Based on the comprehensive analysis above, a conclusion can be drawn through a variety of ways. That is, self-extinction of humanity is inevitable, long as we do not stop the continued development of science and technology, and even will be in the near future. It can be calculated by century, or even a short period of time. Compared with the threat from impressed forces to humanity, extinction of humanity by nature can be calculated by hundreds of millions of years. So, the real crisis of human survival is the "suicide" rather than "homicide". Facing with the grim reality of extinction soon, where is the way of mankind?
Section I Understand and Treat with the Science and Technology Correctly
I. Change the concept of extinction
Since ancient times, sense of crisis for the very survival of mankind has always been from the forces of nature or supernatural forces. We have always been focused on the forces of nature, such as floods, earthquakes, volcanoes and asteroids colliding; or the supernatural superstition as fear of the trial of doomsday by God and Allah.
However, historic change for awareness had taken place at a particular moment. It was the huge mushroom cloud rose for atomic bombing in 1945, as well as the instant of destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki that made people suddenly realize that the power we can mobilize to with the use of human wisdom and ability is far more enormous than we had recognized in the past. Compared with the destructive of before the forces mentioned-above, the forces of nature and supernatural we were in awe and fear of is not so important. In the unseen world, humanity seems to be on extinctive process step by step. This is not the extinction of the power of natural forces and supernatural. On the contrary, it is human beings that pull themselves in to the abyss beyond redemption.
The man who worried about it also includes those most distinguished scientists and academics. Called the Father of atomic bombs, Einstein had been appealing for that of his last years. And he published the famous Russell-Einstein Manifesto together with Bertrand Russell who is a philosopher and Nobel prizewinner. They shout in the manifesto: “Shall we put an end to the survival of humanity, or the humanity put an end to the war?”
In the view of Einstein and Russell, as we had had such powerful atomic weapons, if we did not stop the war, human survival would be threatened.
They were beyond their predecessors, because they had come to understand that if human beings did not stop some of their behavior rationally, they will lead themselves to extinction. It was beyond the concept of human extinction before. However, these two respected academics attributed the root of termination of human survival to the "war" only. Because, the possible means for human extinction they can see at that time were only nuclear weapons. And manufacture of such weapons under the conditions then required substantial human, material and financial resources. It must rely on the strength of the state rather than strength of individuals or ordinary groups and organizations. And the state should be a huge country with very strong power. As the time when "Russell - Einstein Manifesto" published, only the United States, the Soviet Union and the United Kingdom have nuclear weapons, in their view, the one who could use those weapons were only to be countries. Furthermore, such weapons that could threaten the survival of mankind may be used only in a state of war.
50 years has passed, perhaps it is out of fear of the risk of human existence that World War III has not broken out and nuclear weapons have not been used for war once again.. However, the rapid development of science and technology has brought us into terrorist extermination much more beyond control. The destruction of humanity caused by biological toxin transformed through gene technology is so large that even nuclear weapons can not be compared; a teenage computer genius may hack into the database of U.S. Department of Defense, or create virus that can cause millions of computers paralysis; scientists are still studying nano-robot which can be copied endlessly, if successfully developed, it may have the strength of the extinction of all mankind; further development of " cloning "technology may lead us to have the ability to copy ourselves ...
In short, results created by further research and development of many of the technology are possible to produce means of human extinction, or at least means with extremely destructive to humanity. Moreover, manufacture and operation of those means will be able to require only very few or even a single person.
This means that the decision-making power for overall survival of the human has been transferred from a few large countries to a large number of human individuals. Human nature decides that the acts of each person can not always been effectively bound by however well social system. Any extreme measure will definitely be used, as long as it appears. So will means of extinction.
The explosions of atom bomb told us that it would cause humanity extinction without certain restriction on some behavior of us. And the means for extinction is the war. Now, just more than 60 years after the atomic blast, the astonishing thing brought by the development of science and technology influenced our understanding further, which makes us learn that both the war and the crime can lead to extinction. Even the careless in an experiment or incompetent users of productions for science and technology may lead humanity extinction.
In fact, the threat of extinction caused by war is not so great as that of the unexpected disaster in the crimes, scientific experiments or usage of productions of technology. The war is collective behavior. Its purpose is to destroy the enemy and conserve one’s own strength. The two sides of a war can do ruinous things to each other but not to be doomed together with the other side. So, they will allow themselves for some flexibility when using slaughter methods. While there are some others whose purpose of crime is just for humanity extinction. The methods they wish to take are those methods which can astonish more with mass destruction and ruthless means. So, they dare to use any methods they gain including means of extinction.
It is the crisis of unexpected disaster in the use of productions of technology and scientific experiment that cannot be ignored. Because of the indeterminate character of science and technology, in future of high developed science and technology, the advanced technologies will be better. Subjects studied by the scientists are challenging. The time when to call force from nature, another devastating force with more power may be called out, too. At the same time, various productions of technology may become more complex and hard to be judged with the development of science and technology. The ruinous powers of them because of improper use will necessarily be greater. When the natural forces to be called with no intention had the strength to make humanity extinct, the way of mankind is ending.
It can be seen from this that the elements of threats to existing for whole existing of human beings have developed from war only to the four factors as war, crime, false in the experiment and usage of productions of technology. And the latter 3 factors are more terrible than the war. When the strength the four forces us to the extinction way, how dangerous we will be. We will be worried about our plight, if only we take that into consideration.
Pondered more deeply, the self-extinction of us humanity can never be simply attributable to war, crime, false in the experiment or usage of productions of technology and so on, all of which only can be said as ways of extinction. The common source of these methods behind is science and technology. Only the science and technology could decide the whole existing of humanity fundamentally.
II. Restriction on development of science and technology
On most occasions, the purpose for study on one technology is to benefit ourselves. But in the meantime, science and technology may produce many negative impacts, the most one of which is the generation of killing methods unexpected. It exists independent of human consciousness. Just like the invention of plane is only for the hope of flying in the sky, but the plane were used into the war as a kind of weapon rapidly and the terrorists even kidnap it to hit the buildings; study on transgenic technology is only for the hope of changeable for genetic make-up of flora and fauna to benefit people, but it was used to the alteration of biological warfare rapidly so as to be tools for slaughter.
However, even though the nations have used science and technology first in war all the time and the development for some science and technology itself are for military use, the methods lead to extinction in the future may not be done deliberately. Because the adoption for methods of extinction means that the researcher may be ruined together except for aberration scientists and some distinct cults. So, methods for extinction should mostly appear behind continuous accumulation of science and technology unmindful. That is to say among the accumulation from countless fruits of science and technology, there will be straws finally that press down on the strong camels.
To avoid falling down of the camels is to avoid putting more straws on it. If the level of science and technology is still be that of hundred years ago, the extinction of humanity will never happen, however rapidly the development be. Restriction on the development of science and technology is the only way for mankind's salvation.
In short, tight restriction on development of science and technology should contain the following aspects:
First, the number of the strength for restriction on study of theories of natural science should be the most. If it is not certain for the Security of the theory, the research should be sealed, because breakthrough for a theory of technology must cause breakthrough theory of a series of scientific concerned technology and branch courses. The scientific power that invokes fear by that has always been unexpected. Like the cases that without theory of quality energy, there will be no nuclear weapons and without theory of biological genetic.
Second, further appliance of the theory of technology nowadays should be restricted tightly. If it is not certain for the research, we can stop it to nip the bud. That is because one technology may provide more space for further breakthrough.
Third, development of new technology should be treated as it is harmful, if we are not sure of the function of it useful or not, for the reason that the right for existing is above the right for happiness. It is much more important for one to make sure of humanity existing rather than to enjoy for some certain aspects. If the affect that a technology brings to may be fortune or harm, we should give up its development without hesitation.
Fourth, productions that have been studied out should be discussed and proved carefully to put into market against unending trouble for an indiscretion.
Fifth, it should be managed in a way that gives due consideration to the progressive course for development of science and technology. Just like many fruits of science and technology in history are accidentally discovered, the appearance of methods of extinction is unexpected results of progress of study on science and technology. But, a hint of necessity rose behind the occurrence. The recursive process of breakthroughs of science and technology is the process from quantitative change to fundamental change behind the accumulation of countless fruits of research. Though it is hard to predict exactly when and how will the science and technology begin to change so, we are sure of the one point that breakthrough of science and technology can not leap, which is like the thing that without countless physicists as Galileo to pave roads there can be no success from Newton and without countless physicists since Newton there can be no theory of Einstein. So, if one wants to prevent more deadly scientific fruits to appear, he should start with every little bit before him.
The tight restriction on development of science and technology requires constant insist. On the basis of fruits of science today, if only we loose control on development of science and technology for one-hundred-millionth or even one thousandth of time in the history of mankind for future billions of years, we may possibly do stupid things as extinct ourselves. That is because one-hundred-millionth means thousands of years and one thousandth still means hundreds of years.
In the quiet of our conscience with intelligence, the tremendous scientific and technological achievements mankind has created toady from the weak foundation of that more than 200 years ago, as well as those scientific and technological strength contained in the great achievements, even the humanity ourselves felt enough fear. Then again based on the foundation today, if the development of science and technology continue to accumulate for hundreds of thousands of years or so, we can completely make sure that mankind will inviting their own destruction..
III. Dialectical attitude towards the Science and Technology
Tight restrictions on the advancement of science and technology is total attitude towards science and technology. Also, it is unavoidable choice for bewaring extinguish calamity that may be brought by superlative development of science and technology. Not that tight restrictions mean denying positive effect of science and technology on human progress, but that we fear the extinction consequence beyond retrieve of its negative effects at the same time; also, not that it means entirely rejecting the development and application of science and technology. In fact, reasonable development and application of science and technology itself concerns the existing and happiness of mankind. Everything has its appropriate degree, however, change comes on the heels of another. So, the dialectical understanding and application of science and technology is the premise that not only benefits mankind but also bewares extinguish calamity might be brought to man.
(1) The science and technology is cornerstone of human and their civilization
To a certain extent, without science and technology, there would have been no man. We have been on the threshold of humanity from a primate and complete the process of evolution finally, all of which are fulfilled in the Chase-running of science and technology. While struggling against nature, our ancestors learned to use fire and stone tools. This original scientific discovery and technical creation stimulated their thinking and inventive faculty enormously. So, their intellectual level has been continuously rising and cranial capacity been rapidly enlarging so as to form we humans as species with unprecedented intelligence for earth's biohistory.
The earliest human ancestors, like other animals, stood up to the test from nature in their skin. But then, they learned to make simple clothing with animal skin which can not only keep a person warm but make human ancestors come to the realization of dignity. Besides, they have learned to decorate themselves with animal teeth and nutshells threaded. All these primal inventions are the result for seeking beauty, moreover, they have driven more of the desire of beauty in mind.
In fact, science and technology itself is carrier of civilization. Domestication of animals and acclimation of plants both sign beginning of agricultural culture; application of steam engine and invention together with improvement of spinner both sign coming of industrial culture. Without so many creations on science and technology, there would have been no human civilization or its continual development to further advance.
Primitive man has had pursuit of music and art, but only to be out of instinct. After this, people found and dug out various metal or nonmetal materials. They also learned various elaborate process technology. Furthermore, the technology mentioned above continues to play a role, keeping improvement. Upon that various musical instruments which sound distinctive tone. And performance from the tune was so divine that it had an electric effect on one’s bottom of heart.
Meanwhile, invention and creation of science and technology made all kinds of greasepaint colorful, methods of expression numerous and diverse. So can our creation of art surprises the whole world and remains for long.
Invention and creation of science and technology also lead the life and survival of our species in all aspects to characteristics differing from all other species. We can feel easily that creation of science and technology made our society much higher civilized one than other species’ through our food, clothing, shelter, transportation and whole life. Thus, we humans can both be called intelligent creature and civilized creature.
Science and technology is also the messenger of human civilizations. The development of it holds forth a precise convenient mean of rapid dissemination. All the means of communication, transport and media are achievements created by science and technology. It is such achievements that promote the exchange and propagation of the cultures between the East and the West. Especially, the accuracy and promptness of culture propagation of achievements of modern science and technology is rather amazing.
So, it is the science and technology that let us off the primitive age and barbarous so as to lead us to civilization. Without science and technology, there would have been no man and human civilization. Without science and technology, we humans would have not been called intelligent creature or civilized creature.
(2) science and technology is a cornerstone for survival and happiness of humanity
The significance of science and technology for humanity lay in every aspect of human species. Human species population had reached 6 billion now. Such huge size brings such enormous materials consumption. In essential food value, total amount from any other species upon Earth is nothing near so large as 10% of that from us. Without the development of science and technology, only to rely on the foundational bounty of nature there can be no impossible to remain human survival. On the other hand, we can also imagine how would a food-short earth which made its human to suffer hunger for the reason of no development of science and technology be happiness
In the long run, reasonable development of science and technology has irreplaceable positive significance to the whole human survival, and even the decisive significance. As we know, not merely science but also the forces of nature can lead to the annihilation of the human race. Extinction led by technology only to be calculated in 100-year, while that from nature should be calculated in one-billion-year. So, we must confine the development of science and technology strictly. However, without so high development of technology nowadays that guard ability has been possesd by many forces of nature may lead to human extinction and enormous injury, there might be a recent business of that led by forces of nature. The conclusion may be considered again as tight restrictions on the advancement of science and technology.
The total survival of our species is under realistic threat from forces of nature. For example, a slightly bigger asteroid collision may lead to human extinction. But because of development of science and technology has made space technology be able to send human beings or various artificial equipments on asteroid. And explosive power of nuclear weapons or impetus of other devices has been able to decompose minor planets or change their trajectory. Therefore, we possess the guard capability of whole human survival. Thus, we could deal with problems of human survival from technology itself by main strength.
In the same way, because of revolutionary breakthrough in genome science field, we can apply possible genetic fall in future someday, only if proper development be in the right way according to existing theory in this field. And so, this human extinct element can be removed for science and technology.
So it does, in the matter of facing with the threat of forces of nature, science and technology will continue our whole survival for many billon years.
The enormous importance on ensuring individual and collective survival of human species is apparent. A typical case is the enhanced ability of resistance to disease which is due to a series of development of medical treatment and technology, especially the ability of resistance to pandemic disease. We can see clearly from the situation shown nowadays, a single malignant pandemic disease can cause death of millions so much as that billions of lives. This phenomenon turned out repeatedly in history, but hardly to turn again towards modern medical treatment and medicine technology.
It does not matter human survival, but also be in relation to human happiness. For good health and continuation of their lives are essential for guarantee for sense of happiness in heart. The average life expectancy around the world nations has generally increased, especially in developed countries. Meanwhile, the physical conditions of humanity has improved noticeably. Both the two were attributed to technology.
When it comes to the fulfillment of value for human happiness through technology, it contributes much. In general, traffic and communication conditions have grown gradually from nothing due to development of science and technology, by which our transportation and communication easily and quickly; also, habitation and wear conditions have grown gradually from nothing due to development of science and technology, by which our daily life in every aspect be much more comfortable than before. All mentioned-above are contribution to value for human happiness.
So, science and technology not only lay the foundation for human existence but a cornerstone for the happiness of mankind. Its extremely important effect and contribution is unique and irreplaceable. The requirement of tight restrictions on science and technology doesn’t mean to deny all those mentioned-above, but to show the fact that science and technology doesn’t need to advance further today, for further advanced science and technology may have large positive affect, while its negative side may create human extinction.
(3) restrict science and technology scientifically and reasonably
In light of science and technology can both destroy and bring benefit to mankind, in addition, we cannot get rid of the dependence on science and technology in fact, we should take dialectical attitude toward the restriction of Science and Technology. Scientific and reasonable restriction of technology also affects the very survival and happiness of mankind.
Consider in principle, we mention restriction of development of science and technology here in order to suppress its negative side on mankind. On the contrary, the positive side to serve and bring benefit to the human should be taken full advantage of rather than restrict; respects hard to control should be limited, while safety content beyond the question should be developed to benefit humans, rather than restrict. So, in relation to the simple requirements to restrict development of science and technology, the following should be treated in scientific reasonable attitude. There are some differences of them.
First is the popularization and application of existing safety science and technology.
The restriction on technology development should not be simple requirement for restriction on technology application. Global population has been a huge degree now, and the trend of that has been continuing. There will be problems instantly for whole human survival without application of science and technology. So, we should attach great importance on popularization and application for existing safety science and technology rather than restrict application of science and technology. That could play an important and unique role in guarantee of quality of life and quantity of materials needed by survival. So, humans can live on the earth happier and longer.
In fact, if existing fruits of safe technology can be popularized all over the world, humanity can meet the requirement of ample food and clothing completely. In the case of huge countries like American, Japanese, Germany, English and French have established powerful countries relying on the fruit of science and technology; in the case of tiny countries like Luxemburg, Switzerland, Singapore and Korea have established affluent societies relying on the fruit of science and technology. Even in the case of my not rich born country-China, the sense is rather deep. Just think, if existing fully-fledged technology can be popularized to sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, the southeastern and southern Asia，how will heritage of humankind be？
Second，reinforcing on the research in the field of science and technology individually
Tight restriction of development of technology is a whole requirement. But, there will be many significant technology problems about survival and happiness of humans to face realistically. Some of those problems even matter whole survival and happiness of humanity a lot. It is also important to solve these problems. So, on the premise of requirement for tight restriction of technology and science, we should research on the science subjects that are safe obviously and in relation to significant problems of survival and happiness.
Typically, we should rely on forces of technology and science to keep away a natural disaster.
For example, hit on the earth by an asteroid may bring not only destruction but extinction of humankind, when it comes to an asteroid big enough. No doubt, we should pay high attention on such disaster. And, we need related research on science and technology.
Another, research on cure medicine and medical therapeutics of malignant infectious disease are subjects should be considered according to the specific conditions, because some malignant infectious disease is the most lethal form for human beings. If not be controlled in a certain degree, there will be enormous thread to survival and happiness of human beings.
But, such research must be handled gingerly to be cautious of its effect on other fields. At the same time, we may also choose the option has posed a grave menace to human definitely. Because, there are many forces of nature that may thread human’s well-beings, for instance, disease, earthquake, volcano, flood, hurricane, etc. If taken careless choice of forces bring destruction knock, we will judge all threat as significant destruction threat. Finally, it will make action of restriction of development of science and technology between the cup and the lip a morsel may slip.
We should also have a full realization of that we'll have to pay for the restriction of development of science and technology. Sense of material comforts may reduce, on the other hand, scientific researches for removing the crisis of individual and collection survival can not start yet. Such as the case that many medicinal drugs cannot be studied at will. Because the very study may lead to human extinction, while manufacturing drugs for relief from disease. We have to admit that restriction of technology study is adverse for relieving the pain of certain patients. but, all above are cost for survival and happiness of an individual or a group, in contradistinction to whole human survival. The latter is obviously more important than the former.
Then, we must facing life, agedness, illness and death of any person squarely to regard them as natural law, when it comes to the choice above. Of course, it doesn’t mean giving up our basic principle of humanitarianism to heal the wounded and rescue the dying. Not unnaturally, we should try best to rescue the sick and wounded. I must emphasize this rather than oppose it. But, here we only encourage treatment in the territory of science and technology. The further technology study without much cogitation should be opposed to.
In addition, study on technology in some more fields also should be considered to be limited within certain premises, such as the problem of substitutes for un-regenerate resources that has related to the issue of long term survival on the earth. Then, it is necessary to arrange some congener research project on the premise of ensuring its security. Still, we should be very discreet at the same time to be aware of magnify.
Third, tight restriction of development of science and technology can not be made in heaven. Scientific discovery and technology creation usually can be gained either consciously or subconsciously. So, in the history of man's future eons, such subconscious achievements will be got, however tight the restriction may be. The right attitude should be that: sift through the right part that can be sure of no dangerous for human survival strictly and make more widespread. Some of the works that can not be sure of have to be imposed the stringent restrictions on.
In fact, those subconscious achievements during the several billion years may lead us to a death way, because the history is so long and intelligence of humanity is so sharpened. Even the total amount of subconscious achievements is enormous, maybe enormous enough for human extinguish. We can only expect that day will come as late as possible with restriction tighter and tighter, best to synchronous with the time space given to us. We pray still that our later generations will bee far wiser than us, so their wisdom is sufficient to find ways satisfied all sides to prevent human extinguish. But that will be happened in the very faraway future.
On the whole, restriction mentioned above must be comprehensive, extremely strict and continuously. Exploitation and study on science and technology are only behavior of careful topic selection in very few fields. Applications of science and technology then requires extensive and universal. But the achievements of that should be filtered modestly.
Section II Preconditions for Restriction of Development of Science and Technology
With the conclusion that restriction on development of science and technology is premise for avoid human extinguish in mind, let’s analyze the issue here that whether we can achieve the goal.
I. Social formation today is National Society
Social formation of human society has three stages: primitive migrational society, village community and society of tribes then, as well as national society today.
At the very start, primitive men have been in a state of mass migrations all along. People were leading a migrational life with picking. One group didn't usually have much contact with other groups. It is the revolution in agriculture for animal domestication and vegetation cultivation that enabled us to be settled in. Upon that, villages and trips had been formed. Human social forms developed from the stage of migrations to the stage villages and trips.
Thousands of years after revolution in agriculture, countries formed. The earliest country formed about 6 thousand years ago. The national society is the third stage of human society formation which still remains today.
Nation society is the result of further development of village community and society of tribes. The formation of nation society is necessary outcome of development of human society. The depths of selfish and the length of militancy lead to conflicts among villages and trips. In order to win the war, furthermore, water project construction and project for preventing natural calamities required by agricultural production, more people need to be united. So, a country formed.
Over countless millennia of development, though human society nowadays remains its formation as nation society, but countries nowadays have undergone earth-shaking changes compared to those thousand years ago. Life today of human society is also more colorful and vivid than thousand years ago.
As an organization form of human society, the form of country today is not the only one. There are various organizations. Generally speaking, the most one should be international organizations, with the consideration of scale of organization form. The international organization is a group composed of countries. For example, the United Nations is the largest international organization. As a general international organization, there are 192 Member States in it now, which almost contains all sovereign states over the world. Besides general international organizations such as the United Nations, there are various regional and inter-regional international organizations. For instance, the European Union and Southeast Asian Union belong to regional international organizations, and G-8 belongs to inter-regional international organizations.
Besides international organizations, more are small organization forms existing in great numbers, such as apparatus of government, enterprises, associations, schools, sector of public welfare, social agency and community of cities, villages, towns and streets, etc. . These organization forms exist in every place around us. All of us are inside. Their existence is closely interrelated to life of everyone.
There is one more organization form existed in its invisible presence. It is connected by blood or belief to make everyone related believe in it silently by an intense innermost emotion. That’s peoples and religion. Each of us belongs to a people. Most of us have their religion belief. Maybe we don’t be controlled under one certain organized religion institutions and people organization units. But everyone should not deny its existence. Moreover, everyone related have an intimate and identity feeling towards the people and belief he has been in it.
It may be so, but in human society nowadays, nation is the largest organization with characteristics of most steady contact, most sacred sovereignty and the tightest organization. The formation of human society we are being in today is national society formation. As a particular organization formation, nation is the strongest as well as the most sacred and powerful system for power of modern world (because action of the country is determined by political power of the country, so we may say political power of the country is the most strongest power system of national society). Nation is the only leading force in the modern world. Any organization else is a part of the nation.
Organizations, institutions and groups at the national level go without saying on this point. Furthermore, international organizations are parts of nations actually. A nation can make decision of whether join in or withdraw from those international organizations upon its own benefit. The international organizations are controlled under the states, especially huge countries of these organizations which are always decisive force for decision of action of organization. So, it is nation that takes a" leading role" for international organizations rather than vice versa. It’s a foundation.
People and religion are parts of nation, too. Almost all states contain many peoples and religions. While one people or religion may distribute in different countries. Though everyone has his own nationalist sentiment and religious feelings, fraternal countries of the same people always let slip the dogs of war and different countries of the same religion always flow with rivers of blood for countries interest.
The scared national authorities continue down to the present day, since 6000 years ago the time when human society formation came into the stage of national society. Though religion force had driven above national authority for some time in the interim, such as Medieval Europe when the papacy is above monarchical power, it is only a short process occurred at some time and has been history today. Though there are few theocratic states still, politicians and religious leaders in these countries more achieve the goal of ruling political power of a country with rallying point of religion. Religion still is a part of country actually.
Therefore, we can make an accurate positioning that nation plays a leading role of all actions belong to groups, organizations and individuals of his own country in the national society we are being in today; a nation judge all of its foreign behavior upon its own interest and performed various parts on world stage to control the trend of the world of humanity finally.
II. Competition of country
The inherent failing of humanity leads to action of each individual and group irrational. The adverse of irrational actions from an individual is usually limited. The damage of irrational actions from an ordinary organization and group can be not much enormous, either. However, things are very different when it comes to the irrational actions of a nation. A nation is the strongest form of power. If a nation is dedicated to something, it may mobilize all its resource and no other society force can restrict it. As a result, the destructive effect and harmful effects of the irrational action from a nation will surpass that of any other society forces.
Nations have been in a state of competition all the time, because many countries are co-existed within the world. The competition is endless. It is embodied in every aspect of national life as politics, economic, military, foreign affairs and culture. When competition aggravates the contradictions at some point, it will turn out in the form of massacre as in war. The national society has never got off this principle.
Analyzed in the view of human nature, there are two factors that can determine competition between nations:
The first one is continuous belligerence of human nature.
The continuous belligerence of human nature decided the fact that each country coexisting see other countries as its opponent since the establishment of the country. They have to catch up with and surpass the opponent in every respect. Goal of small countries to surpass is medium-sized country. Goal of medium-sized country to surpass is huge country. Goal of huge country to surpass is superpower. Goal of superpower is further distance from other countries.
Though competition among countries involves every respect for life of nation, its focus is economy and military. If only the strength of economic and military can be enhanced, overall strength of a country will be enhanced along with that. At the same time, competitive strength in every respect as politics, diplomacy and culture can be enhanced accordingly. So, any country will attached priority importance to the construction of economy and military.
The very important aspect that can decide strength of economy and military is scope of territorial, population size, national resources and so on. For example, small nation like Singapore which may win approval and respect of the world for its high level of development and civilization has no impossible to be a huge country leading affairs of the world or small areas; populous and territorial nation like Indian which is a little poor and backward cannot be negligible by anybody for its scale of country. That is why a nation hides its expansion ambition latent at bottom. This attitude goes with the state of competition. Then, the competitive way of a nation will develop to the way of territorial expansion in the process of catching up with the other and finally become a huge country or superpower. For only the way of territorial expansion can enhance the scale of territorial and population size. And only by that way can a nation own more resources. So, strength of the nation will be stronger. And the best way of expanding the territory is the war.
The second factor is extreme selfish of human nature.
It is a selfish act of expansion and protection by wars. Its most characteristic is the fact that one may take delight in other people's pain; take achievement in other people’s loss; take the goal for nation in millions of people’s deaths and injuries which are from not only people in the opposite country but also its own people. The pain is for both. But, the nation can not give up competitive for immorality of expanding and plunder. The extreme selfish of human nature roots deep in bottom of heart, which make expanding of nation unavoidable.
As to that, any nation realizes the point of unavoidable expanding clearly. So, each country is trying to prevent expanding and plunder by others. The most effectual means of that is developing economic and military. For one nation can have sufficient capacity in resisting foreign aggression, only if the strength of economy and military enhances so as to enhance the whole power of nation. Since each nation has that sense of crisis and urgency, it means anyone of them is unlikely to have the sense of security under the circumstances of many countries coexist. The sense of crisis and urgency cause each country run on and on like hell with the fear of delaying even a moment. If a nation hasn’t get others surpassed, they will surpass you. It means to be invaded and killed when your country is surpassed by others.
When the direction of national development controlled by this sense of crisis and insecurity attach certain level with development of economy and military only, a nation can feel inevitably that development of economy and military limited to its own country has been not enough to enhance national power. At such times, ways to continuous enhanced power will instinctively lead to ways of territorial expansion and plunder to foreign countries. This illustrates that country preventing itself from aggression can necessarily turn to a country invading others if only time is ripe.
Given all that, if it is to be said that national competition led by continuous belligerence of human nature is competition with initiative, then, extreme selfish of human nature will necessarily lead a nation to passive competition. Any country who doesn’t take part in such a competition will be died out. Competitions no matter initiative or passive, therefore, will necessarily walk on the way of expanding and plunder. Any country can get rid of the rate as invading or causing to be invaded in national form of human society. No one can maintain personal integrity during chaotic times.
III. Double enhanced effect for stimulus to development of science and technology
National competition may lead to another phenomenon as firm dependence upon science and technology from a country.
The content of the competition is comprehensive strength in total. The keynote of comprehensive strength is the strength of economy and military. But, the strength of economy is basis for the strength of military fundamentally. Basis for the strength of economy need efficiency constantly improved and wealth steadily accumulated. As we know, economic efficient depends on enterprises. The enterprise is source of strength for national economy, as well as that for national power. The whole development and effective of enterprise matters the strength of national power.
In terms of current situation, the globalization of the world economy is major feature for world economic life. With further integrative trend of world economy, this feature will be more and more apparent in future rather that less. Well, what can be depended on, if we want to be a winner in competition of international markets?
In the course of long history since evolution finished, humanity has been in a state of self-sufficient all the time. The capability of adaptation and remodification is limited. We didn’t realize the power of science and technology, until the explosion of industrial revolution in the middle of the 18th century. The train was propelled by a steam engine whose power was stronger than the power exerted by thousands of horse in pulling. The plane took us to fly into the blue sky, which made humanity achieve the dream of flying in fairy tales. Television and telephone brought the images and sounds far from tens of thousands of kilometres away close to eyes. The speed of a computer is faster than that of hundreds of thousands of excellent mathematicians…Potential had never been felt more than 200 years ago was created by science and technology. So, the realization that enormous capacity of creating wealth by science and technology of people increased. Also, people made the conclusion that science and technology are the first productivity. So, competition of modern enterprise become to competition of science and technology.
As the fact that enterprise whole improvement represents the increase of the country's economic strength which make a country be able to increase funding for military simultaneously, so as to increase the strength of a country’s military and the whole strength of a country. Therefore, science and technology become the core element which can influence country's overall interests.
In fact, the development of science and technology can provide more productive means for war directly. Military has priority on the appearance of a new achievement of science and technology ever. Construction of modern national defense has already dated us out the bloody fights of the cold weapon age by the sword and spear. A modernized army needs a series of hi-tech products and hi-tech means. Furthermore, the dependence on science and technology by armies in the future will be stronger. So, the heightened action on the strength of military by science and technology not merely indirectly but also directly and significantly. All those enhance the importance of country interests by science and technology.
Since there are the same interests and requirements between countries and enterprises on the development of science and technology, the relationship will turn on characteristics as interconnected and interdependent on the development of science and technology between countries and enterprises and form logical relations following:
① The enterprise can greatly improve the economic efficiency through the study, development and application of science and technology. Only by dependence on science and technology, can not an enterprise be died out in the fierce marketing competition. As a result, the enthusiasm of study and development of science and technology by an enterprise is irresistible; ② The increase of economic efficiency of an enterprise simultaneously means the relevant increase of strength of a country. Such raising is not only embodied in the strength of economy, at the same time, it can lead the increase of strength of military directly and decide the increase of whole strength of a nation finally. Therefore, a country can achieve relevant interests through the development of science and technology; ③ So, a nation may use its source of power to support the study and development of science and technology by enterprise and to stimuli enthusiasm of study of science and technology by enterprises, as well as try every way to increase the study capability of science and technology of enterprises; ④ The further new increase of economic efficient of an enterprise simultaneously means further increase of whole strength of a country. It made a country stronger to be able to support and stimuli further study of science and technology for enterprises.
The capacity on the study and development of science and technology promotes and enhances mutually between country and enterprise. Thus, it has added infinite impetus to the development of science and technology. The dialectical fortified relationship of development of science and technology between country and enterprise here is called double reinforcement effect of boosting the development of science and technology, or to be called double reinforcement effect in short.
The double reinforcement effect is a necessary phenomenon of national society. It is necessary results of competition among supreme power under the state of many countries co-exist. Especially after the industrial revolutionary, the characteristics of double reinforcement and its trend are both more apparent. The enormous power of science and technology after industrial revolution is clearer. As the energy of science and technology become strong increasingly, the very clear trend made the country and enterprise see the importance of science and technology clearly, so as to make double reinforcement effect stronger and stronger.
Then, though the main factors for promotion of development of science and technology are country and enterprise, the ultimate liability for runaway development of science and technology is the country. While, the ultimate reason is many countries co-exist. For, as the strongest form of power for human world in the stage of national society, nation should have had one lofty duty that charge the world well with the attitude of being responsible for humanity. Any deviation from human Values should be resolutely put a stop by political power of the country. The task of safeguarding the interests of mankind cannot be completed by enterprises.
However, a country is impossible to shoulder the burden. Because if only there are many countries co-exist, human frailties can decide a fact that the relationship between countries must be competitive. And the competition often will represent in the form of wars. The war is the most bloody killing action among human community. Failure of a war will be at the expense of death of the country and race slaughter. So, any country must see the problem of coping with the threat of war and improvement of the country’s strength in competition as the most important ones. This firm attitude will never be changed.
Then, no matter competition of economy and military or whole strength of nation, the key factor is competition of science and technology. This determines that as a country who holds sovereign power in human world, it will not have the decision to restrict the development of science and technology, to the opposite, it may have endless initiative for developing science and technology. This attitude of one country will not falter, even if whole existence of humanity was threatened due to science and technology. Because whole existence of humanity is business for all in future, and the conclusion made finally needs to be thought rationally; the necessary death by failing to competition is business of one’s own in short term, and the conclusion made finally only need to be thought briefly.
III. Humanity unitary action
Restriction on development of science and technology matters many aspects and the task is long and tremendous, so it needs strenuous effort that depends on the strongest form of power for human world. Modest power can not shoulder such burden. Just like that nation is the strongest form of power in the world. It is unthinkable of action on restriction of science and technology without a country’s effort.
But now, phenomenon as following is apparent in the present circumstances that there are many countries co-exist, each country acts of its own free and compete mutually. Nation, as the strongest form of power under this circumstance, is destined to fail to restrict the development of science and technology. Then, how will the condition be can us achieve our goal?
It first needs strong motive on such aspect, if the strongest form of power wants to try this. While it is not enough only to be with the sense of crises for threat of whole existing of humanity, if we want the strongest form of power produce such strong motive. In addition to this, the strongest forms of power should be made sure of the fact that the threat will not fall on themselves for any other’s existing insurance or for ruling position, once they made the decision of restriction of development for science and technology; and also they should be sure of the fact that other forms of power can never destroy the rules to make them fail to succeed by one basket, even as the fact that such destructors may get more benefits.
Obviously, the strongest form of power should not be separated, if requirements above have to be met. Because the phenomenon as each country acts of its own free will necessarily bring competition and confronter, as long as the strongest form of power are separated. In such a case of competition and confronter, all the efforts will melt into nothingness.
Upon that, the conclusion can be drawn understandably: since it is not impossible to fulfill the target of restriction on development of science and technology by the separated form of power, we have to consider taking appropriate measures for concerted action of globalization.
The so-called concerted action of globalization refers to concerted action of the whole of mankind. It requires people all over the world strive together to fulfill the restriction on development of science and technology unshakably and unanimously without any disturbance within local areas. At the same time, the action for restriction on development of science and technology must be uniform and enduring. The line should not be broken through for millions of years.
In relation to the stage of human society as social formation, let’s discuss further the problem of concerted action.
For nation is the strongest form of power of human society in national society, the requirement of concerted action of people all over the world is also the requirement of concerted action of each country. Every country should act up to such a principle consistently. Loss of any country is not allowed. If conduct of only one country is beyond the pale, the effect can be not merely on the fact that there will be more fruits of science and technology produced, but it will lead chain reaction so as to make each country break through all restraint. And it will become abominable like today finally.
The natural weak point for humanity decides the continuous belligerence of human nature. Competition, comparison, vainglorious and pugnacity are permanent characteristics along with human society. Well, if only one country break through the restriction on development of science and technology, it means the strength of its economy and military will be far ahead of others so as to gain a landslide victory to other countries. Once the dominant developed to a significant extent, the country will be accustomed to giving orders and being predominant, even wayward killing to other countries. It cannot be received by leaders and people of any country. From this point of view merely, no country will let the development of science and technology alone by other countries, while itself was numb.
Furthermore, if only one country break through the restriction on development of science and technology，it means the strength of its economy can be far ahead of others and the standard of living for its people can be also in the front ranks of the world. And there will be conducts of science and technology that are more attractive appearing. No matter the rise in income or appearance of new conducts, there will be green with envy for people of other countries. They will not give up easily and will require the government warmly to break through the restriction on development of science and technology. If not, they will unseat the government together. The leader for a nation will never give up his dominace instead of benefits for all.
Section III Effort for Unitary Action of Humanity
After we have made clearly the attitude we should have on science and technology and the conclusion that concerted action should be taken to restrict on the development of science and technology, if to avoid humanity extinguish, the next issue is to discuss how to fulfill the target of concerted action by all humanity.
People have ever done and are being done a series of efforts in the respects of harmony of stand for each country and unification of action for humanity. The efforts include politics, economy, society, environment, military and so on. But the focal point is mainly centered about the issue as how to prevent war. It’s because the most bloody and terrible self-destruction for humanity have always been the war. The harm to us from a war can be recognized most clearly by humanity. However, in the present epoch of the development of society, things have changed dramatically. At the back of he most terrible various disasters, the direct source is science and technology. Especially, the disaster led by science and technology has not been simply destruction of wide scope, but the annihilation of the human race. If so, it requires us to renovate hundredfold, thousandfold and even millionfold efforts to restrict the development of science and technology. Because we will have no chance to regret or make a new start, if the extinguish come into truth for our own lapse.
It deals with whole existing for humanity. All the other value seems to be insignificant in front of such value. The incomparable importance required concerted action for all humanity to be absolutely thorough, coherent and permanent.
The past human endeavor on unity and coordination of the world can not be called no persistence. Among them, the most comprehensive and the heaviest two effective efforts are the foundation of the international alliance and the United Nations.
I. The international alliance
The international alliance is the first universal international organization of history for humanity and the first system to be organized to coordinate world-wide action and guarantee collective security for the whole earth. The reason for the unprecedented foundation of the international alliance at the beginning of the 20th century is the result by recalling the past with pangs in the heart after coming through the situation of dog-eat-dog.
World war I which broke out in 1914 lasted for more than 4 years. It is the first extremely miserable war upon a world wide scale that all the major powers then were involved in the war. More than 10 million people are dead and more than 20 million people are wounded. The direct and indirect cost of war came to $ 43.6 million which is 10 times more than the total sum of cost for all those wars in the past 200 years.
It was astonishing and apprehensive to face with such great destruction. Someone had advocated building up a universal international organization during the war and using the international organization to unite and coordinate issues of the world to make for the peace and to prevent other major wars. At the meeting of the Paris Peace Conference for solution of the problems after the war, the U.S. President Woodrow Wilson suggested fourteen plans, in which he injected greatest enthusiasm and desire is the foundation of the international organization. It had been put in as the first section in the Treaty of Versailles.
The foundation of the international organization made people all over the world hopeful, especially some small and medium-sized country that was always being put upon deeply by huge countries. They had seen the international organization as their umbrella for their national security and sovereign equality. President Woodrow Wilson who was also known as a scholar believed in that the international organization is a reliable guarantee for world peace.
The international organization aimed at playing a positive role in international affairs since its foundation. With expectation from people all over the world, a series of work had been carried out. But this proved that the international alliance often contained no active substance and the effectiveness is very limited as an international organization.
The first severe challenge encountered by the international alliance is Japanese Aggression upon Taiwan. On September 18, 1931, the Japanese Army stationing in northeast China attacked suddenly the core city of Shenyang and without warning. Then it occupied major cities and towns along the South Manchuria Railway lines. After the Incident, for ceasing such blatant aggression from Japan, the Nanjing government then had great expectations of the international alliance and made a decision that whole power for solving the problem is to be devolved to the international alliance. So, the Chinese government raised appeal to the international alliance council soon with the requirement of action by the international alliance to reset the state to that before September 18th Incident.
The international alliance council conducted a study to it for complaint of Chinese Government and passed the resolution. But Japan did not pay attention at all. Under the circumstances, the international alliance council passed the resolution a second time only to meet opposition. So, the international alliance council decided to combine into a specialized fact-finding mission to carry out the enquiry to the Far East.
Wrapping up 6 months of investigation, the fact-finding mission of international alliance completed International Alliance Fact-finding Mission Statement related to the situation of China. After some discussion, the resolution about fact-finding mission statement was adopted by the international alliance. The resolution announced that the occupation of Chinese territory by Japanese Invaders was unlawful and asked Japanese to withdraw all its troops from northeast China. At the same time, the statement declare d the puppet regime set up by the Japanese was unlawful, either. But there was no crackdown on Japan and the special benefits for Japan in northeast China was admitted. It is a resolution with some compromise for Japan actually.
But even such resolution with compromise was still refused to accept by Japan. The representative of Japan went out suddenly. And the Japanese government declared formally to withdraw from the international alliance later. The international alliance could do nothing in front of arrogant ways by Japan. They could only denounce Japan under a moral obligation to end the issue.
The second severe challenge encountered by the international alliance since Japan launched the invasion into China is Italian Aggression upon Abyssinia.
Under the pretext of a border incident happened in the area located between Italian Somaliland and Abyssinia on December 5, 1934, the Italian troops occupied the area and forced to sue for compensation for the losses from Abyssinia. The unreasonable request was met with a flat refusal by Abyssinia. As a small country, it had no power to fight against Italian in terms of military. So Abyssinia rested hopes in the international alliance. On January 3, 1935, Abyssinia lodged a complaint with the international alliance to appeal them to step in and help stop the invasion.
The international alliance was actually controlled by England and France at that time. The international alliance should not stands aside for the invasion of Italy whether in the light of the tenet of maintaining League of Nations or in the light of standing up for behalf of England in North and East Africa. However, England and France treated the act of invading by Italian with caution then. They did not consider how to maintain justice and League of Nations but to be afraid of offending Italy so as to force Japan allied with Germany. So, its attitude is quite ambiguous.
The compromise of England and France fed the ambitions of Italian invaders. On October 3, 1935, Italy attacked Abyssinia formally. All things considered, the international alliance had to give sharp reaction to declare that the action from Italy is aggressive act for its so flagrant aggressive acts. And they also decided to impose economic sanctions on Italy which did not contain important products as oil, coal, steel and so on. That was simply due to the attitude of non-cooperation from France. Of course, sanctions like that were doomed to failure.
Italy troops used chemical gas against Abyssinia defenders who put up a strong resistance. Then, Addis Ababa, the capital city of Abyssinia, was captured and the nation was swallowed up.
What’s worth thinking deeply about is that emperor Haile Selassie for Abyssinia went to Geneva in person. He spoke at the meeting of international alliance on June 30 to accuse Italy of the crime of aggression and ask for intervention by the international alliance to check the aggression of Italy. He also appealed the international alliance to extend loans to Abyssinia for resistance to Italy troops to purchase firearms. However, there were 25 abstentions, and 23 against the pitiful request. The only one affirmative vote is from Abyssinia itself. The international alliance gave up its sanctions against Italy on July 4. It is visible how insignificant the strength from the international alliance was. How weak the sense of justice from countries all over the world is in face of power.
Daring not to be a champion of justice, League of Nations gave in to power. Its feeble made all countries disappointed deeply, at the same time, led a convenient way to aggression of fascists.
It was the weakness of the international alliance in the attitude towards Italian aggression to Abyssinia that stimulated the ambition of aggression of German and England. On July 7, 1937, Japan made war extending throughout China. The important reason led to this result was the result of the thorough understanding to the international alliance by Japan.
It was Hitler who made the international alliance lose its function. Encouraged by Mussolini who pulled off aggression to other countries, Hitler decided to challenge the Treaty of Versailles according to which German, the failure of World WarⅠ, could not quarter his troops inside 50 km of the east bank of the Rhine. This are should be a non-military zone.
The existing of non-military zone of the Rhine was viewed as eyesore, because it finished military expansion by German and made a space of German in the West for defense to France. Hitler had wanted to have the nail out all that time. But German was only just beginning to reorganize to arm its troops then. So, its strength of military could not fight against UK and France. If the International Social stepped in to limit its rights, German impossibly achieved the goal he wanted.
However, the appearance of maintaining justice by the international alliance, UK and France as well as the attitude of appeasement policy toward strong power encouraged Hitler to tempt fate. On March 7, 1936, 35 thousand Germany troops moved towards non-military zone of the Rhine by order of Hitler and built line of military. At the same time, they occupied a few important cities and towns along the west bank of the Rhine.
Such an open violation to the treaty of Versailles made France at risk directly. The France government then advocated to sending armies to the Rhineland. The voice for forcing German to withdraw its troop was truly high. But when it came to ask for British opinion, the Great Britain who was not willing to run the risk of war opposed both the tenets from France and sanctions against German. The French government missed the chance to send armies to the Rhineland and put a brake on expansion of Hitler’s ambition due to its daring not take action alone. What needed to emphasize is that the international alliance then were controlled by UK and France actually at that time. Their attitude made the international alliance only accuse German of violation to the treaty of Versailles instead of taking any effective measures to the problem of German’s sending armies to the Rhineland.
For that caught on by fascist Germany, Italy and Japan, Hitler realized the international alliance played a jerkwater role actually and could be put aside thoroughly to do what ever he wanted.
So, German annexed Austria on March, 1938. And then it occupied and annexed Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia on October the same year. Then again, it fished in troubled waters to divide Czechoslovakia and made the country die.
Hitler German openly tore up the German-Poland non-aggression treaty to attack the sovereign state Poland. That forced the UK and France to declare war on Germany. World WarⅡbroke out so.
Since World WarⅡ, the international alliance hade existed only in name. After the war, the international alliance declared dissolved formally.
From preparation to establish, the international alliance has devoted so much passion of wide awake people and political leaders. A powerful lot of liberty-loving people were looking forward to it. They even imaged the foundation of international alliance may bring permanent peace to humanity. However, all those expectation and hopes existed only in short fancy. During the 26 years of its existence, the international alliance did not stop even a great conflict.
The international alliance had managed in another important affair which was the organization and coordination of international disarmament. Then, under all kinds of effort from the international alliance, the international alliance made no substantive advances in the international disarmament, either. In fact, the whole contribution from the international alliance was only to offer a false hope and certain experience for later foundation of the United Nations.
II. The United Nations
Humanity is a kind of animal that will never learn from the experience. They begged peace, but the hope of which will always be a mere shadow. World WarⅡwhich was more tumultuous broke out only less than 20 years after World WarⅠ. World WarⅡproduced more disaster than that of World WarⅠ. The number of wounded and death caused by the war is 100 million population, among which 55 million were died. The economic loss produced by the war was countless.
Experienced the great disaster of the two World Wars in person, the expectation of people for peace was greater. They hoped that there would be an organization to control the world and ensure its peace truly. Birth of the United Nations is the result of people’s strongly appealing for peace.
(1) Weakness of safeguarding world peace
The main aim of the United Nations was to safeguard world peace and build collective security system, which was also the purpose for its foundation. The United Nations was founded for 60 years. Though World War Ⅱhas not broken out, Local wars have been incessant. Various armed conflict still happens from time to time. The number of death population caused by those wars and armed conflict were more than 20 million which was double as much as that in World WarⅠ. As counted, there were about 200 great conflict happened. The scale of some of them was very large and the number of countries involved in was large, too. For example, the Korean War, the Vietnam war, Middle East Wars, the Iran-Iraq war, the Iraq war and so on. The United Nations showed the ability at its command inadequate to achieve the goal of safeguarding world peace and dealing with the local conflict.
The basic factor for influencing the United Nations to safeguard world peace is the difference on country interests. As an international organization, its authority was entrusted by the states. The interests of sovereign state had always been above that of the United Nations. All decisions from the United Nations will be necessarily boycotted by some countries, as long as they collided with their interests. If those are countries with strong strength, or supported by huge countries behind, the decision made by the United Nation must not be carried out. So, on the aspect of interference to the United Nations for safeguarding world peace, the interests of huge countries are especially more important among interests of countries. All the important decisions made by the United Nation can be carried out only when according with interests of huge countries or not greatly colliding.
As far as UN peacekeeping, from the first time taken such an action of the first Middle East War on June, 1948 to the time Cold War ended in 1988, there were only 13 UN peacekeeping. But the situation turned since 1989, there were peacekeeping every year. Sometimes, times of the peacekeeping may over ten. It was because the interests of the two camps led by the two super huge countries as the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R during the Cold War were hard to balance. It is difficult to reach an agreement on one action of peacekeeping. Never had one country would like to discuss one problem standing in the side of benefits for the all human beings instead of its own benefits, there were always phenomenon like that the decision one country approved must be disapproved by the other one on the stage of UN or vice versa. So many farces staged made the world disappointment. Since the end of the cold war, contradictions among huge countries has tended to relax with the disintegration of the Soviets, competition among countries turned to the aspects of social development and economy more. Each country hopes to have a peaceful and stable international environment. They have common hopes for peacekeeping. So, times for action of peacekeeping are much more than before.
But, with the formation of basic configuration of the world as one super country and many huge countries since the Cold War, America who is the only one super country pays more attention to control the UN to take action of its expanding in the name of peacekeeping and counter-terrorism. Of course, the UN will not take orders of the USA everywhere. So the USA takes action without agreement of the UN alone, once they do not agree with each other.
In the year of 2003, the USA planned to overturn regime of SADAM in the name of anti-terrorism. The behavior of American was clearly visible by people all over the world. The so-called anti-terrorism is just an excuse. The substance is to pursue hegemonism for oil in the Middle East. So, most countries were set their faces against such behavior of the USA. The broad and forceful wave of demonstration parade lasted for a long time. The spontaneous behavior in common of people the world over was unprecedented since the cold war. The traditional main ally as France and Germany all took strong stand against it. The USA had ever attempted to get the authorization of the United Nations' Security Council. But except American and England, all the other three permanent members had expressed disapproval of the war. They even said to take exercise of veto power. A small number of countries as the American and England used force with Iraq by one-sideda bypassing the United Nations, and launched the overthrow of the Taliban and Saddam regime without authorization.
Open affront to the UN or acts of aggression bypassing the United Nations happened frequently during the 60 years of the existing for the UN in defiance of strong opposition by the international community. For instance, Israel seized the area of Arab to prevent foundation of Palestine. The UN has ever passed its resolution many times to stop the action by Israel. But Israel got behind the agreement depending on the support of the USA. The UN could not manage it, especially when it came to the actions that were participated in by huge countries. Sometimes, the UN even dared to air it. Such as the cases following: the Warsaw pact states launched an invasion into Czechoslovak, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan, Nato War Against Yugoslavia, the U.S. Decision making about Invading Grenada, American invasion of Panama and so on. The most greatest local war since World War Ⅱ as the Korean War and the Vietnam war were not well treated by the UN on the aspects of settling a dispute and avoiding killing, for the support behind them are all huge countries.
(2) The rocky road to disarmament
The United Nations Charter pointed out that the UK will aim to cut expenses of military for Human resources and economic resources as much as possible. Under the Charter, the UN General Assembly and the Council will be in charge of disarmament and readjusting arms.
In order to promote the process of disarmament, the UN has built up a series of organizations for talks on disarmament, for instance, threat for humanity in relation to Nuclear Weapons. The Atomic Energy Commission was established by the UN under its council earlier than the day of January 24, 1946. However, the long road of disarmament for 60 years made the UN suffer a loss of prestige. The result of its action for disarmament is even ironic.
The Soviet Union planned to set out on an experiment for H-bombs with a yield of 56 million TNT in Novaya Zemlya. Such tremendous force of explosion equals nearly 3000 times the yield of the bomb dropped on Hiroshima. Such a nuclear test did not adapt to the expectation of nuclear disarmament then. So, on October 27, the United Nations Genera1 Assembly ratified the agreement of imposing a moratorium on nuclear test of Soviet by a vote of 87 to 11, with one abstention. But in defiance of strong opposition by the international community, Soviet carried out its experiments on time 3days later.
The entry into force of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty needed endorsements of the 44 nuclear-capable countries and the approval from the authority concerned of these countries. But until now, there were ten more nuclear-capable countries without approval or endorsements of the Treaty, especially the USA that is the hugest nuclear states country. The American vetoed to ratify the treaty in the vote of the Senate in 1999. Furthermore, the now U.S. President Bush has decided not to send the treaty to the Senate to be voted again.
As an international organization, the authority of the UN was given by states. If the states do not give the authority to the UN, it can do nothing. Especially when it comes to the action from the USA, there will be nothing the UN can do.
The verified agreement of the Biological Weapons Convention has a long process of negotiation for 6 years. They finally came to an agreement basically on July, 2001. The treaty seemed to be signed until the USA declared to refuse to sign the agreement suddenly on July 25, which made all effort from the UN useless and the fruit of the negotiation for 6 years ended up in nothing.
Outer Space Treaty passed by the UN in 1976 sets down prohibition of deploying and using weapons of mass destruction in outer space as well as foundation of military base in the other stars. But the United States, Russia and other countries had launched the plan called Space Military formally. The Space Troops of the two countries had been raised.
It is to be regretted most that the USA withdrew from the ABM Treaty. The ABM Treaty was signed between the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R. in 1927 to ensure nuclear deterrence for each other by forbidding the development of anti-ballistic-missile system nationally. The purpose of the treaty is to muzzle nuclear war through balance of nuclear terrorism. The strength of the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R. after the Cold War had not been that 30 years before to be similar. American ambition was to have a lead over the rest of the world in military for long and dominate the whole world. All the other countries have realized the possibilities that the America would go its own way to withdraw from ABN Treaty early. In order to avoid such situation, the 54th Session of the UN General Assembly ratified the agreement of Preservation of and Compliance with the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty by a vote of 82 to 5 on November 29, 2001. It was the third year that similar resolution was passed by the general assembly of the united nation. But in defiance of strong opposition by the international community, president of the United States declared to withdraw the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty.
The ABM treaty is backbone of system for international arms control. In the area of international disarmament, there are 30 more treaties linked to it. The revocation of the ABM treaty had shaken system of international disarmament actually. The result is conceivable.
In retrospect, all the work that the UN done on disarmament is as follows. In the year 1945, the USA was the only one country that had atomic bomb. And then in 1946, it began to work at international nuclear disarmament. The actual results for its talks on disarmament were that types of nuclear weapons as well as the number of countries had nuclear weapons and nuclear warhead were increasingly rising so that now the number of countries had nuclear-weapon states openly have been 8. And the actual number should be more than that. The total amount of global nuclear weapons had been 70 thousand when it came to the top. Even now, nuclear warhead could be counted in the number of 10 thousand. Besides the bomb, there is Hydrogen Bomb, neutron bomb, high-pressure shock-wave bomb and so on produced. And a fourth generation nuclear-weapon has been in the plan for its study and Manufacture secretly.
The UN seemed to pass many revolution of disarmament after the Cold War. But the American without restraint is marginalizing the UN more and more. Any resolution may not restrict countries like the USA substantially. In fact, the affect on the other huge countries is limited, too.
(3) Dilemma for coordinating contradiction of economy and society
Different from the international alliance, the UN has duty of coordinating international economy, society, culture, education, health and so on. Then, compared with maintaining peace of the world and international disarmament, it will be much easier for the UN to pass a resolution about statement, declaration, treaty, term and protocol. That is because the problem of economy and society has always been right for common in moral and interest. But, the resolution of the UN would settle for a lot less when to be carried out. The resolutions with common interests are easy to be carried out. But they are hard to be carried out, when the interests of each country are different, conflicts occurred between the long-term and short-term interests or between the national and international interests.
In term of war and disarmament, the attention that paid by the world of problems of economy and society are less and the sense for urgency is weaker, either. So, the strength of the surveillance dynamics for the resolution passed by the UN is weaker. This gives the action of refusing to catch on the resolution made by the UN no real appreciation under the circumstances of its overflowing.
The UN held the eighth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offender in capital and largest city of Cuba. The congress had passed 46 previous resolutions within only 10 days. The record is impossible to be broken on war and disarmament. That is because the problem of deterring lawlessness is the common interests of all countries. The treatment of offenders is ethical question that be recognized. Even though some countries would not like to increase benefits for offenders, they will never show their disapproval openly.
The drug-dealing together with drug-addiction is social effects of pollution. Any country will see that as monsters. The topic about drug control can be welcomed naturally by the world. The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, the UN Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances and a series of resolutions are easier to be passed. Hundreds of programs against drugs made by the UN are easy to be carried out relatively.
The terrorism is also social effects of pollution. So the revolution as Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes against Internationally Protected Persons, including Diplomatic Agents, International Convention Against Taking Hostages and so on can not be denied certainly.
The problem of environment and sources are great events concerns sustainable development for us mankind. Only from the convening of the first international conference of mankind environment in 1972 to convening of the first international conference of mankind environment in 1992, 180 more terms, treaties and agreements were on environment and source had been signed under the intervention of the United Nations during those 20 years. But those terms, agreements and treaties are hard to be carried out. For example, excessive use of fossil fuel and organic fuels together with pouring a large volume of smoke to the air makes the temperatures of the earth increase and natural disasters frequently taken place. So regulation of emissions of greenhouse gases became common cries of the world. The amount of Fossil fuels used by the USA is the largest, so the America refused to ratify the Kyoto accord on emissions of greenhouse gases and emphasized the function of forests-protecting and planting more than the responsibility it should shoulder for its excessive use of fossil fuel.
Another example is that protection of forests is an important means for protecting biodiversity, preventing land desertification, and controlling global warming. In September 1991, the UN had passed Proclamation of Paris to appeal to the world for protecting forests and rebuilding green vegetation of the earth. Then the Statement of Principles about Forests, Convention on Biological Diversity and Convention on Combating Desertification were passed. But the poor developing countries were not able to improve productivity by developing industry together with science and technology. So, they killed the goose that lays the golden egg. They cut forests, sold sources and grazed excessively in order to solve the problem of food and clothes.
Consequently, it is not so easy to pass the resolutions above of the UN. Even though they are passed, it is still a difficulty for dealing with the problems fundamentally. By and large, the issue is that the contents concerned in those resolutions do not fit interests of some countries well. When there is conflict between long-term interests and partial interests, the nations usually choose the latter. And when there is conflict between country interests and individual interests, the nations must choose the former.
Section IV Radical Choice-establishing of a Monolithic Society
Seeing that it has been a failure of the two supreme efforts for a unity based dream for all of humanity in history as the foundation of the international alliance and the UN, what is the reason and how can we achieve the target of humanity unity? How can the restriction on development of science and technology be fulfilled finally?
I. The origin for limitations to the role of international organizations
(1) Conflicts between interests of country and international organization for granted
The international alliance and the UN are both founded in world war. Their foundation results from the realization after the bloody slaughter. Such international organizations all stands for the side of humanity unity by coordinating benefits of different countries to achieve the goal of preventing war, disarming, maintaining peace, eliminating poverty and benefiting the world. But, in the practice of the international organizations, the international alliance did not prevent World War Ⅱ, the UN did not prevent hundreds of local wars since World War Ⅱ, the continuous increase of nuclear warhead, the destroy of environment or growth for poverty population.
It should be said that the international organization did not turn a blind eye to all those, to be the opposite, it have stood for the whole benefits of humanity to coordinate each sides actively with all means it could take, once there were affairs against peace or influence benefits for humanity. The international organizations has done all they should and could do only to get little effect.
The first reason of its unable to unity actions of humanity by the international organization is the conflict of benefits between international organizations and countries.
As far as the principle, the international organizations consist of nations, the foundation of the international organizations are sponsored by leaders of each country. So there should not be great conflicts of benefits between countries and the international organizations. However, it is not true. The conflicts for benefits happened frequently which lead to the result that the international organizations can not achieve the goal of coordination for benefits of each country and unity for action of the whole humanity.
Spots in human nature decides that partial interests can gain the upper hand, if there are conflicts between partial interests and overall interests; immediate interests can gain the upper hand, if there are conflicts between immediate interests and long-term interests; temporary interests can gain the upper hand, if there are conflicts between temporary interests and root interests. That is the sense for benefits of humanity view in human nature, which is the result of short-sighted humanity.
Such human frailties are mainly manifested of countries by phenomenon as following: the interest of the country can gain the upper hand, if there are conflicts of benefits between country and the world; the interest of the modern generations can gain the upper hand, if there are conflicts of benefits between modern generations and descendants; partial happiness and existing can gain the upper hand, if there are conflicts of happiness and existing between individuals and the whole humanity.
Generally speaking, the international organizations, among the interests of all quarters above, represent long-term interests, root interests and general interests for us. That is because the origin, original intention and duty of the international organizations imply long-term interests, root interests and general interests for humanity.
Both the international alliance and the UN were founded for the same purpose. Elitisms initiated to create the global organizations of great generality from the view for the survival of humanity as a whole and the fundamental interests and well-being. They did so in view of the enormous destruction and casualties of the two World Wars and in order to avoid such human suffering. It is precisely because those international organizations were founded from the very existence of mankind as a whole starting with the well-being, so they are overall organizations formed for all rather than local agencies founded for the interests of a certain part. Furthermore, the interests of the relationship they represent must be overall interests, long-term interests and the fundamental interests of humanity.
The main purpose and duty for League of Nations was to stop the war and the reduction of armaments. Its focus is the overall interests of humanity rather than local interests and is long-term and fundamental interests, rather than the interests of immediate and surface. Purposes and duties of the United Nations are more extensive in terms of relative to the League of Nations. In addition to safeguarding world peace and the reduction of global arms outside, it also involves social, economic, cultural and other aspects. To this end, the United Nations is committed to the eradication of poverty, environmental protection and the fight against drugs and international crime, etc., all are on the perspective of overall interests, long-term interests and the fundamental interests of humanity.
Of course, international organizations are not doing everything objectively well to the overall situation of human interest, long-term interests and the fundamental interests. For example, the United Nations is not in favor of limiting the development of science and technology, but also to encourage the development of science and technology, this can only say that the United Nations so far has not really recognize the science and technology to human survival, a huge threat to the whole, it can not be said that the United Nations as a whole do not care about the human survival. In another example, in the history of the United Nations, there is indeed some justice contrary to human aggression and the indulgence of the big countries do, it is because the United Nations to stop this aggression can not and do not want to be completely lead to the collapse of international organizations, such behavior is the United Nations last resort, not the original intention of the United Nations is located.
In contrast, countries tend to maintain only the interests of the country, the interests of contemporary people and some people's happiness and survival. They represent the local human interests, immediate interests and surface interests. The reason why this may be true, first of all because the country itself is the concept of a region, the state is necessarily the primary consideration of the governance of their region, and its terms of reference is in the region within the scope of, human beings do not have the overall, long-term and the fundamental interests of the priority requirements. In contrast, the call of duty to country is bound to first consider the interests of the national level, and can not be the whole world.
According to results, we know that the continuous belligerence is the inherent weakness of human nature. In national society, there are many countries co-exist in the world. At the same time, it is inevitable of such belligerence among those countries which appears as competition of national overall strength, comparison of the national standard of living, and the pursuit of achieving political aspirations by leaders of a nation, etc.
In cases that so many countries co-exist, there will always be individual countries with solution of some problems that only has been based on their own interests rather than the overall interest of humanity. Not only the disastrous effect caused by them on interests of mankind will undid efforts of other countries, but also the unilateral action of these countries is bound to make them gain appropriate interests, which eventually enhance national strength. At strong enough strength, the country will be able to oppress the other countries that put the overall interest of humanity on an important place, while ignoring the partial interests of their own country. Therefore, those countries who give top priority to the overall interest of human beings would actually be on the losing side. Furthermore, the losing side here does not mean what we have known before in general. A small and weak country can been oppressed or invaded by great power at the expense of national subjugation and genocide, as well as the lives and blood of millions of people.
Similarly, in cases that so many countries co-exist, there will always be a number of countries that insist on the pursuit of interests for present generation in disregard of the interests for the future to improve the standard of living for present generation constantly. However, those countries who put interests of the future on an important place will meet opposition from modern people for no immediate interests gained, and status of the ruler will be shaken then. Thus, the rulers will have lost right of sovereignty for the country. Also, that usually means that head of themselves will lie at feet together with their family and follower. Understandably, how great the price is for the rulers!
Let us now look at the attitude towards fundamental interests, such as the whole existence of humanity. As we know, the problem of whole existence for humanity is a conclusion drawn through wise consideration rather than an urgent problem lies ahead. Such a conclusion is focused on the future. It is impossible at all for the two as following to consider the whole interests of existence for all mankind at risk of losing well-being and survival of people at home, as well as rule and lives of their own. That is, the countries with fear of being in a passive position under attack from the competition, or the leaders of state with fear of losing leadership positions by not complying with the shortsighted requirements from modern people. Because human survival is a matter for all in the future, and that the national interest is an immediate thing for the country itself.
To sum up the above arguments, you can clearly see that in the national society with the existence of international organizations, conflicts between partial interests and general interests，immediate interests and long-term interests，as well as temporary interests and root interests for mankind have naturally evolved into conflicts between the country and the international organization. The country here is a representative of partial interests, immediate interest and temporary interests. The international organization here is a representative of overall interests, long-term interests and the root interests. As long as there are countries and international organizations coexist, there will be conflicts between country and international organization without a doubt.
(2) International organizations are unable to condition behavior of the country
International organizations are created and constituted by the countries. And their authority is conferred by countries. But when the international organizations exercise their rights, they can find no support by countries. The contrary is indeed true, it is just the county that as the biggest factor to hinder the action of exercising rights by he international organizations.
In July 2004, the China Central TV Station had interviewed The United Nations’ former Secretary Gully. In talking about the Rwandan genocide, Gully came out with the truth that he had sent a request for troops to more than 40 countries, especially to the USA for many a time, since he recognized how serious the situation of Rwanda is. But, there was no one accepted his request, which bred the disaster of Rwanda as a result (there are millions of people died unnatural deaths in less than 100 days of the Rwandan genocide). No country will to see their soldiers die or put hands in pockets for peacekeeping. And the UN did not have the Blue Helmets then, as a secretary, he can only ask for money, troops and weapons, even the aircrafts for transporting troops, to each country.
Gully considered that the UN secretary is both secretary in normal circumstances and captain in an incident for each huge country. Huge countries, however, prefer secretary to captain.
Interviewed by CCTV in October 2004, the then UN’s secretary Anna had said almost the same thing. He said that UN should try its best to be a good secretary in normal circumstances, but it should also be a good captain in an emergency. However, huge countries do not need captain so much as the secretary following directions. The Gully and Anna’s words strongly implicate the embarrassment of the UN. They are the real portraiture of UN’s situation.
The people sovereignty thought is the political thought widely accepted by modern democratic countries, according to which, the power of country is given by the people, that is to say, the relationship between people and country is similar with that between the international organizations and the county. But, a country can regulate the conducts of people by laws, and people must live, study or work within the sphere permitted by law. Otherwise, the country will make use of the regime's organs which is in full effect to persecute. Quite different from that，power of the international organizations is given by the country, and the rules of the international organizations have been signed by all member states, so it is legally binding upon every county, however, the country can be excused from this regulation of international organizations and even had always done things against the international law, but not to be investigated substantively.
The reason is that the countries have a series of means to maintain its own political power and exercise its sovereignty independently, and they also have the capacity to mobilize economic resources and society resources most effectively. However, the international organizations do not have such means and capability. They can only perform their own function by power of the countries. If those countries would like to provide such power, the international organizations can exercise corresponding duty, and vice versa. Especially when a country is powerful enough to a certain extent, it can shake off the restriction from the international organizations.
It has been proved that the roles of all conventions, treaties, agreements, resolutions, appeals, declarations and so on formed by the international organizations are limited. They may be a little useful when all the huge countries reach a unanimous decision. But when there are conflicts with interest of some huge countries, especially the super countries, all above will be only a piece of waste paper. Also, hopes can not be anchored on peace guaranteed by international organizations, because huge countries can destroy such peace carelessly and make the guarantee from international organizations ineffective completely.
It is the supreme authority that makes the power of a country be above that of the international organizations actually. On one hand a country can hinder the decision made by the international organizations, on the other hand the international organizations are unable to control actions of the country. At the same time, each country has separate interests of its own, and those separate interests are quite different from each other. We must take care of the interests of some countries’ at the expense of interests of the others’. Therefore, the target of unification of humanity action can’t be achieved at all by the international organizations whose strength is less than countries’. It can only play a small part at most on co-ordination. Whether the effects of such co-ordination are good or not depends on attitude of country. When there tends to be identity of interests for each huge country, its effect on co-ordination will be better or vice versa.
We know that restriction on development of science and technology will inevitably influence the interests of countries. There are so many issues related with science and technology, such as the strength of a country, the benefits of enterprises, standards of people's living and so on. Therefore, tight restriction on development of science and technology is undoubtedly the serious challenge for interests of a country. To lead the great action of tight restriction on development of science and technology which involved with the long-term interests, overall interests and fundamental interests for humanity and have a bearing on whole existence of humanity, we must rely on a global organization with strong power rather than an international organization. That is because the weak international organizations can not be opponent of the country. Various measures and decisions for uniform of human action of the international organizations will, sooner or later, be obeyed and destroyed by countries with supreme authority and independent sovereignty.
II. Only through international regime can our actions united
(1) International regime and unified society
We can rely on neither the international organizations nor the country, if we want to lead the unprecedented great action of tight restriction on the development of science and technology that lasted millions of years. There are 200 countries around the world today. It is their vicious competition without disorder that leads to the rapid development of science and technology, so that mankind has been in the risk of destruction brought by science all the time. Extreme means as the law of the "triple-gain" is just the inevitable result of station society. In fact, only the elimination of doing its own in each country and united action of all mankind can avoid disorderly competition of countries and limit the development of science and technology. Then mankind will be possible from drowned.
So, what kind of organization or what form of organization can complete this difficult and sacred and great mission?
About 10 thousand years had passed, since we entered the era of human civilization. When we look at all forms of organizations human beings have had, such as villages, tribes, countries and international organizations, or enterprises, associations, societies and a variety of research institutions, etc., it is the country that has the greatest strength as leadership or organization. The country rules its people by using the army, police, judicial and other government agencies. Even in modern democratic countries, all state power belongs to the people on theory, however, a person must act within the law under the control of a country. The state will be able to use their own means of its power to impose sanctions on a person, as long as he or she breaks law of the country. The sanctions range from the punishments involving the economy and the reputation such as fines, exposure and so on to the extreme punishments of deprivation of liberty or the lives such as imprisonment or even execution.
There are too many means for the rule of a country, if classified carefully. For example, economic means, administrative means, military means, propaganda means, legal means and so on. The form of national society we are being in now is an enduring social form and has strong vitality. The era of the national community had begun soon after the beginning of civilized society. Until today, we have reached the level of highly developed civilization. But, the human world is still controlled by the state power. All those mentioned-above is because rule of the society organization form as a country is very powerful and the management of the community is very effective.
However, the state as a powerful means of rule and an effective means of management can only play a role within the country. All rule can be valid within the scope of the state. But we should obey the laws of another country and accept its rule and management, once left the country. Then the another country mentioned-above can have the same powerful means of rule and the same effective means of management, but all are only limited to that country.
It can be seen that under the national social formation, all the countries have formed their own highly independent region which is the country's boundaries. Within the respective boundary, each country has been operating independently and has its own separate interests. The country determines its independent acts according to its own interests. Its regime is extremely powerful and its management is highly effective. No other force can really insert into it.
Well, it is necessary to establish agencies adapted for the force of the rule and management of a country’s regime, if we want to drive the world strongly and unite action of all mankind. But the region for governance of institutions is the whole world rather than one part or a few parts of the world. We may as well call the agency as the world power.
The so-called world power is the establishment of a uniform regime worldwide. The establishment of the world power means the unity of all mankind. Everybody is ruled by the regime, and any region that humans can set foot in is included in the jurisdiction of the world power (including outer space, as well as other planets human beings have landed on). World power has authority and strength of management and rule as the state power. But its scope of governance is all mankind. It will replace the role of country to become the highest authority in human society. Completely different from the national society, the highest authority above is the one and only. It not only rules the whole of mankind, but also considers all by standing for the respect of overall interests and long-term interests and fundamental interests of all mankind. Therefore, only the world power can lead the long-term, great and arduous actions whose influence covers everyone and every region of the world, such as the action of restriction on the development of science and technology which impact such a serious view on many groups and their interests.
The establishment of world government must be on the premise of elimination of the state. It will enable the management of the world to become a whole. The form of human society will transformed from the national society into grand unified society.
Standing on the perspective of our knowledge of the political structure and political system today, we can find the world government is the highest executive authority agency for the grand unified society among the relevant agencies of world power. It establishes different policies and takes different actions with overarching vision for all mankind in stead of partial vision for one country. Furthermore, it deploys resources and formulates administrative rules uniformly from the long-term and fundamental interests of all humanity.
In addition to the unified executive power institutions such as world government, the grant unified society has its unified legislature and judiciary. Everyone in the world is learning, working and living under the control of unified law. Everyone has responsibility and obligation to comply with such a uniform law of the world, and should be supervised or investigated by a unified judiciary.
World Government, world legislative and world Judiciary constitute major component of the world's regime. Of course, there will be much more other authority departments subdivided from the world’s regime, such as the army, police, department for surveillance, department for business management, department for culture management and department for public administration, etc.
(2) The two questionable point for the grant united society
1. The issue of the ability for world power’s control
When talking about the issue of only world power can achieve the limitations of science and technology and use the existing safe established achievements of science and technology well, somebody must argued that many problems in various countries can not still be solved by the state power, how can united society fulfill limitations of science and technology, as well as the rational use of existing scientific and technical success?
There are two ways here to answer this question: first, in national society, the state power itself does not will to meet the requirements above rather than can not and vice versa that it encourages development of science and technology desperately, because the state power will consider a problem only to stand of interest of the country. Only to encourage the development of science and technology can a country be powerful and remain invincible in the competition. The political power of the world in grand united society is based on consideration of all mankind. It has the desire to achieve these objectives above first in order to avoid the extinction of the human being and to ensure the general well-being of mankind. Undoubtedly, a regime with no such desire, or even doing the opposite thing, can not bring that off, let alone well. While the other regime with this desire first can do it at least, certainly it will be better than the one who doesn’t have the desire and even does the opposite thing.
Second, the strength of the regime is very powerful actually. We can not simply approach a problem with the perspective of the strength of today's of political power, for example, the society now is a democratic society (I also consider the democratic society as a good community and I believe that community in the future should also be a democratic society) and a peaceful society on the whole, so the means used by the regime is limited. In fact, there are many contends of political power means not yet clear to some people. The strength of regime is very powerful. To cite just two cases, the first one is that the rule of the Catholic Church in Medieval Europe had lasted a thousand years. As we all know, the Western civilization today is from the classical Greek civilization, but during the reign of Catholic Church, the best achievements of the classical Greek civilization all have been forced out by the Catholic Church and lost so. The Renaissance later is a windfall of the Crusades. Those troops robbed a lot of books from the Arabic region and translated them, so that they find their ancestors such great men. There were rationalist philosophers as Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, as well as great scientists as Archimedes and Ptolemy.
Take one more case of China, during the time of the Sino-Japanese War when the Japanese army run after the Chinese army, Chiang Kai-shek regime blew the big Dam of the Yellow River into pieces in order to block the Japanese army. The monstrous waves drowned a lot of Chinese people and, of course, blocked the Japanese offensive. Such means can not be thought of in times of peace anyway. But in a time of life and death, many a thing can be done.
Then, as a global power, a lot of means can be used when humanity are in the time of life and death. Of course, this does not mean that we do those things above, but it can tell us that as a regime, it has a strong ability to deal with the crisis in fact.
2. The issue of it is possible for grant united society to split
In view of the stories that there has been bound to be unification after prolonged division and division after prolonged unification in the history of mankind, someone must argue that if the grant united society splits one day, will it wreck all the progress that had been made before?
To answer this question, I should first say that means of extinction can not be a means of easy reach. If it can be caught as long as one stretches out his arms, there must be people who use it against humanity. There may also be somebody inadvertently touch it and let extinction forces broke out with carelessness.
Therefore, we need to ensure the means of extinction have a considerable distance to us. Many scientific and technological achievements are to be sealed up, once the great unification of mankind comes into truth. We need to not only ensure sufficient material wealth of mankind, but also seal so many scientific and technological achievements up, so that we will be able to stay away from terrible means of extinction. In once it happens to be backward of a few ages in the development process of human history, that is, no restriction on the development of science and technology at that time that might lead us be much nearer to the means of extinction, people must delay it a little as soon as we recognize that so as to keep a safe distance for us all the time. In this way, even if the grant united society may encounter division and the development of human society may encounter backward in the future history for humanity, we can still keep a certain distance with the means of extinction. So, the humanity is safe. If human beings really do not wake up a long time, which lead us into the abyss of extinction, we can only submit.
(3) Unity of society is not the deliberate pursuit of the ideal society
Historically, many thinkers have envisaged the establishment of an ideal society. Plato described the ideal society in the Utopia as public property, the emancipation of women, the importance of education and promoting public wife. Moore in his book named Utopia also described the ideal society as public property. But communisms advocated are different between Moore and Plato. Plato promoted the implementation of property public in the noble hierarchy,. Moore advocates the implementation of the whole society of public property; Moore advocated the emancipation of women the same, but that should be monogamous. And he also advocated that any person must work to support themselves.
China put forward the ideal Confucian society as a society of great harmony, which also advocated the public property as well as meritocracy. And the Chinese considered the common ground between people of the community as to live in harmony, honesty, and trustworthiness. In the vision of ideal society, there are many well-known thinkers that described it as a public ownership such as Aristotle, Campanella and Marx, etc.
Augustine stated in his City of God that an ideal country should be a Christian country first. This is the description from another point of view the society. Those who hold this view are not a few. A large number of medieval scholastic philosophers had claimed so.
More of modern thinkers started from the political theory with hope of achieving the establishment of the ideal countries by changing the country's political system and national system, such as Hobbes, Rousseau and other Enlightenment thinkers. They put forward a theory of popular sovereignty that considered the country's sovereignty is in hands of its people. In order to achieve democracy in huge countries so that everyone can fully exercise their powers, Paine and Mill put forward the idea of representative government. In order to prevent dictatorship, thinkers such as Locke and Montesquieu made to break down the powers of the state, balance power by power and so on.
All of these ideas are put forward by thinkers for justice, kind or people's happiness and power and other factors. And they thought that human society should be designed as they made and called the ideal society. The so-called ideal society is that the best community in eyes of the thinkers. The purpose and original intention for designing such a society is that the thinkers considered such a society most identified with their political ideas and political standards. Perhaps such a society is only the "utopia"-style fantasy which is impossible to be realized, but in theory, it fits a certain political principles well.
The unity of the world has ever been raised by thinkers. Before the year of 2300, Zeno, the founder of Stoic school, proposed a world-state concept. In his view, ration for people are unified and universal. So are the citizens of the world. They live along the common nature. And there should not be differences of race, status and regions. There is only one type of citizen, that is, citizens of the world; there is only one country in the world, that is, country of world.
Marx and Engels also had talked about the issue of unified world. In their view, communist society is the inevitable trend of development of human society and the communist society will perish one day. The premise of that is that classes no longer exist. Therefore, it needs a long process to achieve the disappearance of the country and the unity of the world.
There have been more thinkers in history to put forward unified world. For example, Kant's "citizen of the world" ideology and Kang's "One World" ideology which contained the idea of world unity. However, whether it is Zeno, Marx and Engels, or Kant and Kang, their vision of the unified world are all proposed on the point of view of the ideal society.
However, here the purposes and motivations of the community on the great unification are completely different. The original intention here is not to find a way to establish a kind of ideal society. The reason for community on the great unification is simply because if we do not make such a choice, there is the danger of extinction for humans. For the overall survival of mankind, we can only achieve unity of all mankind and the establishment of a world power. Because only political power of the world could truly make unified of human action, limit the development of science and technology and avoid the extinction of all mankind by science and technology. In other words, the great unification of the community is just the choice we are forced to take.
Nevertheless, the pursuit of the ideal human society is always the eternal existence of the belief. We have created the world's political power to achieve unity of mankind. We must build up an ideal society which accord with the hopes of the people most, try our best in this direction and strive to achieve it with a variety of better ideas for this ideal community. However, no matter how many hopes we have for future aspirations of the community, we can not be out of touch with the premise of political power from the world. Once out of this premise, it means that the unity of human action and business for promoting the development of restrictions on science and technology could not be realized. We will move rapidly to extinction.
There are many factors involved for human society. We put forward the idea of unified society only to be a kind of overall summary form of human society under the regime of the future world. In fact, the great unification of the human community includes aspects of the politics, economic, society, cultural ideology and so on. Different design and composition of so many elements have a direct impact on the realization of human values. We can’t evade the pursuit of the ideal society, on the contrary, we should seriously focus on the overall interest of humanity to the design a community as good as possible. Only then is responsible attitude to the whole humanity with right point of view for our benefits.