
The earliest assumption of socialist thought could be retrospected to Eutopia written by More in the 16th century, the pursuit of a kind of ideal society and quest for socialism lasted for hundreds of years. In fact, the process of questing was also a process of thought spreading. In the 19th century, Marx and Engels' scientific socialist thought provided theoretical basis for foundation of socialist regime. Because of further spread of the thought, socialist nation is finally founded, and socialist flags once flew over half the world.
Cruelty in the process for foundation of socialist regime is very obvious. Foundation of almost every socialist nation was accompanied by bloody war and armed uprising. After foundation of the first socialist regime, regime of Soviet Union, it immediately encountered armed interference of capitalist countries. From foundation of the regime, to maintenance in early state and stabilization later, the regime experienced a very difficult process. While casualty in the war for foundation of Chinese socialist regime was millions. This is completely because in such social revolution, requirement of current ruling class is opposite to interest of the group that asks for revolution, and acquirement of interest of one party means lose of interest of the other party, the interest conflict is tit for tat and life to death.
II. Consistency of People's Interests in This Fundamental Reform
Generally speaking, the larger the scale of social revolution is, the more difficult it will be, because ruling vested interest group will try everything to keep current system, while the party that seeks for revolution will need a quite long time to accumulate strength, and social revolution will be realized when balance between the parties is broken. It's doubtless that because of the serious interest conflict, one party will try its best to maintain current system and the party that seeks for revolution, every social revolution is very difficult, long and cruel, which will be more obvious as scale of social revolution is larger and larger.
Scale of the social reform from national society to the greatly unified society will be larger than any previous social reform, because all previous reforms happened within national society, some of these social reforms were within the nations, while others involved merger, split and reconstruction of nations, but any way, these reforms were within national society. While the coming reform is the transfer from national society to the greatly unified society, which is fundamental change of social morphology. Its precondition is perishment of all nations. Scale of the reform will be unprecedented, and its significance will not only be unprecedented, but also unrepeatable. Whether the unprecedented significance means unprecedented difficulty, cruelty and long time required of the social reform?
As we know, we have no other choice but great unification, because if great unification is not realized, development of science and technology will not be restricted truly, and mankind will soon be extincted. So this social reform concerns overall existence of mankind and fundamental interest of everyone. Though disaster brought by science and technology may not threaten us directly, our offspring will be related.
What's more, the greatly unified society will bring common happiness to the whole mankind. When great unification is realized, human society could be built as a non-competitive society, and ethic fusion and religious fusion will both become possible; development of science and technology is restricted; meanwhile, the greatly unified society is suitable for policy of equal prosperity. All these will make the greatly unified society into a society without competition pressure and knowledge updating pressure, a society with rare war and crime, and also a generally prosperous society in which everyone lives healthily and for a long life (these points will be further elaborated in following sections). So the great unification will not only ensure overall existence of mankind, but also ensure realization of overall happiness of mankind.
So the greatly unified society will benefit all out descendants, everyone could enjoy benefits of realization of the most important value brought by the greatly unified society, no matter which class or group he belongs to. So all the classes and groups share wide conformity in the undertaking of great unification, and there is no fierce conflict as that one party's gain of interest will mean loss of another party.
Although undertaking of the great unification has common basic interest for the whole mankind, basic interest often conflicts with viewed interest, or in other words, long-term and basic interest of a person or a group is often inconsistent with the instant and surfaced interest. Long-term and basic interest will be understood by wisdom and thinking, and only rational ones will be resolute to insist and protect such interest, while instant and surfaced interest will be insisted and protected by most people, even if the former is much more important than the later, there will still be many that will sacrifice the former for the later. So in the process of promotion of great unification undertaking, there will certainly be a group of extremely selfish ones to step out to block the wheel of history.
III. Resistance Analysis
If resistance for reform from national society to the greatly unified society mainly because viewed interest of some groups will be harmed in the process of reform, then viewed interests of which groups will be harmed in the undertaking of great unification, and how large resistance will thus caused? To make this question clear, we can start analysis from following contents.
First, as for common people, the biggest beneficiaries in aspect of viewed interest will be poor countries, particularly medium and small poor countries.
The major reason for poverty of poor countries is that these countries were treated unfairly in history, some of them were ravaged by wars, while others had been bullied by colonialists, all these make them far lagged behind modern civilization. Backwardness leaves these countries vulnerable to harms, in cruel international competition, the poor will become poorer, because rules of international competition are formulated by rich and powerful nations. What’s more, competition in modern society is actually competition of science and technology, but medium and small poor nations are extremely short of capital, talent and management ability, their ability in technology development, particularly technical innovation and transfer of science and technology to productivity is very weak, and modern civilization has been far away from them, so their backwardness and poverty are obvious.
When great unification is realized, the world will be uniformly governed by world regime, poor areas will receive fair treatment and help from the whole world, and management of these areas will gather global wisdom. What’s very important is that, though development of science and technology will be restricted in the greatly unified society, present safe and mature science and technology will be popularized and applied. In national society, those medium and small poor countries are unable to do the promotion and application, but in greatly unified society, with global talents and wisdom, the most suitable scientific and technical results will be popularized and applied there. With such promotion, application and popularization, these areas will soon shake off poverty and step to richness.
Second, rich nations needn’t to make special sacrifice to the great unification undertaking.
When the great unification is realized, people will easily think that benefits of poor countries are because of aid and sacrifice of rich ones, then will people in rich countries suffer great losses thus? Actually not, because development of poor countries mainly benefit from popularization and application of safe and mature scientific and technical fruits at present. The major investment will be investment in technical talents and management talents, talent cultivation and aid do need investment, and rich nations need to make sacrifice while fulfilling their duties, but compared with direct economic help, such investment is much less, and investment of the rich countries will be returned through other ways.
As we know, in national society, confrontation between nations often express as war, so every nation gives top priority to military construction and investment, and military spending is very large. In the greatly unified society, the whole globe is an integral whole. Confrontation between nations will disappear with perishment of nations, ethic and religious fusion, and foundation of non-competitive society, war and crime will be rare in human society, main tasks of army are to maintain social stability and rescue in natural disaster, so military spending will constitute just a small part of social spending, even less than one tenth of present military spending in general, which means that over ninety percent of present military spending could be invested in other aspects, such spending will be very considerable capital for development of poor areas.
In fact, the greatly unified society could save fees in other aspects also. For example, with perishment of nations, the top authoritative organ will disappear, and there will be one top authoritative body—world regime left, so there is only one top authoritative system also, which will greatly reduce expenditure of administrative fees. Another example, with perishment of nations, barriers for international exchanges between different regions will disappear, particularly trade barriers, which will save various expenditures. If these expenditures saved could be used to help poor areas, then poor areas could shake off poverty.
Third, people is moderately well-off nations will benefit greatly in aspect of economy, and people in rich nations will also benefit to a certain degree.
After the world is unified, with popularization and application of safe and mature scientific and technological fruits at present, the world will tend to be an equally prosperous world, the richness degree will be similar to or slightly higher than level of developed countries at present. The reason for why developed countries are rich is that they have applied most advanced science and technology widely, if these advanced sciences and technologies are widely applied everywhere in the world, then the other areas will be as rich as developed countries at present.
What's more, some scientific and technological fruits haven't be applied yet, these fruits will certainly be popularized and applied. Not any developed country could have the most advanced science and technology in every aspect, the greatly unified society will collect the most advanced science and technology, and apply uniformly, so the science and technology used then will be more advanced than any developed country at present. So people's living standard in the greatly unified society will be even higher than developed countries at present. People in moderately rich countries will greatly benefit from great unification, and people in rich countries will also benefit from great unification to a certain degree.
Fourth, viewed interest of leaders at middle and low levels will not change greatly.
When the great unification is realized, if leaders at medium and low levels are still within their tenures, scopes and industrial departments within their management scope will not change greatly, there are leaders and management departments at higher levels, so their viewed interest will not change seriously in aspects of size and scope of power.
Fifth, top leaders and top leading class of medium and small countries will lose most viewed interests, while top leaders and top leading class of large nations will be the largest beneficiaries.
In national society, the highest authority body is nation, decisions and behaviors of the top leaders and top leading class will not be interfered or influenced by higher level, because these decision are final. They not only enjoy the honor and right of the top leaders, but also enjoy many privileges and viewed interests.
In national society, many nations co-exist with each other, every nation has its own top leaders and top leading class, but when great unification is realized, there will be only one highest authoritative body, top leaders and staffs in top leading class will both be very limited, in the process to promote great unification, the possibility for medium and small nations to act as leading actors in the undertaking of great unification will be very small, so it will be more possible that they will lose rights and privileges because of realization of the great unification, and what they lose will be top rights and privileges. So their loss of viewed interest is the largest.
While situations for top leaders and top leading class of large countries are just opposite. Generally speaking, large changes of political map are always driven by large countries, the significance of transform from national society to the greatly unified society will exceed any social reform in history, so it’s doubtless that this social reform will be driven by strength of large countries, and top leaders and top leading class of large countries will definitely play as leaders and leading groups in the transform.
What’s particularly important is that the undertaking of great unification will save mankind, and bring common happiness to the whole mankind. Its justness is definitely unprecedented. To act as an leader in such a meaningful undertaking will be dream of any competitive political leader. If they could achieve some accomplishment in the undertaking of great unification, these leaders will leave names on the scroll of fame, while people that are most possible to be able to shoulder this heavy responsibility will be top leaders and top leading class of large countries, so they are the largest beneficiaries in the undertaking of great unification.
To sum up, the greatly unified society is not only beneficial to the whole mankind, common people could benefit from the undertaking of great unification in aspect of viewed benefit also, people in poor countries, well-off countries and rich countries could all benefit from this process. If they are educated about this truth, they will become the most large-scale strength that will push the undertaking of great unification, and this strength will form a powerful torrent.
Among leading classes, leaders at medium and low levels will not lose many rights in aspect of viewed interest, and will be beneficiaries of economical benefits to be brought by the great unification undertaking. What’s more, the great unification undertaking will save the whole mankind, and benefit everyone in aspect of basic interest, so they will become supporters and promoters of the great unification undertaking.
The largest resistance for the great unification might come from top leaders and top leading class of medium and small nations that are many, because they will lose both powers and privileges. I think quite many of them will obey rightness of the whole mankind, and become promoters of the great unification undertaking, but a small part of them which are extremely selfish will overlook overall existence of the whole mankind and happiness of our posterity, and keep to their powers and privileges, becoming clowns that block the great unification undertaking.
If these people are against the great unification undertaking, the resistance will be quite large. They will use the convenient conditions as top leaders and top leading class, try everything to mobilize national people to block process of the great unification, and will disturb people’s understanding, making people unable to recognize necessity and feasibility of the great unification and various practical benefits the great unification may bring, so these people will become major and also the strongest power to resist the great unification undertaking.
To the contrary, top leaders and top leading class of large countries will probably become active promoters of the great unification undertaking, because they might become the largest beneficiaries in the great unification undertaking. What’s more important is that, these people will have very strong power, they will use the conditions as top leaders and top leading class of the large countries, and mobilize the whole nations to support the great unification undertaking. Meanwhile, power of large country is not limited to itself, large countries could lead and influence some regions and even the whole world. Though there are just few large countries in the world, their power is worldwide, and their ability is incomparable for some small countries.
Top leaders and top leading class of large countries will not only be possible to drive process of the great unification, but also be the most capable strength to promote the process. If top leaders of some most powerful nations decide to act jointly, the world could change fundamentally, so they are the most reliable strength for the great unification undertaking.
Above analysis shows that, though the transform from national society to the greatly unified society is unprecedented social reform in human history, resistance for the unprecedented social reform will be relatively small, because basic interest of the whole mankind is same, and viewed interest of mankind is widely consistent, what’s more, top leaders and top leading class of large countries, the most powerful groups, are the largest beneficiaries in aspect of viewed interest.
Section III Rehearsal of the Greatly Unified Society
Human world is very complicated, and many problems have been perplexing us. At present, the most serious problem that people have realized should be war. Besides, there are many problems such as crime, environment, resource and poverty. It is impossible to solve these problems with strength of one nation, so people long have desired to harmonize and unify global actions. Many international organizations were founded as time required. For example, the United Nations is the most representative international organization. As an international organization, the UN has been dedicated to harmonizing stands of the nations and unify global actions, and have made great contribution to this purpose.
Meanwhile, world economy is heading towards integration, commercial trade has long broken through boundaries of nations, no market of any country is independent, every of them is part of global market and is merged in the world. To unify world market and harmonize world trade, the World Trade Organization (WTO) was set up, and many regional trade organizations also appeared as time required. Integration of the world is independent from man's will in some aspects, and it is breaking through restriction of nations.
The series of global actions of international organizations and the fact that world economy is heading towards globalization all share certain features with the greatly unified society. Although actions of international organizations are not direct pursuits of the greatly unified society, nor the trend of globalization is result of people’s pursuit of great unification, these actions and the trend are actually some trials of operation modes of the greatly unified society, and have tested technical conditions of governance of the greatly unified society to a certain degree. So we may deem such actions and trend with certain features of the greatly unified society as rehearsal of the future greatly unified society.
We call the actions and tend as “rehearsal” because they share certain obvious features with the greatly unified society. By research and analysis of these actions and trend, we can better understand features and objective development trend of present human society, as well as influence of present technical conditions to future global governance, so that to understand possibility of realization of the greatly unified society more objectively.
I. International Organizations and the Greatly Unified Society
After the World War II, many international organizations spring up like mushrooms, the most influential regional international organizations should to be NATO led by America and Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO) led by the Soviet Union, which were also two confronting military groups in fact. Besides, influential comprehensive regional international organizations also include the European Union, Association of South East Asian Nations, League of Arab States, Commonwealth of Independent States, etc. There are also some special regional organizations that are very influential also, such as the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).
The most influential international organizations should be the UN and World Trade Organization (WTO) that is called economic UN. Besides, some special organizations are very influential also, such as the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), World Health Organization (WHO) and International Monetary Fund (IMF).
Meanwhile, many non-governmental international organizations, such as the International Union of Students, International Youth Fellowship and Greenpeace International, are trying to play their roles.
There are various international organizations that are countless. These organizations are all founded upon requirements of various groups and governments of the nations. Analysis of tenet and purpose of these organizations shows that some regional international organizations were founded to raise collective competitiveness of member countries, some are to raise military competitiveness, some are to raise political competitiveness, and some are to raise economic and resource competitiveness. The so-called competitiveness is confrontation ability in fact. So tenet of regional international organizations is inconsistent or even goes against with target of the greatly unified society that seeks to protect basic interest of the whole mankind through uniform global action.
Tenet and purpose of global international organizations which are generally founded upon common demands of the countries are different from regional international organizations. These demands are generally about common interests of the whole mankind. Organizations like the United Nations are founded because of people’s deep understanding of disaster and pain brought by wars. Tenet and purpose, as well as work direction after foundation of global international organizations are fairly consistent with target of the greatly unified society for the whole mankind. No matter how effective the work of global international organizations is, work direction is actually quite consistent with work direction of the greatly unified society in the future. What’s more, technical measures adopted by international organizations in work will also be quite consistent with technical measures to be adopted by world regime of the greatly unified society. So, by observing development of work of present international organizations, we can get certain general pictures of the greatly unified society in the future.
Take environmental problem as an example, environmental protection is a common issue faced the whole mankind. Serious environment pollution and forest and grassland devastation, as well as a series of negative environmental effects are making people more and more worried. Such problems will continue to be global focus, as well as major work content in the greatly unified society, to which world regime must pay great efforts.
The United Nations that is also dedicated to harmonize global actions started to pay attention to the problem as early as in 1960s, and had convened meetings for this purpose many times and had approved a series of environmental protection resolutions and conventions. Because of the series of actions adopted by the United Nations, the environmental protection target of “saving the Earth” has been deeply rooted in people’s heart worldwide.
Population problem is also an important question faced by mankind. Because of development of medical treatment and technology, and very backward birth concept and birth control measures, world population grows rapidly, what’s more, the growth is accelerating and called “population explosion”. Population issue will continue to be an important social problem in the greatly unified society, and even more important in the greatly unified society than in national society, because development of science and technology will be strictly restricted in the greatly unified society, we will not be able to get more foods and resources through development of science and technology, if population is not controlled, whole mankind may have to endure hunger. The United Nations set up Population Commission as early as in 1947, had reminded the world to pay attention to population problem many times on various meetings, and even convened several special meetings on population problem and approved a series of resolutions and action programs.
The United Nations has been making great efforts to solve poverty problem and terrorism problem, protect human rights, and control drugs, has convened several global meetings, and has been doing a series of work energetically. All these problems will not be solved in a short period, so the greatly unified society will continue to make great efforts to solve these problems that concern interest of the whole mankind.
The United Nations is an international organization with the widest representation in human history, as well as an international organization that could best represent interests and able to protect basic interest of the whole mankind. In over 60 years since foundation of the United Nations, it has indeed made great contribution to overall benefits of the whole mankind. By analyzing work method and features of the United Nations, we will find that to pass a resolution that is favorable to the whole mankind, the United Nations always negotiates multi-laterally with the nations, then convenes voting meeting after repeated debates and obtaining general agreements of large countries. Voting meeting is actually routing approval procedure. The process of convening voting meeting is very simple, and there is not any technical problem. With agreements of the nations, over 100 members in the world could immediately hold a meeting at any designated place.
UN Millennium Summit held in headquarters of the United Nations in New York during Sep. 6-8, 2000 was a typical example. State heads or government heads of over 150 nations attended the summit. Vehicles in fleets of state heads or government heads were over 1,000, and New York police mobilized 8,000 policemen.
From Sep. 14-16, 2005, to celebrate the 60th anniversary of the United Nations, state heads of over 160 nations gathered at New York headquarters of the United Nations again. This was the UN summit of the largest scale since foundation of the United Nations. Reporters for interview of the summit were over 3,000. Summit of such large scale represents real globality.
This summit was very fluent both in aspects of agenda implementation and security assurance. But approval for relevant files before the summit was very difficult. The most important file for the summit was Outcome Document Draft. To prepare this document, the United Nations specially set up a core team consisted of 32 nations including America, China and Russia. But after months of work, the core team still couldn’t reach consensus. The Outcome Document Draft was narrowly passed on the day before the summit. The approved document had been shortened from previous hundreds of pages to 35 pages, and some important topics, such as disarmament, development, definition of terrorism and denuclearization, were all excluded.
These truly global summits, such as UN Millennium Summit and summit held to celebrate the 60th anniversary of the United Nations, could be successfully convened, and agendas were successfully finished, the prerequisite is convenient traffic and communication at present. Such summits are impossible to be held under technical conditions 100 years ago. The United Nations had certainly made a lot of harmonization and liaison work before the summits.
In fact, benefiting from convenient traffic and communication, the United Nations has very efficient implementation of global actions, including peace keeping and disaster relief, the action could be immediately adopted after the nations reach consensus. Peace keeping force could rush to target area rapidly, and disaster relief materials could be organized and transported to target area quickly also. What are really troublesome and time consuming are harmonization and negotiation before decision is made.
By analyzing and comparing global international organization like the United Nations and world regime of the greatly unified society, we will find following similarities and differences in their decision making:
1. Before any decision making, the United Nations will always make great efforts to harmonize standpoints of nations. The harmonization will be a quite long process, so it is very difficult to make decision, particular decision about serious problem. The decision can’t be made, if one or two key nations disagree with the decision, or otherwise, the decision can’t be implemented even if it is made.
World regime of the greatly unified society will need to harmonize standpoints of different regions also, because different regions will have different situations and regional benefits. But world regime will be the only regime then, with certain compulsory administration rights endowed by laws of the greatly unified society, world regime will make decision if the regime thinks it necessary, and there will not be much delayed decision, so opinion collection will be quick.
The United Nations shares a similarity with the greatly unified society in the process of convening conference and voting--the process of convening global conference and voting is very quick after the nations reach consensus, because we enjoy convenient traffic and communication conditions, as well as other hardware technical conditions for political governance.
2. Decision making process of the United Nations involves various factors of power politics. Many decisions will not be passed if one country disagrees. There are 192 member nations in the United Nations at present. I believe that America could influence many other members on some important issues, so America could make the United Nations give up many decisions.
In the greatly unified society, different regions will be truly equal. If the rights or voting weights do have some difference, that will be difference corresponding with different populations of the regions, or difference corresponding with economical and cultural situations of the regions, and such difference will be very limited. Not any region will be possible to influence the world regime then.
3. A nation’s influence in the United Nations is decided by its military strength to a great degree. A large military country could often influence decision of the United Nations to a large extent, which is actually expression of power politics. In the greatly unified society, no region will have independent army, because allowing the region to have independent army means indulgence of division. Army will be directly controlled by the world regime in the greatly unified society, so it will be impossible for the regions to influence decision making of world regime by military measures.
4. Among all works of the United Nations, war issue and disarmament issue have always been the most important problems that are dealt with often, also the problems with most disagreements, as well as problems that are most difficult to be dealt with and could never be handled properly. Every decision on these problems will be very difficult to be made, and will often ends up with nothing definite. While in the greatly unified society, there will be no problems of army or armament, problem of army led by world regime and set up according to laws in the greatly unified society will be a very secondary part of daily work of world regime and will need little time to deal with. The army is to cope with crimes and small scale wars caused by separatists.
5. Decisions of the United Nations are often issued in the forms of declaration, statement, convention, treaty, agreement and protocol, which shows that decisions of the international organization will only be implemented on wish of the nations. While decisions of world regime in the greatly unified society will certainly be issued in the forms of order, decision, requirement and instruction, because the world regime has the rights to do so. So the implementation will be much more thorough in the greatly unified society.
6. In national society, every nation has independent sovereignty, so the nation could implement or refuse to implement decision of the United Nations as an international organization. Generally speaking, the United Nations has no method to restrict nations compulsorily, except by war or global sanction, but to adopt these measures will require consensus of large countries, which is very difficult. What’s more, it is often large country that disobeys decision of the United Nations, if war is lunched against such country, it will definitely become world war.
While implementation of decision made by world region of the greatly unified society will be guaranteed by power of the regime, the regions must implement, if any region dare to refuse to implement, leaders of the region will be held accountable administratively, even replaced, or held legally accountable, so leaders will not take the risk in general. Even if implementation in some area is not thorough, the problem will be easily dealt with, and no serious destructive result will be caused.
II. Globalization and the Greatly Unified Society
Globalization is an important feature of the society of our times, and this has been wildly recognized. Convenient traffic, cheap and real-time communication, rich and direct medias shortened distance between people, and the whole mankind seem to be living in a small village.
Concept of globalization in broad sense should include all aspects, including politics, economy, military affairs, culture and technology. No matter whether you have heard of the word globalization, and whether you have felt fruits of globalization personally, examples of globalization are everywhere around you.
Take Beijing, the capital city of the old civilization with a history of 5,000 years as an example. Foreigners that haven’t been there could never image that both appearance and connotation of the city have departed from “old civilization”. Of course, the Forbidden City is still of red wall and yellow tile, appearances of the Temple of Heaven, Beihai Park and Summer Palace are still appearances of buildings of Ming and Qing dynasties, but they are just several small parts specially reserved as historic interests of the big city, while other areas of Beijing are stuffed with western billboards, almost everyone knows McDonald, KFC and Pizza Hut, German Benz and BMW, Japanese Toyota and Honda, American Lincoln and Buick, and Korean Hyundai and KIA branded cars run on the roads, people drink Coca Cola and UBC coffee, wear clothes of French and Italian brands, hold cell phones of Nokia, Ericsson and Motorola, and watch American hit movies and Koran icon operas broadcasting in Changhong and Haier televisions. These show that various living modes and cultures are penetrating mutually and fusing together.
Globalization trend of cultural and living modes is not restricted to cities like Beijing, but has penetrated to every medium and small cities, as well as remote villages and pastoral areas.
With popularization of radiogram and television, and direct and convenient traffic and communication measures, common people could also sense the great change and their fusion with the world, everyone is fusing in global culture consciously or unconsciously, and the trend is more obvious in much developed nations.
Let’s analyze aspects of globalization in depth, and have a look at military globalization first. The Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) are two largest military leagues in the world. This is also a kind of expression of military globalization, which is only restricted to some region or group. In fact, it is a kind of military confrontation group, and it is more accurate to be called international military separation and confrontation rather than globalization in military aspect.
Globalization features of comprehensive international organizations in aspect of politics, such as the European Union, League of Arab States, Association of South East Asian Nations and Commonwealth of Independent States, are similar to military globalization elaborated above. Such globalization is also restricted to some region or group, and functions a role in political confrontation with united strength, so it is actually international political separation and confrontation.
People are more familiar with globalization of economy and technology, which is globalization in narrow sense, and true globalization to its name.
The main expression of economic globalization is market globalization. When we are shopping in marketplace, we will find ourselves in a global product ocean. Except at special counters, not any kind of product will be all produced in a single country. Products from different areas always gather at one counter.
During the first round of negotiation in Geneva in 1947, the General Agreement on Trade and Tariff had 23 members only, after that, its members had been increasing. To unify world trade, the temporary institution—General Agreement on Trade and Tariff was reconstructed into a standing body—the World Trade Organization in 1995. It is just the irresistible globalization trend of world economy that hastened the appearance of the World Trade Organization. As of present, members of the World Trade Organization has increased to 150.
Economic globalization is also expressed in global production. French Pierre Cardin entrusts a large part of production to Ningbo of China, 70% parts of Lenovo computer come from Taiwan, spare parts of Airbus and Boeing planes come from worldwide, Chinese air manufacturing enterprises contribute 5% production to Airbus A350, and Boeing plane is jointly produced by 340 enterprises in 23 nations that include America.
Another expression of economic globalization is globalized investment in enterprise. Airbus, BMW, GM, Siemens and Ericsson are not wholly owned companies any more, their investments have become globalized long ago, with shareholders distributed worldwide. Such multinational companies couldn’t be restrictly by nations simply, if they must be connected with nations, then that will be where these enterprises are headquartered, where they pay taxes, or where their production bases are located.
Economic globalization is also expressed as globalized investment target of enterprise. Investment target of a multinational company is also multinational. The company will build its production factory in the area near market, of low production cost and fairly good investment environment.
Technical globalization developed with economic globalization. A new technology, a new product and a new product model all will soon spread to the whole globe. In aspect of global technology trade, in middle 1960s, average annual global technology trade turnover was USD 2.5 billion only, in middle 1980s, the number reached USD 50 billion, and USD 200 billion in middle 1990s, doubled every 5 years averagely, far higher than growth of world economy.
Technical globalization also includes globalization of higher education. As the center to cultivate scientific and technical talents, institution of higher education is basic strength for a nation to keep competitive advantage. In past over 30 years, students study abroad grow at an annual speed of 3.9%. Today, 38% students awarded doctoral degrees in the UK are foreign students, and this proportion is 30% in America. 10% of college students in the UK are foreign students, and this proportion in 8% in America. What’s more, college teachers are being globalized also. In American institutions of higher education, 20% newly retained professors were born in foreign countries, while in major institutions of higher education in China, most of newly retained professors have master’s degree awarded abroad.
By careful analysis, we will find out that globalization is the result of fundamental change of communication measures of mankind. Today’s highly developed traffic, communication and media measures make globalization possible. What’s more, just because of existence of these measures, people are developing towards globalization consciously or unconsciously.
While economic globalization develops, it needs new globalization contents for perfection and supplement. For example, economic globalization is also expressed in financial globalization, US dollar has almost become universal currency of the world, and Euro is trying to challenge US dollar. Banking globalization makes settlement between different banks in two or several countries separated thousands of miles away possible. So globalized economic activities are more convenient, globalized transaction measures are more perfect, and such convenient and perfect measures have further promoted development of globalization.
In fact, financial globalization is changing people’s living style. With a credit card, we can go around the world, and needn’t worry about boarding, so travel lovers become more, they have not only brought travel income to the places, but have also brought different thoughts, living styles and spirits, making world culture more globalized.
Cultural globalization is also result of development of modern technical means, but degree of cultural globalization is incomparable with economic and technological globalization, because every nation will try to protect its original culture from external influence, for example, an extreme Islamic nation will not allow bikini girl to take part in beauty contest, likewise, western nations like America and France will not require women on street to wear veil.
In fact, modern technical measures are fully capable to promote wider globalization at multi-level and various fields, while in the process of globalization, nation often becomes barrier for globalization.
The process of economic globalization is generally beneficial to nations, particularly developed countries and countries with technical innovation ability, they are the largest beneficiaries in the process of globalization, while some underdeveloped countries are very passive in globalization process, but when closing is worse than opening up, they start to immerge in world economy unconsciously. Because of above reasons, there are no obstacles set by nations in the process of economic globalization, so it could easily be realized.
Cultural globalization is different. Government of open-minded country will rarely restrict modern medias, so cultural globalization could be realized there, while some countries strictly restrict use of modern medias and communication measures, and cultural globalization is difficult to be realized there. I’ve been to South Korea once, in hotel in Pyongyang, the television had only two governmental channels, which always played serious political programs, so cultural globalization certainly can’t be realized in such environment.
While trans-regional and trans-group political and military globalization in the real sense are far more impossible to be realized in national society. Politics and military affairs are the essential contents of national regime, and also the last line of defense of national regime. In fact, if political and military globalization are realized, basic features of the greatly unified society are ready in general, and social morphology then shouldn’t be called national society.
By analyzing globalization at present and researching reasons for globalization, we can find a point that is very stunning—globalization process is not driven forcibly by some government, but people’s spontaneous action under modern technical conditions, this spontaneous action reflects people’s conscious or unconscious strong desire for globalization and represents people’s aspiration. Governments have inhibited the process of globalization, without such inhibition, contents of globalization will be richer, and degree be deeper.
We can allege that if there is slight promotion, globalization will be wider, deeper and more comprehensive. When such globalization extends to politics, military affairs, culture and every aspect of society, the greatly unified society is realized then, because the greatly unified society itself is a kind of wide, profound and comprehensive globalization.
To sum up, no matter it is the action of international organization to unify the world, or spontaneous globalization trend, an operation mode similar to the greatly unified society is being formed. All these are not prepared for the greatly unified society, but they are prelude of the greatly unified society, and become a rehearsal of the greatly unified society objectively. By analyzing results of this rehearsal, we can get following conclusions:
1. International organizations’ series of actions to unify the world and the work modes are test of unified governance in the world with modern communication measures, and have improved that hard technical conditions for global governance of the greatly unified society have been mature.
2. Actions to unify the world reflect people’s common desire. Such desire was firstly expressed as that a group of politics with conscience initiated and founded international organizations to harmonize world affairs so that the world will be protected from wars and for common interests of mankind. Although these international organizations can’t influence national society, and their functions are quite limited, they have always been making great efforts to unify the world, and working hard for common interest of the whole mankind. Many works in which these international organizations are devoted to will be continued by the greatly unified society. What’s more, work of these international organizations have also provided experience and references to the great unification.
3. Globalization trend is the world’s spontaneous trend, which is irresistible when modern communication conditions have developed to a certain degree. This trend has also reflected people’s common desire for great unification, which is joint expectation of people and certainty in history as well.
By above analysis, we can definitely judge that possibility for the great unification of mankind is very clear. Technical conditions are mature, with experience of previous rehearsal and common desire of people, as well as unparalleled just of saving mankind from extinction, what large resistance can’t be overcome?!