The extinction of human being refers to the overall destruction of human being. From the above-mentioned analysis we can draw a definite conclusion, that is, from the view of external factors, taking the sun evolving into a red giant star as a sign, human being do not need to worry about that risk of overall destruction in several billion years. Thus, except the external threat, whether human being can be continuous reproduction in an endless succession depends on them. In addition, from the above-mentioned analysis we can also draw another definite conclusion, i.e. the force of extinguishing human being fully depends on the factor of science and technology. It is because only by relying on science and technology can human being is extinguished. Any other force doesn’t have the capacity to extinguish human being that is a dominate species and greatly intelligent.
Section I Necessary Occurrence of Annihilating Measure No.1
I. Inconceivability of Science and Technology
Development of science and technology is closely linked with history of human being themselves. When you turn up the pages of History of Science, you can find solid experience to identify these facts. The earliest achievement of science and technology in human history was the application and chipped stone tools and using fire. These primitive inventions were just the beginning of human history.
The ancestor of mankind has undergone hundreds of thousands of years’ development, during which, they have overcome numerous obstacles in the field of science and technology. During any period, human being experienced incomprehensible natural phenomenon, had a strong will to conquer nature and remake nature, also, hold nature in awe. The achievements created by science and technology are always unbelievable and imaginable. So many things, which have thought to be unchangeable from generation to generation, have been changed by human being. People even couldn’t believe even though some scientific and technological achievements have been fulfilled, even some scientists leading in this field had the some feelings. The reason for this is that the force of science and technology is so huge that far beyond the subjective imagination and experience.
In order to fully illustrate the inconceivability of science and technology, let me introduce several scientific and technological achievements which have exerted far-reaching influence on human beings, from which you will find that, some achievements are very magic, even from the perspective of today.
(I) Electricity, Electromagnetic wave and the Application
In 1844, the United States Congress established a telegraph circuit from Washington to Baltimore, which was the earliest that taking electricity as information media. 21st, May was the first day of opening of the telegraph circuit. Hearing that information between two places could be exchanged by a wire, people thought it was so amazing. The telegraph apparatus room was crowned by people ring upon ring. Curious people were discussing and betting that, telegraph was not faster than a good horse. At that time, national congress of the Democratic Party was held in Baltimore. The name list of the candidates for President has spread throughout Washington through telegraph. All the bystanders and American politics were astonished and could hardly believe.
It is screaming and ridiculous for us today to discuss that whether the telegraph is faster than a horse. The speed of electricity is almost the same as the speed of light, and is zillion times faster than a running horse. Besides, it is not limited by weather and topography and don’t need rest during intermission. But, at the beginning of 19th century, measures to pass on messages used by human being were horse, boat and two legs of themselves. Though signal fire could send messages, it could only transfer abstract war messages, not detailed contents. Because people have did that for generations, it was natural for them to bet whether telegraph was faster than a horse.
Because of the discovery of electricity, telegraph was put into application. Before making know of electricity and electric current, people could not break away the concept that transferring messages by the movement of animals and themselves. Let us just imagine from the perspective of that times, we could comprehensive this.
There is another thing that is as fast as electricity, i.e. electromagnetic wave. Today, even an ordinary middle school student can know a simple physics theory, i.e. electricity and magnetic can be interacted, from which electromagnetic wave can be produced. This is the basic knowledge of electromagnetics, a sub-discipline of physics. However, it was difficult to discover this regularity. At the early stage, it was nearly unanimously thought that, electricity is electricity; magnetic is magnetic, which are two totally irrelevant things. At the early 19th century, after philosophical thinking, Oersted believed that there is links between electricity and magnetic. After several experiments, in April 1820, he was the first to verify the magnetic action of electricity. In the following, Faraday verified that magnetic could induct electricity in laboratory, and put forward the Law of Electromagnetic Induction. After summarizing the electromagnetic theory, in 1864, Maxwell put forward the deduction that electromagnetic induction can produce electromagnetic wave, which was verified by a young scientist called Hertz later during his experiments. This is the early process of establishment of electromagnetic theory.
Discovery of electricity and establishment of electromagnetics have brought humans into an era of electric appliances. Due to the recognition for electromagnetic induction, electric generator and electric motor were invented, which enabled different kinds of circuits crisscross the country at present time. In the past, the only recognition for people to sky was wind, rain, snow or cloud and fog. But today, we know clearly that, there is a substance existing in the air anywhere, which can’t be seen and touched, but playing an important role, that is electromagnetic wave.
By virtue of electromagnetic wave, we can chat with our friends and family members thousands of miles away anytime and anywhere through mobile phone, just like talking face to face; when we turn on TV and see various entertainment programs and news, we see them just as the real things; we can carry out remote control on the earth for a space vehicle even it flies several billions of miles away and to the distant fringe of the solar system. But we take all these wonders in science and technology for granted.
However, just imagine, what should we feel about if we were back to 200 years ago?
We often see in science fiction films that men living in several years ago come to today’s world through a time tunnel. When they see the images in TV, they are frightened out of their wits and much curious just like see some ghosts and gods. It can be ascertained that, if living 200 years ago, most people can’t believe the reality in today’s world.
In fact, even we have fully understood the speculative knowledge about electricity and magnetic, we are amazing about the scientific and technical payoffs which are brought about by this knowledge.
In 1883, Edison found an interesting thing when he was developing light bulb. When sealing a sheet metal and lamp filament into a light bulb, there was electric current running through the lamp filament and sheet metal if positive voltage was applied to sheet metal; otherwise, there was no electric current. At the early 20th century, vacuum tube was invented on the basis of this research achievement. Diode can be used for detecting action, while triode can be used for amplifying signal.
The invention of vacuum tube created conditions for radio-communication and broadcasting, through which, people can receive radio signals by radio. Music and news can be transmitted in air through the form of electromagnetic wave. They can be broadcast through radio without using the electric wire, which is much better than wire line phone and telegraph.
Based on vacuum tube, scientists developed the first electronic computer at the end of 1945, which could carry out calculation as a substitute for human brain. It was palpable that what a wondrous thing replacing human brain by machine, more wondrous was that this machine was produced by human being, while its computing capacity was far better than any of the smartest person. The first computer was really a huge monster, with total of 18,000 vacuum tubes, weight of 30 tons, covering an area of over 170 square meters. It could operate 5000 times per second. During its 10 years of operation, calculation amount carried out by it was more than total amount of human brain in history. How many people would believe and understand this outstanding achievement before the invention of compute? However, after 60-odd years of today, when we looking back to see computers at early stage, we just can’t help but unanimously think that was just a primitive “department of pediatrics”
In the mid 20th century, transistor was invented by applying semiconductor materials. Transistor not only has the same performance as the vacuum tube, but also has some advantages such as small volume, light weight, long life span, and low cost, low energy consumption and without warm-up. So, vacuum tube was immediately replaced by transistor which was applied in the fields of radio and computer at once. The application of semiconductor materials has undergone three stages, that is, from transistor to integrated circuit to large-scale integrated circuit. A vacuum tube was as large as half of a fist, while the earliest transistor was as small as a rice grains. Later, integrated circuit was formed by combining electronic devices and components and electronic circuit on a chip. At the beginning, an integrated circuit composed several transistors on one piece of chip. With the improvement of techniques, today, a small piece of integrated circuit can contain millions of or even hundreds of millions of transistors.
It was a revolutionary event that replacing vacuum tube by transistor in the field of radio and computer, which has fundamentally improved the performance and features of products. For example, a radio applying vacuum tube was as large as a case, while today’s radio is just smaller than a matchbox. The first computer we have said before occupied several rooms. In 1996, in order to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the invention of the first computer, the University of Pennsylvania in U.S. fully copied the computing performance of the first computer in one piece of chip, which was only 7.44×5.29 square millimeters, even smaller than fingernail of the little finger. But it has integrated 174,569 transistors and had the same computing performance as that of the first computer with weight of 30 tons.
Just 60-year development, at present, computing speed of a giant computer exceeds trillions times per second, that is to say, just for one hour, calculation amount of it will exceed total calculation amount of human brain in history. Could People in hundreds of years before, or thousands of years before imagine this great scientific and technological achievement?
(II) Cognitive Process for Nuclear Energy
At present time, the most powerful force of nature that can be mobilized by human being is nuclear energy. Today, we have made enough cognition for nuclear energy. We can use it to manufacture weapons with annihilating power and to generate electricity. We are not surprised at the fact that a teensy of substance can hold so tremendous amounts of energy. However, it was not at all as 60-year ago.
The cognitive process for nuclear energy fully reflected the inconceivability of science and technology, meanwhile, it showed the limitation of cognition for the mighty power of science and technology, and even the most outstanding scientists lack enough cognition for the mighty power of science and technology in his research area.
The mass energy formula E=MC2 was put forward by Einstein in 1905. At that time, people, even those who believed it was correct, thought it was just a pure theoretical equation and without any utility value. Even though people have realized that what fixed stars like the sun burned was nuclear energy at that time, they thought the gate opening to this energy was so heavy that could only be opened by the power of space objects.
Cognition for elementary particle experienced a long and erroneous process. Until end of the 19th century, nearly all scientists believed that atom was an entirety, the smallest particle in the matter and couldn’t be subdivided any more. On the night of 8th, November, 1895, when carrying out experiment on cathode ray, the German physicist Roentgen chanced on a new beta ray, which had a strong penetration factor. It was called X-Ray for they knew little about it. It caused a great sensation in scientific community when Roentgen published this research result in public. People began to evaluate again the question that whether atom could be subdivided any more.
In 1896, some physicists have discovered that uranium ore could generate a ray with strong penetration power, which was similar with the X-ray, even without irradiation of sunlight or other rays. It was called radioactivity later. In 1902, Marie Curie extracted 0.12 grams of pure radium in laboratory, the radioactivity of which is 2 million times stronger than that of uranium. Besides, it could generate heat without burning. Bases on calculation, heat quantity yielded by it was 250 thousand times of coal with the same amount. Due to slow release, energy yielded by it had little value. It became two new elements of helium and lead after completing release.
In 1898, physicists Rutherford discovered three rays given out by radium when carrying out experiment of inspecting X-ray by radium, that is, α-ray, β-ray, and γ-ray. He put forward the theory that radioactivity was the process of self-transmutation of atom, which have caused great impact on the theory that atom could be subdivided and was an epoch-making events in physics history.
Until this point, during the research on X-ray, some physicists have found that X-ray was a kind of particle flow with high speed. Mass of the particle was 1/1841 of hydrogen atom. This was the first discovered particle which was smaller than atom. It was called electron.
In 1911, Rutherford bombarded gold foil with only 1/ 200,000 centimeter in thickness by alpha particle. He found that averagely, one alpha particle among 20,000 was bounced back. It was obvious that alpha particle met some compact matters with very little volume. Actually, this matter was atomic nucleus. Meanwhile, Rutherford made a further presumption that, there was not only particle with positive charge, but also particles without charge. The particle with positive charge was called proton, while the particle without charge was called neutron. This presumption was verified later.
Physicists were still continuing their researches and experiments. But the goal of them was not for getting nuclear energy. Because research of nuclear physics at that time was not deep enough, imagination for nuclear energy still lacked conditions.
In 1919, during his experiment on bombarding nitrogen-atoms by alpha particles resealed from polonium, Rutherford found that nitrogen atomic nucleus could become oxygen isotope after resealing one proton, which was the first time of artificial transmutation. Later, he bombarded several elements such as boron, fluorine, sodium and phosphor by alpha particle, from which proton was released. It indicated that atomic nucleus could be subdivided.
However, proton was not resealed when bombarding some heavy atomic nucleus by alpha particle. The reason was that alpha particle is positively charged, while atomic nucleuses of heavy elements have more protons with positively charge. Because like charges repel each other, so alpha particle without enough energy could not be able to bombard protons of heavy elements, just like a little kid could not move a heavy stone.
In 1932, during his experiment about bombarding boron and beryllium by alpha particle, Chardwick, a student of Rutherford, found another composition of atomic nucleus—neutron. Because neutron was not charged, it could not be repelled by charge of atomic nucleus. Besides, mass of the neutron was much heavier than that of electron, so it could thrust aside extranuclear electron easily. Actually, discovery of neutron was just one step away from opening the door of nuclear energy.
However, in April, 1933, not a long time after neutron was discovered by his student, Rutherford straight out expressed his opinion during his speech about atomic nucleus fission on London Institute of British. He said, it is hopeless to get energy be relying on this measure (that is nuclear energy), because this method of generating energy is poor and low-efficient. It is just pure theoretical supposition that transmutation of atom will be a power sources.
His prediction was very pessimistic. Rutherford was one of the greatest scientists in area of atomic physics and was generally acknowledged as the Father of Modern Experimental Physics. Besides Einstein, no one could match his outstanding contribution and pioneer status. However, when he was standing at the door of nuclear energy and was to open the door just by pushing it, he put forward such a pessimistic prediction. More interestingly, Einstein endorsed his prediction. This fact served to show that might of science and technology was seriously underestimated by the most outstanding scientists, let alone ordinary people.
In 1934, the Curies bombarded aluminum by alpha particle, and then a kind of isotope of phosphor was produced. Immediately, the isotope transmuted itself into silicon and gave out positron. This was the first time to artificially produce radioactive element.
Encouraged by the achievement of the Curies, Fermi tried to use neutron to replace alpha particle to bombard atomic nucleus. At that time, 92 kinds of elements were discovered. So Fermi carried out bombardment experiments for these 92 kinds of elements one by one. When he bombarded the 92nd element of uranium by slow neutron, a new element with total different chemical property was obtained, which was heavier than uranium. Fermi couldn’t give out explanation for this; he thought it was a kind of transuranium element just because the uranium absorbed the neutron. But this analysis was wrong.
Hahn, Meitner and Bohr made a further verification and correct explanation for this experiment result, the conclusion was: bombarding the uranium by slow neutrons, uranium atomic nucleus would be split into two after trapping one neutron. The so called transuranium element was actually a new kind of element (barium). During the process of atomic nucleus splitting, it would result in mass loss, thus releasing energy. The process of atomic nucleus splitting was referred to as nuclear fission by Bohr, thus, a new term was created in nuclear physics.
This creative explanation was a major breakthrough in nuclear physics. Based on this, Fermi bloodlessly made further speculation: uranium atomic nucleus could release one or more neutrons during the process of nuclear fission, then, these new neutrons continued to bombarding other uranium atomic nucleus, which would release more neutrons to bombard other unsplit uranium atomic nucleus, thus forming “chain reaction”. This “chain action” would be done in a flash and released tremendous energy. This indicated that Fermi has made clear the method and principle of generating nuclear energy, and it was obvious that nuclear energy could be utilized.
However, at the same time, Bohr, one of the giants of science, was still alleged that practical application of nuclear fission was impossible, and given out 15 reasons. Meaningfully, reasons put forward by Bohr were got support from a number of scientists. From this we can see that, how inconceivable the science and technology is, who humbugged all those outstanding scientists.
But, it was understandable. Based on calculation, if one kilogram of uranium-235 is fully made out fission, it will lose 1 gram of mass. According to the formula of E=MC2, 1 gram of matter will generate energy equaling to 20 thousand tons of high explosive TNT when exploding in a flash. You can image how powerful it is. Anyone would be awed with so tremendous power, including those giants of science standing on top of the pyramid. It was difficult for them to accept the conclusion that human could mobilize the nuclear energy.
Fermi’s speculation was verified in several laboratories immediately. Experiment result was fission of uranium atomic nucleus could release 2-3 neutrons. This result served as a substantive proof for “chain action”. The verified “chain action” indicated that nuclear energy would be mobilized, key for opening the door of nuclear energy were got.
However, it was still difficult for scientists to persuade the U.S. politicians to carry out research on atom bomb, for politicians totally didn’t believe this “fantastic and impossible” invention. At last, scientists asked Einstein, who was the most prestigious one in scientific community to write to Roosevelt, president of the United States. Suggestions put forward by Einstein were denied initially by Roosevelt.
From ancient times, biologic hereditary was affected by nature. Appearance of human being, any animal and plant are results of natural evolution and products of biomutation over many generations. Sphinx-like figures or devils in animal forms are figures existing in mythus. Maybe no one can believe several decades ago those human beings can willfully create a species just like legendary God or the immortal, besides, they want the species to be what they like, and with the characters what they want.
But today, by virtue of science and technology, human being has been equipped with the power that only the legendary God or the immortal have. Human can create new species or change characteristics of species according to their own will, including changing themselves.
Why they hold the above-mentioned power is because the revealment of secret for biological inheritance. In the mid 19th century, Gregor Johann Mendel found that there were stable genetic factor in seeds of plant by experimenting with pea. The characteristics of species were decided by the genetic factors. In the 50s of the last century, some scientists revealed the double-spiral structure of DNA, and confirmed that genetic code of biology existed in DNA (genetic code in RNA only for few viruses). The discovery has provided imaginary space for human being to determine characteristics of species. So, a number of scientists began to devote to this.
DNA is a complicated long chain molecule, genes which can determine characteristics of life are each fragment on DNA. Each gene determines the according property of biology. For example, human being has 30 thousand to 35 thousand genes, which determine the appearance, complexion, gender, physique, character and intelligence correspondingly. The rest may be deduced by analogy, all properties of biology have the corresponding relation with its genes, changing of genes of biology can change properties of biology.
Actually, the above-mentioned discovery has identified the convertibility of biological property in theory. It is not difficult to understand. Remove the unnecessary genes in DNA molecule, and paste on necessary genes, then, transplant the new DNA molecule to a proper cell. The species which is created is the species that we need to change its property. Based on this way of thinking, monsters of Sphinx-like figures or devils in animal forms can surely be created, fruits with the taste of plum but large as an apple can be produced, or kidney bean can be grown as big as a cucumber.
If taking the above-mentioned theory as the basis, the next question is technology. It is by no measures easy to change DNA structure. DNA molecule is only two parts per million millimeters, while gene is only a small fragment on DNA molecule. How to cut and paste on such a small gene? It is a technological question that is difficult to be resolved. That is to say, core technology for recombination of DNA molecule is that finding “surgical knife” for cutting DNA molecule and “bonding agent” for bonding genes.
However, only through several years’ efforts, core technology for DNA recombination has been settled. Scientists found that endonucleases of nucleic acid with restriction can be used as “surgical knife” to cut fragment of genes; later, they found several kinds of enzymes which can be used to bonding and recovering DNA split and was called “joining enzyme”. Based on the above-mentioned research achievements, in 1971, scientists carried out cutting and bonding for DNA molecule for the first time, forming a new and different DNA molecule, thus, realizing the recombination of genes.
Evolution of a complicated creature shall be completed in at least hundreds of thousands of years, or more than billions of years. Take human being for example, based on the knowledge of evolution history, it can be dated back to over 10 million years ago when human and apes each going his own way for the first time on the road of evolution. Around 6 million years ago, apes just evolved into human being. While, for human being, it took about 50 thousands of years to finish its evolution. That is to say, it took about 10 million years for human being to complete its natural evolution. However, it only takes dozens of or hundreds of days to create a new species by using genetic technology.
In numerous myths and legends in older times, only God and the immortal can create creatures. But today, the ability of human being to create creatures can compete with God and the immortal. Just think about it, how inconceivable it is.
II. Reflecting on Cognition for Science and Technology of Human Being
The more predominate, the more distant with the mass. The most characteristic of cognition for science and technology of human being is that restriction of thought is very strong. They always doubt that science and technology can realize that. Reversely, powerful force of science and technology always overthrow all imagination and assumption of human being, and bring about unexpected surprise or blow out of the dark. Just because this common psychology, some scientists and philosopher who have an unusual degree of enlightenment are always sneered at or mocked, even persecuted.
As we all know, Einstein, the founder and a comprehensive person of modern physics, has made many scientific achievements in his lifetime. But, none of the achievements can compete with the theory of relativity, which innovated the basic theory frame of physics, resolved many questions that couldn’t settle by Newtonian mechanics, as well as successfully predicted many physical phenomenons.
For example: according to analysis of Newtonian mechanics, for advancing and moving of Mercury at perihelion, it is thought that there is a new planet near Mercury. Actually, this new planet has not been found through years’ of observation. But, if we make deduction based on the theory of relativity, solar gravity creates curve in space, which can give a good explanation for the disparity of 43 seconds in the advancing and moving of Mercury at perihelion. Take another example, theory of relativity predicted that, in high gravitational field, spectrum would move to the red end, which was successfully verified in later astro-observation; in addition, theory of relativity predicted that gravitational field would cause beam to deflex. Einstein has given out accurate calculation that there is 1.7 seconds of deflexion when starlight skims through surface of the sun. This precise predictable data was fully verified in later observation for total eclipse of the Sun.
The world was startled by a series of successes of theory of relativity. Judging panel of the Nobel Prize decided to grant the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics to Einstein. But, some problems occurred when this decision was made. Due to the inconceivability of the theory of the relativity, even the most outstanding scientists could not understand it and opposed to it. The most opposed ones were scientists who have won the Nobel Prize in German. They alleged that, if the theory of relativity was granted the Nobel Prize, they would return all prize medals they have been awarded. Under the great pressure, selection committee of the Nobel Prize had no choice but make a turnabout, that is, grant the prize to Einstein as the founder of theory of photoelectric effect. The theory of relativity was always had no way of winning the Nobel Prize. Continental drift theory, heliocentric theory and biological evolutionism which were put forward before, all met the same destiny. Why should this thing happen?
Based on the analysis for the acknowledgement for science and technology of human being, we can summarized the following two characteristics:
1. Serious Underestimate for the Force of Science and Technology
Recognition and assessment for science will always go two extremes. When we looking back at any time in history, we will find that magic effect of scientific and technological achievements become faint. The longer time of obtaining these achievements, the more indifferent we are. We took it for granted. Everyday, we are keeping intimate contact with these achievements. Just because scientific theories have revealed the essence of them, we can see through them by relying on directions of scientific achievements. After knowing the existence of earth's magnetism, it is easy to understand that why magnetic needle always points to north and south; after comprehending optic principle, it is not difficult to imagine that through combining the lens we can see places that naked eyes cannot see; when we understand the dynamics of machinery, we can imagine the automobile’s operating principle easily. However, before these basic discoveries, theories and laws were revealed, all of these were unimaginable to us.
By contrast, when looking forward to the future, our recognizing attitude for science is totally different. We will always walk into a narrow domain, that is, we are very confident with the scientific achievements previously obtained, and believe that we have mastered so many things. Even though there are many unknown fields for us to explore, we will think that they are not far away from what we have mastered. So, we are restricted to weigh up the power of science and technology in the future by current views. Sometimes, even the most outstanding scientists will get caught up into the situation of self-isolation. Most scientists get into the habit of thinking that researches carrying out by them are the final truth, but actually, most research achievements are periodical ones, which will be replaced by the more advanced ones.
When Newtonian mechanics was established, hardly no one was doubtful of its absolute correctness, all regarded Newton’s theory as Bible in natural science, so did the finest scientists. In the New Year’s Day of 1900, Lord Kelvin, a famous physicist, delivered a far-reaching speech on the New Year’s Celebrations held by the Royal Society in Britain. He said in confidence that, the mansion of science has been built up, what we need to do in the future is just patching work. But there are still two black clouds in the sunny sky, one is ether drift experiment about communication media of light carried out Michael-Molly; the other is what is so called ultraviolet catastrophe relating with radiation from a hot body. Out of Kelvin’s great surprise, it was these two insignificant clouds that shocking the base of classic physics and caused a revolution in scientific community. The theory of relativity and quantum mechanics, born in this revolution, led physics from the era of Newton to the era of Einstein.
Practice has shown that Newtonian mechanics was able to explain many phenomenons in universe from a macroscopic view; while from a microscopic view, it was not able to settle many questions about inner part of atomic nucleus. It was at best a limited approximate truth, which is bound to be revised by the theory of the relativity and quantum mechanics. In fact, today’s theory of the relativity and quantum mechanics are not final truth. Some natural phenomenon cannot be explained by them, subjects of scientific research in physics cannot be directed by them. So the theory of the relativity and quantum mechanics need to be developed and improved, to be revised sooner or later, maybe to be overthrown.
In the history of science, many truths that have thought to be absolutely correct have been overthrown. On the road to creating society and renovating society, we have achieved so many that we never thought before. Though we have achieved so much, we seriously underestimate future scientific and technological achievements, as well as the powerful force resealed by them.
By analyzing the past, it is not overdue to get such an evaluation, that is, recognition and understanding for science and technology of human being are still extremely shallow. Science and technology is more powerful than we have thought, maybe zillion times more than we have thought. Because human being began to devote their enthusiasm to scientific research and technological innovation from the Industrial Revolution, which was just about 200 years. But in the future, there are numerous 200-years’. During this long history of future, no one will know how many magic scientific laws will be dig out by human being, how many inconceivable technological achievements will be created. It is for sure that, we can’t assess and measure contents of science and technology in hundreds of, thousands of and tens of thousands of years by today’s view.
2. Breakthrough in Theory is the Key for Breakthrough in Recognition
Most of the time in the history of civilization, science and technology was isolated. Science was pure science, which was mainly theoretical research, giving focus on revealing the essential law of nature. So it was called natural science for a long time. While technology was related with craftsman, purely referring to research and innovation of techniques.
When degree of overall civilization in human society was not so advanced, it was not necessary to combine science and technology. All products, which were used in production, daily life and social demands, could meet with requirements through intuitional technique upgrading and innovation, even at the early stage of Industrial Revolution. Before the early stage of Industrial Revolution, scientific and technological achievements which were applied in practice could be imagined intuitionally, so surprise brought about by them was limited.
As for the ancient inventions in human history, hermetic art could not be explained by chemical theories; compass could not be explained by geomagnetic theory, other inventions, which could not be explained by theories at that time, were few. Those inventions were almost discovered by chance. Besides these, most inventions could be obtained through imagination and research and development. Whatever complicated and unique of these inventions, it was not difficult for people to understand.
Not long after the Industrial Revolution, science and technology were combined. Major technological inventions were not simple and intuitional things, all became more complicated and abstract. So science and technology became a united term that was hard to separate. In addition, each breakthrough in scientific theory would bring about a series of technological breakthrough, along with the appearance of a series of related scientific and technological products. It was difficult to imagine the magic effect and inconceivability of these new technologies and products for those people who didn’t understand new scientific theories. For example, if we didn’t deeply understand mass-energy conversion theory, it was hard to imagine that a small nuclear could release power that equaled to hundreds of thousands of high explosive; if we didn’t discover theory of biological, it was hard to imagine that biological species, which could be formed in nature through millions of, or even tens of millions of years, could be produced in scientists’ laboratory just in several months, or even several weeks.
So, at this time when science and technology have been combined together, each major breakthrough in recognition for science must be relied on breakthrough in scientific theories. For example, after understanding the law of electromagnetic induction in theories, scientists could associate a series of magic inventions with this theory. Electric generator, electric motor, telegram, telephone and internet were all developed under direction of this theory.
Electromagnetic wave was also discovered under the enlightenment of this theory. After understanding the existence of electromagnetic wave, scientists thought to transmits sound and image by using it, so video, television and wireless telegraph and mobile phone were invented; scientists also thought to control information by electromagnetic wave. So, space vehicle which is billions of kilometers far away can be controlled through remote control. Without breakthrough in theory, there would be no these visualizations and achievements. Meanwhile, just because of this, it was not difficult for a person, who was know a little about electromagnetic wave, even just heard about it to understand when new electromagnetic products were produced. Because there were many related products around him.
Another example, when theory of biological genetics was discovered, it was easy to carry out recombination for biological genes. So, it was not surprising when scientists put forward to cultivate tomatoes as big as watermelon; to let a frog have six legs and a monkey have two heads. Moreover, scientists can make further association based on the mastered theory of biological genetics. For example, under the condition that ethincal was not taken into consideration, human can change their genes so as to become more beautiful or uglier, smarter or more stupid.
The above-mentioned things confirmed one fact, that is, scientific theory is lighthouse that directs science and technology. Technological products which can be deduced within the scope of scientific theories can almost be developed through efforts of human being.
Correspondingly, when scientific theory realized breakthrough, things which were considered to be unimaginable could be naturally accepted by humans only that within the imaginary scope of the theory. Maybe they thought it was magic but understandable. By contrast, without breakthrough in theories, all inventions related to these will be generally considered to be impossible.
Therefore, breakthrough in scientific theory is key for breakthrough in recognition in science and technology. Basically, scientific theory can neither restrict the development of scientific technology, nor promote the development of scientific technology. Scientific theory will not only greatly restrict objective recognition of human being for power of scientific technology, but also greatly promote objective recognition of human being.
III. Deduction: Annihilating Measures will Necessarily Appear
After understanding the general characteristics of recognition of science and technology; we can make out a further description for it: science and technology is forever inconceivable, with enormous force. People at any times could not make out precise description for it, because we stand on a certain history point forever, we have future forever, which means many scientific laws have not been revealed and natural phenomenon has not been discovered. If only human being has not at the end of life, science is limitless, which is just the inconceivability of science.
We must not only admit this inconceivability, but also face it with a correct attitude. Through we are not sure how many and what kinds of scientific and technological achievements would appear in the future, we are for sure to draw a precise conclusion, that is, power of scientific and technological achievements in the future is several times stronger than that of today, which either benefit human being, or destroy human being.
Then, if we take any time in the future as a starting point, though destructive force yielded by science and technology at that time is much stronger than that of the most powerful nuclear weapon and toxin of genetic biology at present, it must not be impassable peak. Because as long as science is developing, more destructive measures are sure to appear. If science continues developing like this, the trend of more and more destructive force will continue. From this we can make a conclusion that, there will be one day when the destructive force is strong enough to destroy human being, then, annihilation Measures will be surely to appear.
Section II Necessary Occurrence of Annihilating Measures No.2
Deduction Based on the Existing Scientific Theories
Human being has created some measures with destructive effect. However, whether nuclear weapons, genetic biology weapons or other slaughtering measures, they are not strong enough to destroy human being.
In accordance with the principle that scientific theory is the basis for instructing technological practice, is the driving force to promote development of science and technology, then, though scientific and technological measures we have mastered are not strong enough to destroy human being, can we deduce that there are scientific and technological force in nature strong enough to destroy human being? If this deduction exists, it indicates that even if scientific theory not advances any more, just by making efforts on technologies, human being will master measures of self-destroying sooner or later. When conditions are just right, annihilating force deduced from scientific theories will be mobilized.
The following are several kinds of annihilating measures, which are deduced from the perspective of pure theory and on the basis of scientific theories we have mastered.
I. Self-reproducing Nano-robots
As a measuring unit in length, nanometer equals to 10-9 meter,
i.e. one-billionth meter, this is approximately one-fifty thousandth of the diameter of a hair. It is a commonly used unit for measuring size of atom and molecule.
In 1959, Richard Feynman, a famous physical scientist and Nobel prize winner, delivered a speech titled There Are More Space in the Bottom, in which he for the first time put forward that human was able to produce a kind of molecule-size micro-machine, and he thought this would be another technological revolution in human history. At that time, Feynman’s idea was scoffed at by many people. But, scientific development later proofed that Feynman was more provident than the scoffers.
In 1981, scientists developed scanning tunneling microscope. By using it, the cognitive world of human being finally reached the nanometer level. In 1990, scientists in IBM Company wrote three letters of “IBM” on nickel substrate by moving 35 xenon atoms one by one, which indicated that nano-technology has achieved the goal of moving single atom.
Most substance around us exists in the form of molecule, which is made of atom. If we can move atom freely, it indicates that we can changing wastes into valuable, turn the foul and rotten into the rare and ethereal. For example: if we move carbon atom and change it into diamond, diamond will be easy to obtain; if we select the gold atom in low-grade gold mine one by one, gold will not be so expensive.
However, it is no practical sense that to realize the goal of nano-technology by combining manpower with delicate instruments. Because a needlepoint-size thing would consist of hundreds of millions atoms. It is worthless even though all these atoms change into diamond if a man move this atoms in his whole life without a moment's respite by using instruments. To realize the attractive goal demonstrated by nano-technology, we must turn to nano-robot for help.
Scientists conceive of manufacturing a molecular-size robot, which will be specially used to remove atoms to realize the goal of human being. This kind of robot is called nano-robot. After conceiving this, scientists have further visualization for development of nano-robot, for example: let these nano machines into blood vessel of human body to clean cholesterol depositing in venous vessels; use these nano machines to trace cancer cells in human body to kill them when the number is small; let the nano machine immediately change the grass to bread; change the recycled ferrous waste to brand-new and top-grade sedans at once. All in all, future of nano-technology is fantastic.
There are even more fantastic things. When carrying out research on nano-technology, scientists found that this technology can change properties of materials. In 1991, scientists discovered carbon nano tube during the process of researching C60, diameter of which is just several of or dozens of nanometer. It was called the King of Nano Material because of its excellent functions. Therefore, scientists thought it would be helpful to use this material to manufacture nano-robot.
Later, scientists discovered a kind of molecular motor, which is based on the Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP). Energy of the molecule-size mini-motor is the high-performance molecule of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) that provides energy for chemical reaction in cells. The success of molecular motor would settle the core components of nano-machine. If grafted other things on molecular motor, it could become nano-machine, which could be used as an engine for nano-robot.
In May, 2004, American chemists developed the first nano-robot in the world. It was a double-foot molecular robot, whose appearance was like a two-foot dividers. Its leg was just 10 nanometers long, which was made up of DNA fragments, including 36 bases. It could walk on the tray in the laboratory. In April, 2005, Chinese scientists also developed sample machine of robot which could be operated within nano scale. As far as the scientists concerned, the next step was to let the nano-robot to carry cargo just like carry one atom or one molecule.
Compared with the value that a nano-robot could be created, manufacturing a nano-robot was extremely expensive. It was too small. Though what it did was meaningful, the efficiency was too low. Even if a nano-robot worked hard without stopping, its workload could only be calculated on the basis of number of atom. Though number was huge, for example, carrying hundreds of millions atoms, total sum was small.
Therefore, scientists got an idea, that is, give out two instructions when programming the nano-robot, one is for the job it must done, the other is that the nano-robot should make numerous self-reproduction so as to let them help to complete the job together. Because nano-robot had the ability to carry atom, and nano-robot was made of atoms with a small number. So, it was not difficult to reproduce it. If things like this, one nano-robot could replicate ten, ten could replicate one hundred, one hundred could replicate one thousand, one thousand could replicate ten thousand…By doing so, thousands of billions of nano-robots would be replicate within a short time. So all is well with everything if the first nano-robot was produced, because billions of robots reproduced by it would complete work together instructed by human being.
However, one problem occurred, that is, what should we do if these nano-robots continued replicating without cease. Our body and the earth are composed of atoms. If the robots take these atoms in our body as their production materials, our body will be consumed immediately. If the nano-robots continue reproducing forever and never, the earth will be engulfed soon. If these robots are taken to other celestial bodies by cosmic dust, they will also be engulfed. It is a terrible thing.
However, scientists are confident that they can control this disaster. They believe they are able to design a program that make the nano-robots to destroy themselves after reproducing several generations, or design robots which can only make self-reproduction under certain conditions. For example: if these robots are specially used for modifying wastes, they can make self-reproduction only under the condition with wastes, and can only use wastes to make self-reproduction. They can’t reproduce under other conditions, or by using other materials.
Though the idea is good, it is too idealized. Some more rational scientists question this idea by putting forward that what shall we do if program of these robots are fault and they can’t stop making self-reproduction? What shall we do if scientists forgot to designing program for controlling self-reproduction? What shall we do if some utterly conscienceless or abnormal scientists deliberately not adding this controlling program when design nano-robots so as to destroy mankind and the earth? If any of the above-mentioned possibility happens one time, it means human race will be extinct, the earth will be destroyed.
Bill. Joy, chief scientist in Sun Microsystems, is a world-renown scientist and is second to none in the computer field. In April, 1999, he pointed out that, damage of nanotechnology may be bigger than nuclear weapons if it is not used appropriately. If the reproduction of nano-robots is out of control, it will become cancer which can engulf the whole universal. No one can assure that nano-box will become Pandora's Box for billions of nano-robots make continuous reproduction, human race and the whole world will be destroyed.
Anyone can understand a reason that one hoppergrass will do nothing; billions of hoppergrasses will destroy the world. If nano-robots which can make self-reproduction will be really produced one day, the end of mankind is around the corner. At particular, when human being master the technology of how to develop self-reproducing nano-robots, if some vicious scientists have the intention to destroy human being, they will try by every means to design nano-robots which can not only make self-reproduction, but also can make rapid transmission through wind, cloud and fog. Undoubtedly, it is the day that human being will be extinct.
In fact, the day when human can completely master this technology is not far away. We have never stop researching for nano-technology including nano-robots for its attractive future of practical application, especially several science and technology developed countries have invested tremendous vigor into the research.
II. Pushing the bigger Miniplanets to Impacting the earth
65 millions years ago, a miniplant with diameter of 15 kilometers impacted the earth. Huge energy released by it equaled to 10 billion of atom bombs exploded in Hiroshimaken, Japan. The impact caused substance of crust and mantle of the earth billowed into the sky. Rain of lava poured in a large scope. Large quantity of fragments blocked the upper sky of the earth, causing the earth in darkness and coldness for a long period. Many scientists believed that it was this impact that resulted to the extinction of dinosaurs.
Based on the calculation of scientists, human being will be extinct if a miniplant with the diameter of 100 kilometers impacts the earth. Then, do we have the ability to pushing such a miniplanet to impact the earth by relying on the force of science and technology?
In the solar system, miniplanets mainly concentrate on the asteroid belt which lies between Mars and Jupiter. Among hundreds of thousands of miniplanets, some of them with diameter of more than 100 kilometers. If we can push one of them to impact the earth, the whole ecology on the earth will be destroyed so as to cause the extinction of human being. Then, based on the existing scientific theory, is it possible to make out such a deduction?
If we want to push a miniplanet to impact the earth, the first condition is that we can get close to a miniplanet.
There have been 40 years when the first manned spaceship was launched into space, nowadays, human has landed on the moon, and unmanned space flight unit has flied out of the solar system. It is just a matter of time for human being to extend to more remote space. At the early time, space ship was launched to space only by using rocket (at present, rocket is still commonly used). However, rocket can be used only once, the cost is very high, and it is not convenient to operate. In order to saving cost, Americans developed space shuttle which can travel to and fro between space and the earth many times, and can send space ship into orbit of outer space. Though today’s space shuttle can be used many times, the procedure of blasting off is complicated, flying speed and distance is limited.
Just like a driving a common plane, which can start off anytime, manned spacecraft flying to Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn or even further has been visualized by scientist. It is no doubt that this goal is sure to be realized. Then, it is reasonable that installing nuclear-power or solar sail on this spacecraft and continuously fly hundreds of millions kilometers. That is to say, based on the existing scientific theories and technological measures that have mastered, the first condition for pushing the miniplanet can be realized.
The second condition is whether can push the miniplanet to precisely impact the earth.
If the miniplanet is 2 hundred million kilometers away from the earth, just a slight deflection on angle, the distance for it to reach the earth will be greatly changed. So, it can be done with great ease that deflects the orbit of the miniplanet by the powerful force of nuclear weapons. In fact, it is not difficult to push the miniplanet, but it is not easy to push to precisely impact the earth, which need to make revision for its path. Furthermore, many times of revision is requested. In order to realize this goal, the best solution is carrying several nuclear bombs on one spacecraft so as to revise the flight track of the miniplanet anytime.
Today’s nuclear weapon is very heavy, but fission fuel which really takes part in the reaction is not much. The main weight is on devices for nuclear start-up. At present, every country is making great efforts to the miniaturization of nuclear weapons. From the perspective of the future, we can imagine that a nuclear explosion device, which is ten times than that of atom bomb of equivalent weight in Hiroshima, is just thirty or fifty kilograms. Guided missile which has been improved is not only lightweight but also precise. A guided missile launcher with precise positioning is at best one hundred kilograms. Therefore, a spacecraft can carry dozens of or even hundreds of nuclear devices which is launched by guided missile.
As for the miniplanet to precisely impact the earth, it is reasonable to imagine that calculating capability of the intelligent computer in future is amazing (such as quantum computer or photon computer). It can be precisely calculated that a nuclear bomb with how much equivalent weight exploded at which place of the miniplanet. Then, the miniplate can be pushed to a certain place on the earth to impact it. If this can be done, the operation will become easier and more convenient.
Actually, the earth has gravity. If only push the miniplanet to a certain scope, gravity of the earth will attract it automatically. Therefore, even if without precise calculation, the miniplanet can be pushed to the earth. Furthermore, by relying on the gravity of the earth, speed of the miniplanet will be continuously accelerated, thus the power to impact the earth will be extremely huge.
In the future that science and technology is continuously developed, if someone want to retaliate on human being through this measure, it is easy for annihilating human race.
III. Super Genetic Toxin
Biological weapon is considered to be a kind of weapon of mass destruction, which can cause greater damages for human life than nuclear weapons. Because biological weapons can kill life by using its biological toxin, which can propagate itself through various routes of transmission. Therefore, even a small quantity of it can cause destruction in a large scope and last for a longer time.
If the modern genetic engineering is further developed, and is used in the development of biological toxin, genetic toxin which can cause super massive death and destruction will be produced at one’s will. Genetic toxin can be designed to destruction ability with various purposes based on specific demands, for example, specific toxins that can cause death of human brain or heart, failure of function of lung or kidney, or putrescence of other organs. Furthermore, the pertinency is 100% precise.
There are three major routes of transmission for biological toxin, i.e. air, food and drink, and contacting with human body. We can make out such deduction: through genetic modification, a trans-genetic biological toxin which can be transmitted through air, food and drink and body at the same time, speed of propagation is great. So far no according antibiotics or other medicines can cure it. Besides, latent period of this toxin is longer. When human being is infected at large, toxicity of it will explode suddenly, and has no medicine to cure it. If this kind of genetic toxin is really produced, it can cause annihilation of human being.
Let us turn to learn about trans-genetic technology, which is a kind of technology that makes recombination for DNA molecule of biology, removes unnecessary genes and combines the needed genes. By using this technology, human being can recombine species with different properties at their own will.
Using trans-genetic technology to kill human being is carrying out recombination for DNA of biological toxin, which can make it have stronger capacity of transmission, life-force and propagation, as well as stronger capacity of killing lethal organs of human and damaging key genes in DNA.
This technology has not only been proofed feasibly by theory of genetic engineering, but also been made various application in trans-genetic technology. Scientists have cultivated various kinds of trans-genetic biology such as bacteria, virus, plants and animals, etc. It is reported that a kind of biological agent of pyrotoxin has been combined in America. By using trans-genetic technology, people can separate DNA of this virus, then combine it with the DNA of another kind of virus. It is privately said that, only 20 grams of the biological agent can kill the 6 billion people in the world.
However, because human being lives scattered on each corner of the world, current biological weapons can not cause infection for all humans in whole. If we want to make deduction of annihilation for human being, we should take these two factors into account when modifying biological toxin:
1. The first thing to be considered is the transmission of biological toxin, which is the key for this deduction. The toxin shall propagate rapidly and possess all routes of transmission, with longer latent period. The period maybe is two or three year, during which, every one can be infected unconsciously
2. Several kinds of toxins that damage different lethal organs of human body can be applied at the same time. Any kind of the toxin can cause death after being infected with a small amount. In addition, any kind of the toxin has features of rapid propagation, extensive routes of transmission, longer latent period. This consideration is based on that the confidence level of annihilating human being is increased manifold. Even though any kind of the toxin fails to do so, other kinds of it can still annihilating humans.
Today’s scientific theory is advanced enough that can totally fulfill the above-mentioned visualization. But, conditions for modification of biological toxin have not been sufficient, that is because scientists haven’t known much about the information representing by each kind of gene in human body. So, they can’t design a particular toxin targeting a certain lethal organ of human body to make destructive attack. However, scientists are carrying out deep research in this regard. Moreover, it is just a matter of time to achieve the goal for there are no insuperable obstacles.
The above-mentioned contents are just a few typical instances. As a matter of fact, there are still more measures to annihilating human being, which can be deduced on the basis of the existing scientific theories. For example: it can be deduced that super intelligent robots which are self-replicating can implement the program of annihilating so as to put an end to the human race. It is for sure that, intelligent robot, which is able to carry out self-reproduction, can be developed sooner or later. In addition, super intelligent robot, whose intelligence will surpass that of human race, can be visualized. If some psychotic scientists (or something is wrong with the robot, or some other reasons) make reproduction of this robot in large scale, and execute instruction of annihilating human being, it will also cause the extinction of human race.
As another example of this: It can be deduced that nuclear burning occurs in seas and rivers, which cause the complete destruction of ecology of the earth in a sudden, causing extinction of human race. This is on the basis of theory of mass-energy conversion. Any substance contains huge nuclear energy. As far as the nuclear fusion is concerned, it is the easiest to drawn nuclear energy from hydrogen. Water molecule in sea and river is composed of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. Therefore, as long as we find according solution can we cause nuclear burning in sea and river, which will make temperature of the earth reach to hundreds of billions of degrees centigrade. If things occur, human race and other life on the earth will go for nothing. Based on the theory of mass-energy conversion, we can deduce that the overall nuclear burning of atmosphere and earth's crust, because substance making up of the atmosphere and crust contains huge nuclear energy.
To sum up, though current technological measures mastered by human race is not advanced enough to destroy them, this ability can be achieved, which can be deduced on the basis of the existing scientific theories. If we can’t take effective control over the irrational development of scientific technology, these measures can be achieved sooner or later. It is just a matter of time.
Section III Necessary Occurrence of Annihilating Measures No.3
Scientific Theory Is Necessarily to Make Breakthrough
Science can make so rapid advancement, just because scientific theory has played a fundamental role in directing the development of scientific technology. Breakthrough in scientific theory is bound to lead to a series of breakthroughs in scientific technologies, which will in turn result to more revolutionary innovation and improvement of technological products and technological measures.
Therefore, when we looking back to think over questions of self-annihilation of human race, the most worried thing is not the deduction of annihilating measures based on the current scientific theories. If we want to produce tools for extinction of human race according to the existing scientific theories, it will be so complicated and difficult to operate. It will be difficult for those people who hold vindictive attitude for human race to obtain these measures.
The most terrible thing is some breakthrough in scientific theory, especially revolutionary breakthrough, which may bring about some new annihilating measures that we can't imagine today. It must have these features: it is convenient and easy to obtain and use, and force of it is extremely huge, magic and weird.
Then, if this theoretical breakthrough is obtained, the inevitability of these self-annihilating measures is for sure, just like we are speculating today that whether human being can land on Mars one day; just like we were carrying out research ten years ago that whether we could change that cumbersome, mauser-type portable phone into today's smart and convenient one. If this moment really comes, extinction of human race is within measurable distance.
I. Cyclic Breakthrough Law of Science
First of all, let us define two terms:
1. Revolutionary truth. Revolutionary truth refers to the birth of a brand-new theory, whose correctness will nearly deny the past mainstream theories and make them become falsehood. This brand-new theory is called revolutionary truth.
Copernicus'heliocentric theory and Darwin's theory of evolution belonged to revolutionary truths, which were total repudiation of the geocentric theory and creation dominated for one thousand years. This denial made the traditional Religion and Theology no place to stand, thus completely shaking the base of obscurant control of feudalist of religion. The birth of revolutionary truth, as well as the process for people to accept it is also a process of emancipation of mind. It must exert deep and far-reaching influence on the direction of science and development of human society.
Therefore, what a revolutionary truth influenced is not only the fields it belongs to, but also every aspect of human society including politics, society, science, culture, art and economy.
2. Revolutionary theory. Revolutionary theory refers to the modification, summary, sum up of the past theories and past technologies, improve it and make it systematic so as to form a brand-new explanation and push science to a new height. This brand-new explanation targeting for scientific theory and scientific technology is generally called revolutionary theory.
Revolutionary theory is not total denial for the past mainstream theories (but it may be total denial of the past technologies), but inheritance and development. It eliminates the irrational parts in the past mainstream, and combines some richer and more practical contents. Revolutionary theory may be the overall sum up and summary for the unsystematic theories in the past, which have been eliminated the irrational parts and then improved, thus becoming an integrated and brand-new discipline.
For example, the establishment of the theory of the relativity is establishment of revolutionary theory, which doesn’t deny the past physics taking Newton mechanics as the mainstream, but inherits and develops it. So does the establishment of genetics. However, unlike the theory of the relativity, genetics makes summary, sum up and improvement for the predecessors’ research achievements, so as to make biological inheritance to be a brand-new discipline.
The establishment of revolutionary theory is bound to promote a series of revolutions in scientific technology. Just as without the theory of the relativity, there will be no explosion of atom bombs which shocked the whole world; without genetics as the basis, there will be no birth of genetic engineering in the following.
There is no subordinate relationship between revolutionary theory and revolutionary truth. Revolutionary truth may not contain revolutionary theory; revolutionary theory may not contain revolutionary truth neither. The concept of revolutionary theory puts emphasis on the theoretical achievement in a certain scientific area, while revolutionary truth focuses on the shocking power for human society.
Revolutionary theory can also be divided into major revolutionary theory and revolutionary theory of disciplines. There are many branches in modern science. Each major discipline contains many sub-disciplines, which can also be divided into many second-tier sub-disciplines, third-tier and fourth-tier sub-disciplines, and so on. Each discipline may generate revolutionary theory.
Development of science is pushed forward in zigzag way as a wave. Though we can’t foretell in details what scientific achievements we will obtain in a longer time, there is regularity to conform of development of science; breakthrough in science is also in typical regularity, which is a kind of Non-linear cyclic law. It is called Cyclic Breakthrough Law of Science or Cyclic Breakthrough Law for short.
Cyclic Breakthrough Law can be demonstrated by the following Block Diagram of Cyclic Breakthrough Law. Let us make a detailed analysis for the Cyclic Breakthrough Law by combining the following diagram.
Block Diagram of Cyclic Breakthrough Law
2. The first-class cycle is the earliest process of reflecting, researching and summarizing for science. During this process, the first-class investigation is the initial understanding for nature of human being. As a kind of intelligent creature, human race can carry out reflecting and summary for this investigation, which is the earliest related scientific research and called the first-class analysis. Scientists conduct summary, improvement and systematization for this investigation and analysis, thus forming the first-class revolutionary theory.
The establishment of the first-class revolutionary theory is a major breakthrough in science; meanwhile, it indicated the completion of the first-class cycle of science. The first-class revolutionary theory will direct scientists to carry out the second-class investigation for objectives. It is needs to be emphasized that the second-class investigation is one that be directed under the first-class revolutionary theory. In fact, it is a more rational investigation. Scientists will conduct the second-class analysis for the results of investigation. It is also rational analysis. The second-class analysis is not only under the direction of the first-class revolutionary theory, but also carry out check-up and questioning for the first-class revolutionary theory. Thus, after the second-class investigation and the second-class analysis, scientists will make modification, elimination, supplementary, improvement and systemization for the first-class revolutionary theory. Therefore, a new revolutionary theory is born, which is the second-class revolutionary theory. So far, the second-class cycle of science is completed.
As a theory that is more perfect, more comprehensive and more in-depth than the first-class revolutionary theory, the second-class revolutionary theory will also serve as direction for the third-class investigation and the third-class analysis, which is the beginning of the third-class cycle. Repetition goes on until science is pushed ahead to the N-class cycle and will continue.
3. Scientific cycle revealed by Cyclic Breakthrough Law can be classified into major cycle and minor cycle, also mother-cycle and son-cycle. For example, electromagnetism is a branch of physics. Not only the development of physics follows the Cyclic Breakthrough Law, but also the development of electromagnetism.
However, as a branch of physics, breakthrough cycle of electromagnetism is just a sub-cycle of breakthrough. Breakthrough of the first-class cycle in electromagnetism, i.e. the first-class revolutionary theory, is just a periodical result in modern physics, which can be considered as a part of analysis in the third-class cycle in modern physics.
At the same time, electromagnetism has its own branches. Compared with cycle of physics, electromagnetism is just a sub-cycle, but as for breakthrough cycle in other branch disciplines and branch technologies, it is a mother-cycle.
4. There is no stride on the road of science. The process of cyclic breakthrough is a gradual process. Each link is the basis of the later breakthrough. So, each link is dispensable, whether it is scientific theory or scientific technology.
Just because there is no stride in the development of science, we are often restricted and confused by the current conditions of science when we visualizing the future of science, thus leading to serious underestimate for super force of outbreaking of future science. We are accustomed to taking the force of today’s science as a reference to evaluate the force of science in the future.
5. The sensation for scientific cycle of ordinary people and scientists is different. The former understand science through sensibility, while the latter understand science through rationality. Therefore, sensation and understanding for scientific development of ordinary people lags behind of scientists.
However, in any event, a birth of a revolutionary theory will be doubted, or even rejected by many people at the first beginning, including not only some ordinary people, but also many scientists. People are mentally accustomed to the previous mainstream theory. Compared with it, the revolutionary theory has leaps, and the span of leap often excess people’s experience, which necessarily lead to the suspicion of correctness of revolutionary theory. It is a common phenomenon that revolutionary theory is doubted and attacked at the beginning of birth, which can be called disidentification for the leap of scientific development, or disidentification for the leap for short.
Most of us have this psychology of disidentification for the leap. Until now, many people still firmly believe that scientific theories mastered by human being nearly reach to limited truth. It is because the psychology of disidentification for the leap is creating trouble. While this kind of psychology is seriously affecting the evaluation for the future of science, we found a contradictory phenomenon which is seriously affecting the warning for destructive force of scientific technology in modern society, that is, people are becoming more and more hardened to the emerging achievements of science and technology. This needs to be concerned about.
When photography technique was invented at the beginning of 19th century, people should stand motionless for several hours in the sun if they wanted to take a photo. Even if that, curious people were willing to have a try. When the X-ray was initially discovered, people were surprised about that. It became a hot topic of the streets. Anyone wanted to see his inner structure in body through X-ray, including royalties. When the electric light was still on the experimental period, journalists were thunderstruck by it. However, we can see today that any invention or any new technological discovery can hardly cause such wonderment or sensation. People have seen so much. Everyday, there are numerous new technological products come into being. It will not take a long time that people will know there are new breakthroughs in which industry or which discipline. People have taken that as a matter of course.
Meantime, we can find that, the emergence of any invention in the past will draw general recognition and concern from the whole society. While discussing its wonder, people would visualize the future of this achievement, and discuss the positive and negative results brought about by it. So, benefit of the achievement for human being in the future was always analyzed thoroughly, whether it was positive or negative.
But today, people have even experienced the explosion of atom bombs and witnessed the cosmonauts landed on the moon. So even if more great scientific achievement can’t cause sensation. Facing with the emerging new achievements, no one is willing to visualize and evaluate future of them under the condition that they don’t cause so much sensation. Maybe some rational person will repeatedly remain the damages they will bring about in the future. But, people will have no interest in these just because they have taken for granted. It is called Development Numbness for this numbness in the whole society exhibited when accepting the achievements of scientific technology.
There is another factor for the Development Numbness. Generally, people who evaluate the security of scientific technology are scientists. People who evaluate the security of a ceratin research project or a certain scientific achievement are the scientist himself who are carrying out this research, or related researchers. If the evaluating result for this project and this achievement is positive, it will bring about many benefits, including: advancing the identity and status of the scientist; benefiting for them to get more research funds and more private economic returns after they put the achievement into production and application. Influenced by profitability of human, scientists will often deny or trivialize the disastrous effect of the researching project and achievement.
Meanwhile, enterprises (including research institutes and schools) that are financing the research also hope that they can get returns form this research project and scientific achievement. So, it is natural for them to pretermit, even ask or encourage scientists to deny and trivialize the disastrous effect.
Then, discovery numbness necessarily leads to crisis numbness. When we take all scientific achievements for granted and accept them without reflecting, we will surely become numb for the negative effects brought about by the achievement. However, disaster often results from numbness. Before towering waves come, surface of the sea is always calm, but undercurrent is flowing beneath the deceptively calm surface. When the whole society becomes numb, a destructive disaster may be around the corner.
II. Fission acceleration Regularity of Scientific Development
In today’s society, we often feel that we can’t keep pace with the times. We are often under the pressure that we must continue studying because we feel that our knowledge isn’t sufficient. Everyday, when we wake up, we will find that most knowledge we previously learned has outdated. There are many new things emerging everyday. If we don’t learn these, it is difficult to survive on society. So, we often say with a sigh that we are living in an era of knowledge explosion.
It is for sure. It is an era of knowledge explosion, also an era of science explosion. The force of this explosion will become stronger and stronger. The emerging of knowledge and science explosion is just because science is developing in a way of fission acceleration. As for this kind of development mode, we call it Fission Acceleration Regularity of Scientific Development or Fission Acceleration Regularity for short.
Fission Acceleration Regularity can be briefly described as follows: the development of science will necessarily result to the emerging of branches in each scientific theory and scientific technology, which are continuously developed by following Cyclic Breakthrough Law. When they are advanced enough, they will be subdivided again, with more new theoretical disciplines and technological classes. These subdivided disciplines will be developed by following the same law. So on and so on, development of science will be showed in a way of fission acceleration state, thus causing the explosion of science and knowledge. With time goes on, degree of this explosion will become stronger and stronger.
Take physics as an example. Modern physics mainly includes mechanics and astronomy. After fission, it is subdivided into electromagnetism, optics, thermotics, acoustics, statistical physics, particle physics, nuclear physics and solid state physics, etc., including mechanics and astronomy. The above-mentioned disciplines can also be subdivided into more second-class, third-class even fourth-class sub-disciplines as well as various technological classes.
Then, let us look back to see the current scientific branches. It is difficult to precisely calculate that how many disciplines have been subdivided, technological classes included in these braches is countless.
From the perspective of Cyclic Breakthrough Law of Science, we can see that, just because these numerous branches and technological classes are pushing ahead according to the Law, thus causing numerous achievements from major disciplines. That is because achievements of major disciplines are the total amount of each subdivided discipline and technological class. It can be indicative that when a new revolutionary theory is born, outburst energy of it will necessarily excess energy of the previous theory.
It is worth mentioning that disciplines subdivided through fission will affect and spread to other scientific fields. No one will know when a totally independent and new scientific discipline will be born. Just like biology, it is totally independent from physics and other previous disciplines and is a brand-new discipline. Under the condition that threat for the survival of human being brought about by the existing scientific discipline is hard to guard against; it is unpredictable that how worse it will be because new and similar disciplines are emerging continuously.
Section IV Extreme Measure is Necessarily to Be Used
I. “Three Increasing” regularities of the extreme measures
According to magnitude of the killing capability, slaughtering measures can be classified into annihilating measure, destructive measure and ordinary measure. Extreme measure refers to the most lethal slaughtering measure in an era.
Annihilating measure refers to measures which can destroy the whole human race. If it is used, there will be no man can survive, at least persons who isn’t able to escape from the earth, can’t survive any more.
Destructive measure refers to measures which will cause death at least thousands of, at most hundreds of billions of at one time when it is used in commonly dense areas (not places with highly dense crowd) to directly attacking people. If it is weapon specially used for killing, it can be directly called destructive weapon.
Besides the characteristic of powerful killing capacity, there are some other characteristics, such as killing scale refers to once application not many times, killing capacity is the direct attack for the crowd, not attack for other objects then indirect injury for human; in addition, this weapon of mass destruction is only used in commonly dense areas (such as buildings, trains, large-scale transport ship or squares where meeting is holding ) for some common weapons can also cause mass destruction if they are used in places with huge-dense crowd.
Nuclear weapon and trans-genetic biological weapon are both destructive measures for if they are used in a place with commonly dense crowd only once, large-scale bloodshed is beyond the question.
Some other measures, which can cause thousands of, tens of thousands of or even more death, cannot be called destructive measures. For example, colliding a building by an airplane will cause thousands of or even tens of thousands of death. But we can’t say the airplane is destructive measure, for what the plane collides is the building not directly attacking the crowd. It is the tumble down of the building that causes the death of people. Besides, the building is a place with high-dense population, not commonly dense place. Therefore, we can only call the event of the “9.11” terrorist attack in America, during which two airplanes collided the World Trade Tower causing death of thousands of people, a disastrous event, not can’t say the plane is destructive measure.
Take another example, during the World War I and World War II, orthodox explosive could cause hundreds of billions of death, that is the result of using this orthodox explosive many times, not only once, therefore, orthodox explosive can’t be classified as destructive measure.
When the destructive measures are powerful enough that can destroy the whole human race, it is finally evolved into annihilating measure. Annihilating measure is a kind of killing capacity that neither necessarily direct attack for the crowd, nor being used only once. Any measure and any applied method can be called annihilating measure if only it can cause annihilation for human race.
As a matter of fact, we can find that, a measure can’t be annihilating measure if it can cause annihilation for human race by using it hundreds of or thousands of times. Because everyone has the instinct for survival (except few persons with mental disorder), and they will not wait here to let someone kill them. Besides, whether individual or group, they all have sufficient wisdom to guard against attack of various measures. It is impossible that individual and group will guard against and fight back when a kind of killing measure is used for many times. Measures that can annihilate human race by using it only several times are hard to guard against and can realize the goal of extinction of human being. Only these measures can be called annihilating measure. Obviously, what we mastered today is just destructive measures, not annihilating measures. Therefore, today’s extreme measure is destructive measure.
In order to discriminate from destructive measure and annihilating measure, measures which have no destructive or annihilating power are called ordinary measures. During the majority of human history, extreme measures are just ordinary measures. It has only been 60-odd years of emerging of destructive measures (taking the explosion of atomic bomb as a signal); ordinary measure is the sole content in the name list of extreme measure in the previous history.
The “Three Increasing” regularity of extreme measure is the disclosure for the inevitable trend of development of this measure. What is so called “Three Increasing” regularity refers to that extreme measure will inevitably show increasing trend on three aspects, that is, kinds of extreme measure will become more; force of extreme measure will become stronger; people who master the extreme measure will become more. It is called “Three Increasing” regularity for short. Whether extreme measure is on the period of annihilating measure, destructive measure or ordinary measure, it conforms to the “Three Increasing” regularity.
When the remote ancestor of human race was able to walk upright, sticks and stones they used are not only for chasing game, but also for fighting and killing among fellow-creature. This kind of killing measure was the extreme measure at the time. Because the low efficiency of this measure, it was necessarily classified into ordinary measure.
From the primates that was just separated from animals to the explosion of atomic bomb, compared ordinary measures mastered by people in millions of years ago with that sixty years ago, quantities of kinds are as far apart as heaven and earth. There were only stick and stone at the very beginning, next came the stone knife, stone axe and bow and arrow, and then there were sword, blade and pike, following are roer, explosive and cannon, finally there were guided missile, tank, warship and airplane, etc. it is obvious that advancement and development of scientific technologies lead to the continuous increasing of extreme measures. Prior to entering the stage of destructive measure from ordinary measure, kinds of extreme measures are countless.
The explosion of atomic bomb, the earliest destructive measure, opened the new page for using nuclear energy in destructive war. People thought immediately that not only nuclear fission can release nuclear energy, but the outbreak force of atomic fusion would be even stronger. Thus, explosion of hydrogen bomb came later. Therefore, hydrogen bomb was called the second generation nuclear weapon. Today, the third generation nuclear weapon such as neutron bomb and shock weapon have been listed in the name list of nuclear weapons, and the fourth generation nuclear weapon has been included in every country’s research program.
From this we can see, it is obvious that kinds of nuclear weapons are increasing. Though negotiations of nuclear disarmament have been carrying out continuously, the trend of increasing has not been changed.
Moreover, after genetic engineering made breakthrough, it benefited mankind; meanwhile, it was immediately used for killing, which is, getting super biological toxin by changing genetic structure of toxin of biological agent. Thus, trans-genetic biological toxin, a new term, was added to name list of destructive measures. Undoubtedly, if only scientific technologies continue developing, the trend of continuous increasing of extreme measures will not be changed.
Currently, people haven’t mastered annihilating measures. But if scientific technologies continue developing, annihilating measures are necessarily to appear. Annihilating measures in the future will follow the same rule. As for the huge power of killing measures, current development process is from owning destructive measures to owning annihilating measures. After the first kind of annihilating measure is obtained, the second kind, the third kind, or even more will appear. It is indeed a very simple argument.
When kinds of extreme measures are increasing, force of them are enhancing continuously, which is the essential result of the development of scientific technologies. As for ordinary measures, from the earliest stick and stone to guided missile and cannon; as for the destructive measures, from the earliest atom bomb with force equaling one-two ten thousand of equivalent weight of TNT to the largest hydrogen bomb with 560 million tons of equivalent weight of TNT. The trend of enhancing of force is obvious. Reasons for this developing trend are simple and clear.
When force of destructive measures is huge enough, and has the capacity of destroying the whole mankind, it becomes annihilating measures. Annihilating measures have difference in force. Some need many people to operate, are clumsy or difficult to operate and need to be used many times can annihilating mankind. These are initial annihilating measures with force are not strong enough. Some measures are easy to operate, one person can use it, are easy to obtain, can destroy the whole mankind for once. These are forceful and advanced annihilating measures.
As long as human being doesn’t stop the enthusiastic pursuit for scientific technology, initial annihilating measures will surely be obtained later. However, it is just the starting point of annihilating measures. With continuous development of scientific technology, more advanced scientific theories and according scientific technologies will appear sooner or later. Force of annihilating measures will be stronger. As long as human being is not extinct at that time, any annihilating measure is at best called more advanced, or more forceful measure, but can’t be called the most advanced or the most forceful one. For science is developing continuously, more forceful and more advanced ones are waiting to be dig out.
With the increasing kinds of extreme measures, scope of people who mastered these measures will surely be enlarged. For as long as any extreme measure appears, there will be a batch of people who can master it. The reason is not just for that. With the development of scientific technology, it will become easier and easier to develop and produce some extreme measures under the guidance of more advanced scientific technologies, which facilitates people to obtain.
Take the destructive measures for example; research and development program for the first atom bomb in the world was called Manhattan Project, which took four years to implement it. Plus two-year’s early-stage preparations, it took 6 years to complete it. It cost as much as $ 2.2 billion dollars and mobilized 5 hundred thousand people, among whom 1.5 hundred thousand were researchers. Electricity consumed by it accounted for one-third all over the country. Because it is a kind of brand-new weapon, all would start from scratch, including related research investment, therefore cost of it was so expensive.
But today, production of nuclear weapon is much simpler. Some nuclear physicists can design an effective nuclear weapon based on public materials and documents, even an ordinary college student can do so under the guidance of a totally mature theory and technology. 40 years ago, a result of a research, carried out by a related institute in America, indicated that, two ordinary college students in physics department could design the rough structure of atom bomb within three months based on the public materials in library. Production of nuclear weapon described by scientists was very simple, that is, a nuclear physicist, a metallurgist, an electronics physicist and an expert of chemical explosive can direct a group of workers to complete the assembly of nuclear weapon.
If it is said that nuclear weapon is a kind of destructive measure that with huge investment, complex production, with many restrictions and have strong supervision, so it is difficult to be mastered by individual, genetic biological toxin is a kind of destructive measure which is easily to be mastered by individual. A biologist of high level can independently develop trans-genetic toxin in laboratory with few raw material and investment, and is difficult to be monitored.
Looking into the future, at the beginning of the emerging of annihilating measure, only a small number of people or countries can master it and possess it. But with the further development of scientific technology, annihilating measures will become more and more, and easier to obtain, scope of people who can master it will become more extensive. As long as human race isn’t extinct at that time, this trend will not be changed.
II. Types and Characteristics of Homicide
People who sighted the “9.11” attack on TV will never forget the catastrophic scenes for the rest of their life, after that they may involuntarily reflect on what kind of motivation drove the attackers to unflinchingly go to their death, and what kind of “wisdom” could turn the normal transportation tools like aircraft into a weapon of mass destruction, and establish such a rigorous organization and successful plan to go so far as to abduct 4 airplanes at the some time.
In fact, those who know the history of crimes and wars in ancient and modern times are very clear that, although there was no precedent as kidnapping 4 planes at one time, large-scale suicide attacks had happened more than once, and individual suicide attack had appeared in any historical period.
We know that the cannibalism actions of humanity can be generally divided into two types, war and crime. The war emerged since the formation of human society; it represents conflict between two groups that resulting in the inevitable death and injury to both parties. Wars usually shown as massive open slaughters, yet small-scale secret slaughter is also included. Crime and killing refer to the assault and battery to criminal individual or organization comprised by several people violating national laws and social justice, including both concealed small-scale killing and open large-scale killing.
The emergence and development of war and the adopted killing means are, by large extent, influenced by the character and thinking methods of the ruler who controls the direction of war with his dominant position and capacity of manipulating the overall situation, their mind state and wisdom, and the kindness and wickedness in nature character, are the biggest factors determining the property and feature of war.
Criminal homicide is the most universal and usual killing action of human society, for the evil side of human nature and huge group of humanity, inevitably, there are always people depriving others’ life for various purposes.
Regularly, the motivation of criminal homicide can be divided into the following four varieties:
① For money. This type of criminal is for the purpose of money and property of the victims, robbery, homicide, kidnapping and murder are all included.
② For revenge. This type of criminal is committed for people’s deep hatred of someone. They hate some people so much that they want them die.
③ For special tasks. This refers to the criminals subject to the command of certain organization to kill the designated person. In such cases, the organization behind is the prime criminal, maybe organization with background of government , ethnic group or religion, etc.
④ For abnormal mentality. These criminals are insane in mind, some are tampered by cult, or suffer from psychiatric disorder or metal disease, which make them take murder as a kind of fun and enjoyment, or latent responsibility and duty. They kill for the sake of kill, some are conscious, some are in hallucination when killing other, and all the victims are innocent.
And there is another kind of metamorphic killers who tortured by contradictions and frustrations in life, or processed by feeling of hatred of someone, and their grievance force them to retaliate against certain group or the whole society, country, nation, religion or the humanity, they kill the innocent to release their resentment.
It can be obtained from studies on the killing cases that there are normally two kinds of motives behind the murder crimes, homicide for task and for abnormal mentality seldom happen, but large in scale with severely terrible effects on society, the criminals have no rancor against the victims, they don’t even know each other.
The homicide is sorted in criminology by another approach, and two types of criminal homicide are identified as the most dreadful and harmful to the society. One is series homicide referring to frequent manslaughter in a period which causes a great deal of casualties. For example: the 2002 sniper attack in US, the criminal killed several people in a number of days with foresight-equipped firearms, the whole country were overwhelmed in panic, regular life and works were seriously disturbed; in 2007, Russian police arrested a man who killed over 60 people, mostly were elders, in several years; between 1981 to 1986, a criminal in Taiwan intermittently killed near 20 people, people on the Island were living in fear, police and the local authority were driven crazy. There are all cases of series homicide .
The other is collective homicide referring to one-time crime caused multiple casualties. The “9.11” attack is a typical case, more than 3000 people being killed, the whole world were astounded, and by which the later wars in Afghanistan and Iraq were directly or indirectly touched off; and the bombing homicide in Shijiazhuang of China in 2001, the criminal exploded a residential building at night when people were in sleep, hundreds of people were killed, the whole country was in shock, and the central government had to mobilize police force throughout the country for investigation and capture. These are cases of collective homicide.
The common causes of either series or collective homicide are psychopathic problems and task execution. All the above cases except the “9.11” attack were arose for psychopathic killers who either killed for fun or revenge to the society, the victim are normally innocent people. The “9.11” attack is task homicide plotted by al-Qaida which was identified as the largest terrorist organization in the world.
It is found through the psychological analysis that evil thoughts can urge a man lose his head and go to all lengths. Some criminals’ homicide behaviors without any scruple were manifested as open homicide, they would not cover up after killing, on the contrary, they confessed what they’d done, even to the police; some other criminals made extremely light of their life, they attacked others at the cost of killing themselves, or commit suicide after killing, death is not frightful for them; some not only neglected their own life, but stretched the evil hands to their families, parents killing or being killed by their children, sisters and brothers murdering each other, homicides like this are nothing new around the world.
Some evil cults instigated their follower committing suicide together; they preached suicide as a kind of relief, and a sacred goal to pursue. For example: in November of 1978, the founder of U.S. evil cult People's Temple agitated the believers for suicide, 900 in total abandoned their life, including a member of congress, but the founder deceiving all his followers ran away. In October, 1994, the founder of Solar Temple based in Geneva directed three collective suicides in Switzerland and Canada, 53 in total were dead including himself.
There are many cults encouraging people to sacrifice their life to be free, large-scale suicidal affair planned by cults happens in every several years, which can be fundamentally diagnosed as metaphrenia type of criminal.
III. Inference: radical means will inevitably be used.
The so-called radical means-the most advanced killing methods will be inevitably used, even if they may not be used in the near future, but in the long run, they will be sooner or later put into use. The consequential use of extreme means here doesn’t mean that all of them will be adopted, but at least one of them will definitely be used someday. As what we are working on is the subsistence of the entire humanity, the final stance of the work is the inevitable utility of extinct means, because for just once being used, the human species will be completely and entirely exterminated.
(1) There are radicals at all times.
In every period of human history, there are groups of people processing different killing motives and committing killings all the time, they might give rise to a war or a crime, and have their own distinctive expectations towards the killing behavior, the expectations can be divided into two major types with three situations based on their features.
The first type is limited killing which means the number of people being killed, comparing to the whole humanity, is limited, the killers don’t want to exterminate the mankind once and for all, and there are two situations:
1. Small-scale killing refers to killing actions to individual or a small number of people in a small area, mainly those by criminals with various minds, and they might be happened in war slaughter.
2. Large-scale killing. Just as it implies, a great number of people will be killed or injured. There are two situations, one is large-scale killing with clear objectives, such as the slaughter aiming at certain groups (such as countries, ethnic groups and organization), and war is the typical killing action, as well as the task homicide and psychopathic homicide. There is also large-scale killing without clear and definite objectives, homicide are carried out for sake of killing, presented as the abnormal criminals killing for retaliation, for fun, or for more people to “go along” with them.
The second type is unlimited killing. This type of killer goes in for the victims as much as possible, and to perish together with them; or to commit suicide after killing. It is the typical killing goal which is expected by psychopath, they must either be driven by evil cult to regard death as extrication; or have the strong hatred and the psychology changes to revengeful thoughts to all of human being; or be demoniacs who are totally in a hallucinatory state.
To achieve different expected values must use through different means, as for this point, it can be analyzed concretely as followed:
Firstly of all is limited killing, in which ordinary means are enough to the small-scale killing, so the destructive means and the deracinating means are not chosen. But for the large-scale killing, they can get once for all the goals through destructive means or can use ordinary means repeatedly even pool them. In general, the war is different from crime. The war is a collective behavior so the war leaders attend to negative effects which have been born in the destruction, and they may not use them easily. But in criminal conduct, some of criminals may scruple about using the destructive means but a great number of them will not. The criminals will realize their goals through using the most extreme and damaging means which they can get including the destruction (but exclusive of the deracinating means).
With regard to unlimited killing, the killer want to touch their expected value just depend on the deracinating means, when they cannot obtain it, they must request for killing as more innocence as possible. Accordingly, their choice should be the tools which have the maximal lethality whenever possible. In other words, the killer’s means is the symbol of the maximal lethality extreme means in that time; if they got that, it is sure to be the first choice.
There is an important reason for that the killer easily make the extreme means as the first choice: It is that the extreme means is at the top of killing means of that time, to use it can be the very focus of all society. That person who has the expected values for unlimited killing and somebody has the expected values for large-scale killing will figure out the extreme means firstly and naturally while they generate motivation to kill.
As seen from the above mentioned, not only there are some person who has the killing motivation in the human society at any time, but also the extreme means would be required for reaching their expected value of killing. Consequently, the killing means are acquired as the most representative, the most lethality and the most inhumane one in that period, and try going out of their ways to get it.
It is needed declare that the key point of this disquisition is human extinctions, the person who dares to sue the deracinating means should be the anticipator of unlimited killing but they must be very few of all society. Beside this, we can see that various society institutions in human society have been designed and made for reducing this type of crime. However, due to human’s weakness, these institutions cannot constrain everyone to keep absolute rational and goodwill to a fraction but the social collectivities, even if there were better social environment, better legal systems and better ethical values. So the complete social institutions just only can reduce the number of the anticipators but cannot deracinate them absolutely.
(Ⅱ)The extreme means must be obtained and used consequentially by the daredevil
For the extreme means in different period, the owner may not use it but the daredevil who dare to use it may not really hold. And yet, based on the lengthy human’s history, any extreme means would be gotten by the daredevil sooner or later, and some of owners would change to be the daredevil finally, no matter the destructive means or the deracinating means. It is needed explain this point, what is called the extreme means which is consequentially occupied by the daredevil refers that one of the top killing means in some age always was hold by the daredevil instead of all of them. In the same way, the owner would become the user, but they would choose one of them not use everyone.
The extreme means must be hold by the daredevil and the holder must become a user, it is two-sides of one question, the former figures that someone is eager for using the means but they do not hold it, for this they would seek it by all of ways, and on the end some of seekers would get and use it; the latter indicates that some of the legal holder would become the user after finishing manufacture. It marks the extreme means was used when any situation of two has come out.
On the part of the first question, base on history, it is an object fact that is any extreme means must be caught by the demander whatever the ordinary means or destructive means. Therefore, we can infer what will appear after new deracinating means is introduced, maybe the original production only be hold by few person and these person are not the daredevils. But with developing breakthrough of science field, there is a law of increase shows the developing trend of the deracinating means will be the following three points. The first is the varieties are increased constantly; the second is the power is strengthened continually; the last is the number of owners is augmented incessantly. So we can deduce the deracinating means must be diffuse to the daredevils. Moreover, the daredevils do not wait for the method’s diffusion naturally, but try their best to search it and speed up getting it.
As for the second question, in the stage of using ordinary means and the stage of using destructive means, there must be the daredevils appear from the owners, this is the same as a basic fact. And the original destructive means, such as using of the atomic bomb, it is decided by its own legal holder.
Of course, to come from the extreme means into the stage of using destructive means, the number of legal holders is the most limited, generally they are controlled by the head of state and only the sovereign class has the legal right of use. In generally, these persons all have considerable intellect so they will not rush these means into using. Even so, there were some country leaders used these means audaciously and emotionally in history.
After analyzing the history of human society, we can see there were a great number of tyrants and fatuous kings. The dominators still are human and have the innate weakness of human. Ordinarily, they stash their sentiment deeply; but they would be more unscrupulous and more frenzied than ordinary psychopath in case their emotion was burst out. Well then if the deracinating means appeared some day, the means should be hold by few chiefs of state and some daredevils of them dare to use it. You will not be doubtful of the conclusion through history, in which many of chiefs of state destroyed everything insanely without considering for the life of themselves and their relations when they lose.