Chapter III External Threat

External threat, i.e. natural threat, signifies all kinds of other factors except human being causes, which are likely to endanger the survival of human being. External and internal factors endangering the survival of human being constitute together the whole factors endangering the survival of human being.

All external threats influencing greatly the survival of human being are attempted to be selected here, especially those influencing the overall survival of human being. And the factors really threatening the overall survival of human being are further selected through the in-depth study and analysis of factors, which are possible to threaten the survival of human being.  


Section I Threat on Universe

Standing on the earth, seeing towering mountains, mighty rivers and magnificent sea, we often exclaim over the greatness of the earth. While actually in universe, the earth is a small member of the star system of sun, containing only 340 thousandth of solar system and bounded completely by the sun.

In vast universe, the sun plays an even smaller role comparing with that of the earth in solar system. As a star system, the sun shares only one twentieth billion of the Milky Way and the Milky Way contains less than one thirtieth billion of the universes. So it’s not excessive to say that the sun is only a drop of water or a sand of mountain in the universe.

For threat of universe on human being, firstly it should be considered integrate with the earth, because human being is impossible to survive with the earth in major problems; Then the earth should be considered integrate with the sun, because the earth is bounded by the sun, thus if the sun was in major problems, the ecosystem of the earth would be completely destroyed and human being can’t survive, neither; Finally, the solar system should be considered as a point, because it’s just a small point in the universe.

I. History of gravity and star

There is a force of nature is not subject to any blocking objects, without any distance limitations, and this is the gravity between the substances.

People standing on the Earth have weight, that is the Earth's gravitational force on the people, the size of gravity equal to the weight of people; the Moon around the Earth's rotation, not to escape from the Earth because the Earth due to gravity on the moon; the same, the earth around the sun is the Sun on the Earth there is gravity; operation of the sun around the galaxy center, but also because the Milky Way there is gravity on the sun.

Newtonian gravity is the first observation of Apple fell from the tree, but it is not toward the sky and found. In their daily lives, many natural phenomena and gravitation, and the ocean ebb and flow, the tidal effect is due to the moon and the sun on the sea due to the gravity. Sun on the Earth's gravitational effect on Earth is not only one side of the face of the sun, away from the sun by the side of the role of solar gravity. Tens of thousands of light years away far apart the two planets also exists between the gravitational force.

In addition there are three types of gravitational force outside nature, that is, the electromagnetic force and the strong nuclear and weak internal force. In four of the most powerful forces of nature is a powerful force, but acting on it within the scope of the atomic nucleus. The second force is a powerful electromagnetic force, it is only one per cent of strength, but the scope of the role of the electromagnetic force is far more than power, it is the role of the electromagnetic force so that the nucleus can not be in touch with each other, so power will not be released. Also, the neutron can not be separated from the release of strong and weak force allows for the neutron proton decay, is essential for the release of strong helper. Well, gravity is the weakest force in nature, as opposed to the electromagnetic force of atoms in a few quadrillion times weaker, the relative strength is also much weaker, but it is not subject to any distance limitations with the object block, everywhere, no do not have, so it will set into a very weak countless powerful, and eventually defeating the other, and the rule of our universe.

The use of the star is a planet of light and heat from nuclear energy, nuclear energy is generated because when the planet is large enough, it is a huge gravitational force so that the core of the site will be able to continuously increase the temperature until the temperature reaches 10 million degrees Celsius. In the meantime, the main elements of the composition of the star will have a severe hydrogen nuclei of the movement, so that their nuclei can eventually break through the electromagnetic force between the exclusion, direct collision occurred, resulting in nuclear fusion will be a strong release.

Nuclear fusion of hydrogen is combined with four hydrogen atoms into a helium atom in the process of nuclear synthesis in the loss of 0.7% to the quality, this is a strong nucleus with the release of the price, and it is that very little loss of quality can have a tremendous energy.

Medium sun as we do big stars, and its fusion with two, one is the fusion of hydrogen, helium fusion time.

Issued in the light and heat of fusion of hydrogen at the same time, it generates a continual deposition of helium in the core of the star, when a large number of hydrogen fusion to helium, the star's hydrogen core has been depleted, leaving behind mainly helium atom, However, outside the core hydrogen burning continues, the two parts of the core role of power simultaneously, is a star's gravity, another is the core of the external hydrogen fusion pressure resulting from the tremendous expansion. When the two forces combined efforts can make the temperature of the core parts of hundreds of millions of degrees, the helium nuclei of the fierce campaign will also be able to break their shackles of electromagnetic force to reach each other directly collided, resulting in fusion of helium to helium nuclei in a strong release.

Helium burning is the fusion of helium to the process of oxygen and carbon, the energy released as a result of its hydrogen fusion energy than larger, at this time within the star lit up like a star again, as the star of this within their gave tremendous power to the external out of top stars, making the diameter of the planet suddenly more than 100 times larger, and the size of the expansion of more than one million times. Although the new planet is huge, but because it's surface temperature is lower than the original star of surface temperature, red is why they are called red giants.

Helium fusion duration shorter than the fusion of hydrogen, helium fusion of the late star to enter an unstable state, it will be the external material was thrown out of some, but mainly composed of carbon and oxygen from the core will collapse into a site of high density, the white dwarf temperature is also high.

White dwarf star is dead, although the high temperature, but this is the original star left over from the heat, it can not happen again internal thermonuclear reaction, and through the slowly cooling of ten billions of years, and the final will be a cold planet. According to human standards, white dwarf material is priceless, because the material was crystalline internal structure, the same structure as diamond, but this great diamond we can hardly be.

Because the hydrogen fusion together to form other stable and durable, so, astronomy will be the star of the hydrogen fusion stage stars known as the star of the main sequence stage.

Stars in the main sequence star will stay with the stellar mass increases rapidly become smaller, the quality of the sun such stars in the main sequence stars stay for 100 million years, but 0.3 times the mass of one solar mass star will burn on trillions of years, and the quality is 5 times the solar mass stars can only burn a few million years. This is because the greater the quality of the star, the greater the gravitational force, will lead to strong gravitational speed up its internal fusion, when the quality of big stars to a certain extent, will be extremely fierce fusion is impossible to stabilize the star and thus lead to the overall stellar explosion, the big stars can not be unlimited. So far, we have observed is the biggest star HD93250 stars, it is about the quality of the 120 times the solar mass.

The quality of the star can not be too small, the smallest star quality is generally not less than 8% of the sun. Because of its gravity is too small planet will not be able to ignite the hydrogen atoms inside, nuclear fusion can not occur, the issue of light and heat can not, so can not be called a star.

To a large extent, the final fate of the star is decided by the quality of the star. 0.7 times smaller than a solar mass star, since gravity is not sufficient, and only the combustion of hydrogen, helium will never be lit. 0.7-8 times the mass of a star the sun, its fate with the sun, like the quality in this interval, the small number of stars burning hydrogen first, followed by burning helium, the stars will burn some carbon, in the completion of these combustion after quietly evolved into white dwarfs.

A 8-10 times greater than the quality of the sun will be the star of his death is extremely violent explosion, as the star of more than 8-10 times the solar mass, the huge gravitational End will star in the combustion of hydrogen, helium and carbon, it will continue to lit other elements, they were oxygen, neon, silicon, iron, each time re-ignited a new element, and its stellar internal energy will produce a larger star, which will be the external layers of the star of a top-out, and finally to make star to reach 10 billion kilometers in diameter. When the ignition process of the final turn, when iron, iron is not only the nuclear burning energy release, but to absorb the energy, a sudden loss of energy within the star of the support, therefore, the outcome of catastrophic happened, up to 10 billion kilometers in diameter star will suddenly collapse to the center to form a very intense explosion, it was thrown out of the material will be hundreds of billions of kilometers away, such as supernova explosions erupted.

Supernova eruption, the star of the core parts of the compression will be fierce, so all the electronic ballast into protons, because of e-with negative charge, positively charged protons, when the electronic ballast into the proton, the positive and negative charge offset into in son, resulting in an extremely dense neutron star, neutron star's density can reach 100 million tons per cubic centimeter on.

Strong magnetic field neutron star than the Earth's magnetic field 108-1015 times strong, and spin very fast, up to several hundred per second to be able to launch two strong magnetic fields of the electromagnetic (optical). As the neutron star's magnetic axis and rotation axis are inconsistent, when the rotation of electromagnetic waves emitted by it are very much lap to regularly fire in space, this neutron star is a beacon effect. Effect of neutron stars can be a beacon of direction in the universe, the universe we launched multiple aircraft, with alien information is brought to the location of the neutron star system instructions.

The quality of a larger star, when the explosion of his death, the collapse of heavy nuclei would have crushed to form a more dense celestial bodies, the extent of its dense so that light can not escape its gravity, which is a black hole. Black hole exists in the universe has been confirmed.

II. Black holes swallow

If we stand on the earth and throw an object to the sky, at last the object will drop back to the earth. This is because of the gravity of the earth to the object. If there is no gravity on the earth, this object will be thrown out along the direction toward the space and never return. However, even if there is gravity on the earth, when the object is out to the sky in a certain speed, it will get rid of the earth's gravity, keep forward and never returns. Such kind of speed getting rid of the gravity of planet is known as the escape velocity. The escape velocity on the earth is 11.2 kilometers per second, that is to say, if we stand on the surface of the earth and throw an object to the space in a speed of 11.2 kilometers per second, this object will not return to the earth, but fly to the space. The escape velocity on different planet surface is not the same, for example, the sun's surface escape velocity is 617 kilometers per second and that on lunar surface is 2.38 kilometers per second. The reason why the escape velocity on sun surface is much greater than on earth surface is of the sun is much greater than the earth; On the other hand, the escape velocity on moon surface is smaller. It’s because the gravity of the moon is smaller than that on the earth.

The speed of light is the fastest speed in the natural world, 300,000 kilometers per second. When a planet's gravity is extremely large, the surface escape speed of the speed of light when this is the black hole, and it demonstrates that even light can not be great from a way out of gravity. If the radius of the Earth's compressed into a ball of 1 cm is the black hole, so that the size of smaller than the table tennis.

There are a lot of black holes in the universe. Is our solar system likely to fall into the black hole? If the solar system fell into the black hole, it would be undoubtedly the end of human being.

The largest black hole in Milky Way is that in galactic center. First of all, let us analyze the threat of the black hole for us. We know that the sun needs 2.5 billion years to move around the galactic center. The sun has formed for 5 billion years, so it should be running around the galaxy center for 20 rounds and today it seems that there was no indication showing that the operation of the solar system is not normal. The black wall of the galactic center swallowed up only the stars in the scope of galactic center. If the other stars want to be swallowed up by this black hole, at least they should enter the scope of galactic center. The location of the solar system in the Milky Way is more distant from the lateral silver heart, galactic center from a distance of 27,000 light-years, around the galactic center in the process of operation; they do not greatly change their running track, in ten billions of years. The sun can not be run within the scope of Bank of heart. To significantly change the running track of the sun unless the sun be a star with considerable impact, and to experience this kind of impact, to the devastating human disaster is not the time to swallow the black hole, but was hit in the sun moment occurs.

From another angle we can see that the sun could not have been before the death of a black hole swallowed silver heart. There are 150 million years history of the universe, the Milky Way formed roughly 140 million years, galactic center a black hole is about the quality of the 2.6 million solar mass, and the Milky Way there are about 200 billion times the sun's mass, which shows that galactic center with the 14 billion black hole years engulfed the stars, only 8 of the quality of one ten thousandth of the Milky Way, if this rate of phagocytes also offer the entire Milky Way in trillions of years, and the sun on the main sequence stars of the time only 50 million years, so do not have silver hearts are worried about a black hole swallowed.

So, in addition to the heart of a black hole outside the Bank whether or not there will be another black hole swallowed the sun does? Black holes are most likely to occur outside of the heart in addition to silver in the center of globular clusters may also have a big black hole. As a globular cluster, tens of thousands to millions of stars concentrated in a small region, the center of it is very likely there will be a larger black hole, of course, such a black hole with the center of the Milky Way black hole certainly small compared to more than up to the sun but the quality of hundreds or thousands of solar masses. At present, astronomers have discovered through the observation of some globular clusters have X-ray Center, which is the globular cluster center there is evidence of a black hole.

Milky Way has about 500 globular clusters, which are very far away from us, we can see the brightest of the globular cluster Centauri is ω, it is about one million stars, 16,000 light-years away from us. The nearest is the globular cluster M4, about 100,000 stars, from our distance of 7200 light years, it is a very safe distance.

In addition to the black and galactic center of globular cluster black hole, but also there are many big stars by the independent formation of a black hole of death, in the astronomers observing the universe, the same found in such a black hole. However, at this time we have discovered black holes may be strong X-ray sources, they, without exception; we are very far away from. Which was confirmed that Cygnus X-1 is a distance we are close to the black hole, from the solar system about 10,000 light-years, but also need to be further confirmed from the black hole we have recently located in Sagittarius, it V4641SGR and numbered the stars of a general group into a binary star system about 1,600 light years from our solar system. So, whether it is 10,000 light-years or 1,600 light years distance is far enough and could not affect the safety of the solar system.

In fact, a big black hole of a medium-sized star of the solar system compared to the threat of difference is not large, at best, the scope of the black hole a little larger than a mortal threat, but because of the distance between stars is huge in relation to this area of the planet the distance between almost negligible. At the same time, in the universe, black holes can form a big star is very small, about 10,000 stars in the can are likely to form a black hole, which also shows that the probability of a black hole sun hit the solar encounter only the probability of a star impact one ten thousandth.

III. Impact of stars and planets and independent supernova explosion

 (1) Impact of stars and independent planets

Today's universe is the world of stars. The stars occupy a large scale in the universe, and are also real and visible. The sun is a star and is what we human being relies on to survive. There are hundreds of millions of stars in Milky Way. Is the sun likely to collide with one of them or be disturbed seriously, so as to destroy the whole ecology of the earth and result in the extinction of the human being?

Firstly, let us analyze the regional environment in which the solar system locates. The sun is outside the Milky Way and the density of the star outside the Milky Way is much less than that in the central region of galactic center and aerosphere. The nearest star to the solar system is Centauri α star, which is a triple star, i.e. the star system composed by 3 stars. In Centauri α star, the Centauri αC star is nearest to us, with a distance of 4.25 light-years, so it’s also known as the next star. The stars a little further away from us are Barnard star 5.96 light years away and the Wolf 359 7.8 light-years away from us. Other stars are all from more than 8 light years away and there are only 7 star systems within the distance of 10 light years.

According to our observations, the Centauri α star is closer to us with a little angle. In many yeas, it will reach the minimum distance of 3 light years with us, and then turn away.

How much is the possibility of collision of stars? Such a group of image data could be used for description: If the sun with the diameter of 1.392 million kilometers reduced to the small sand with the diameter of 1 mm, the nearest star would be 29.2 kilometers away from us and the average distance around the star is 52 kilometers, so their chance of collision is very small.

More importantly, these “small sands” distributed sparsely in the huge three-dimensional space are not unregulated and flying all around. Actually they are moving slowly and with orders. For example, for the moving of the sun, if narrowed by the above-mentioned image distance, the “small sand” moves only 4.92 meters each year and all the stars are, without exception, in its own orbit around the galactic center operation, and they respect each other, and to comply with the law. In the universe, the more the quality of large celestial body’s stronger laws, the smaller the possibility of external disturbances, a star-class celestial body, in addition to gravity galactic center around it, the general strength of it is not possible to change its orbit. Therefore, like the sun in the celestial light that galaxies outside the stars, the stars of the collision to take place or serious disturbance of each other may be too small, a few will not hundred billon years.

In the universe there are some planet, they are not luminous or fever, do not belong to the stars, but they do not belong to any star system, planets are not common, they only exist because of the formation of the first volume is too small, so that can not be ignited by the gravitational center of the hydrogen atoms, so can only become an independent system running around the center of galaxies, we might as well call them as an independent planet. In that case, they may be related to the occurrence of the sun hit it or each other disturbances?

Because in the universe, the natural formation of smaller objects than large, and therefore, independent of the number of planets than stars in the solar system around the space are likely to have such a planet, but it was not found. However, even so, the number will be few and far between. With above-mentioned figure of speech, its danger of collision or serious disturbances of the sun is like more tiny “sands” moving slowly around the distance of dozens of kilometers.

Moreover, the independent planets and stars, as there is a law of its operation, and they affected by the gravitational center of the Milky Way by rule, around the silver and orderly functioning of the heart, each of which has its own orbit each other with minimal impact, making the distribution of these sparse several "small sand" on the hit probability of more of the smaller.

In fact, even if the merger occurred in the two galaxies, even if the center of the star the most intensive regional meeting each other the opportunity to have a small impact on the small, but its probability of one hundredth of billion. Because of the relative size of the star, the distance between stars is too great.

Must be asked, since the collision of celestial bodies may be so small, why we can observe celestial collision situation?

Collision or mutual interfere of celestial bodies occurs generally in three circumstances: firstly, in the central region of galaxies; Secondly, in the central cluster region; thirdly, among the companion stars. The center of any galaxy with a star are the most material-intensive region, which depends primarily on the state of intensive its innate factors that, in the initial formation of galaxies in the process of gradually forming a center of gravity, the gravitational the center of gravity will inevitably make use of its material to absorb as much as possible, to become the center of galaxies. At the same time, after the galaxy formation, the role of gravity, a little close to the central region of the material and celestial bodies also tends to be concentrated to the center. However, the celestial bodies to focus on the speed of the galaxy’s center are very slow, so for us the periphery of the solar system stars, within a few of hundred billion years, there is no possibility that such a problem.

Clusters are also similar, in the process of galaxy formation, galaxies in the local area a number of small relatively dense material, they formed a very dense cluster of stars, tens of thousands or millions of stars gathered in a small space. And the clusters are bound to have its own center, which is a cluster of stars and matter in more areas, where the star will be the opportunity to impact much greater. Fortunately, the solar system with any one of our clusters is far away from each other, of course, they will not join the crowded ranks.

In the universe there are many binary star systems are triple or stars, that is, two stars or three stars in close proximity, and intertwined. In such a system, as a result of gravitational interaction, any of its companion stars will be a great influence on any star to a large extent also the impact of its companion star, therefore, such a companion star system is often unstable, we obviously do not belong to the solar system such a star system.

 (2) Supernova explosion

Supernova is the star the world's known explosion of the most violent explosion of the phenomenon, which allows the brightness of stars in a very short period of time to increase ten millions, or even hundreds of millions of times the speed of stellar material thrown out on up to 10,000 kilometers per second, its strong radiation can strongly influence the region. To talk about the threat of the universe, the threat of the explosion  of supernovae to distant planets over the star and an independent impact and disturbance, it is far more than a black hole swallowed, the explosion  of supernova should merit our attention is the real threat to the universe.

Two types of supernovae, that is-I and-II supernova supernovae. -I supernova is a dense near the explosion  of the outcome of binary evolution, the principle is this: If a binary system of two stars very near by, and the two stars of the quality of medium-large, in which a large number of stars will be pre - as a dense white dwarf evolution, the other stars are still burning, and the star is a gas planet, it is mobile, therefore, white dwarfs will make use of its companion star heart of gravitational accretion of material, the accretion of material around the white dwarf Shell will form a layer of hydrogen, when hydrogen shell quality after a certain extent, by the white dwarf gravitational effect, the temperature will reach a very high, when the temperature reaches 10 million degrees, the hydrogen nuclei was ignited, and the nuclear fusion of hydrogen occurred. If the white dwarf companion accretion of material to achieve more than enough, in the hydrogen fusion will occur after the completion of fusion of helium, helium-carbon fusion occurred after the completion of fusion. However, the main components of the white dwarf itself is carbon, then carbon fusion ignition will not be at the periphery, but extremely dense white dwarf from the center of the first ignited, and the fusion of carbon will speed pass by the center to the periphery, by the formation of a huge explosion, deep-fried pieces of white material, together with its peripherals will be thrown violently in space.

Type II supernova is a stellar evolution to the late violent explosion occurred, which have been introduced before.

By estimation, in every 25 to 75 years, the Milky Way is likely to supernova explosion, but we have observed little. This is because the solar system locates on the surface of Silver Road and the observations are often blocked by other stars or other interstellar matters.

Threat of supernova explosion for human being is mainly in two aspects. On the one hand, the explosion of the early days of its thermal radiation will increase the Earth's temperature, resulting in the destruction of the Earth's ecological balance. So far, observation of human beings in the Milky Way to the explosion of seven supernovae, they are far away from us, the most recent supernova in 1006, 4200 light years away from us, so there was no form for us in any way. However, the close-up of the supernova is not this the result of the explosion, according to the calculation, if the distance from our recent stars of the location of α Centauri supernova eruption, in about one month over the Earth will be like an additional one-sixth the size of The sun, the earth's average temperature will rise four or five degrees.

On the other hand are the γ-ray radiation and other harmful radiation. It’s more serious than thermal radiation, because the extremely strong γ-ray and other harmful rays of radiation exploded by supernova can be life-threatening in large scale. Then, according to the present the most authoritative studies have shown that only 25 light years away from Earth with the explosion  of the supernova in order to achieve full weaken the ozone layer, so that ultraviolet light reach the surface of the double dose, which seriously affect the survival of human being .

To sum up, we must beware of supernovae in the range of 25 light-years. In fact the basis of astronomical observations, which is within the scope of the explosion, did not produce the conditions of supernova stars. Because supernovae produce the conditions for the explosion it is clear that supernovae of type I must be a close proximity of the middle-big stars, for Type II supernovae must be the quality of more than 8 times the solar mass stars. This is the star at close range can easily be found, but we did not do near the star.

However, the solar system today, the location of the galaxy in which although not in a nearby supernova may occur, but the sun is not static, it is in the speed of 220 kilometers per second around the galactic center operation, but also in the vicinity of the sun orbits the star is also in accordance with a certain operation of law, perhaps after too long we will catch up with one in 25 light years, the explosion of the supernova. However, according to scientists, the 100 light-years away from the scope of our average will be 7.5 billion years the explosion  of a supernova, this is estimated that 25 light years away from us within the scope of every 480 million years before the explosion  of a possible supernova. Since the formation of our sun has only 50 million years, and 50 million years and then turned into a red giant, mankind can not survive in this, therefore, that such an incident may threaten our very small.

In fact, if we really catch up with such a thing has nothing to fear, because, before the explosion of supernova obvious signs, such signs can at least provide us with more than 100 million years of preparation. Then, in the vicinity of the observed supernova may break out, we are fully capable of taking a series of effective preventive measures. Extreme, in order to offset the destruction of the ozone layer, we can come up with the production of a large number of the sky to measure ozone emissions, or to prevent the destruction of the ozone layer of the measures; in order to prevent the strong ultraviolet radiation, we can develop a skin protection against ultraviolet radiation materials, radiation-proof clothing; the strongest γ-ray in the first of more than 20 days, we may even stay in the air-raid shelter construction or radiation does not come out, a few need to work outdoors can be put on spacesuits radiation. If the explosion of supernovae closer, we need to prevent the resulting thermal radiation of the harassment, as the glaciers melt, sea levels will rise, so we had to move out of part of the residents of coastal areas; as a result of floods, hurricanes frequent, as well as the possibility of some epidemics, but also make the necessary precautions should be. In short, we should encounter such a situation is very troublesome, but to human being as a whole can not constitute a threat to survival.

IV. Threat of micro black holes and antimatter planet

Understanding of the universe today is based on quantum mechanics and general relativity based on quantum mechanics and the theory of relativity is only the establishment of a century, therefore, we far from understands the universe reflects the nature of the universe. According to existing theories of the universe, the analysis has not been confirmed that there are two objects, if they really existed, and of the solar system and the possibility of a threat to mankind would be devastating, which is micro-black holes and antimatter planet.

 (1) Threat of micro black holes

According to Big Bang cosmology, the Big Bang at the beginning of the universe, may be tremendous pressure in different regions of the material compressed into a small mass of the black hole, the black hole of only tens of thousands of kilograms of small, there may be a big star so much smaller, It is said that such a black hole for the micro-black hole or black hole primary.

If such a micro-black hole, after the history of the universe 150 million years, these micro-black holes like the situation?

In accordance with the laws of nature, in the absence of rules in the form of objects, quality and size of the smaller number of more objects, on the contrary, the quality and volume of the object the greater the volume the less. Big Bang when the universe formed by micro-black holes should also is the case. Most of the quality of very small micro-black holes, like the Earth or the moon of a larger quality of only a small number of micro-black hole. Well, this micro-black hole would be for us what kind of threat? To answer this question we must first understand the characteristics of the black hole.

Although the black hole even light is off, but very stingy with the black hole is not entirely, black holes have evaporated, and the quality of the smaller black hole the faster the evaporation, the greater the evaporation of black holes more slowly. The quality of a Milky Way black hole evaporation period of 10,100 years (that is, 1 after the 100 0), a solar mass black hole evaporation period in 1065, therefore, such a big black hole evaporation is a very long time, perhaps the universe than the existence of time to long. However, the quality of one billion tons of the black hole evaporation is only 100 million years; a mass of one million tons of black hole evaporation is only 10 years, a mass of 1 ton of black hole evaporation over 10-10 seconds, the evaporation period of less than to the moment.

Taking into account the existence of black holes in the process of how many have swallowed some of the material, therefore, it is generally to the quality of one billion tons for the sector that the quality is lower than the micro-black hole evaporation should have been obliterated, and the quality of higher Micro black holes should exist in the universe, the quality is roughly equivalent to a larger mountain.

Big Bang formed the vast majority of micro-black hole is very small and more than 10 billion tons of the black hole should be very few, therefore, the majority of micro-black hole 150 million years of time have all been basically the evaporative light. And the largest micro-black hole that the reverse is the case, which was slowly evaporated, and they continue to exhaust all their material around, it will make the longer the big black hole, but also the more difficult the bigger the black hole evaporation Therefore, such a black hole if we can arrive at today, the quality of many of its more than 150 million years ago should be even more significant.

The distribution of micro-black whole density and distribution of the universe, the density of the material should be roughly the same, especially as the oldest of the celestial bodies, if still exist today, it should be most concentrated in the central region of galaxies. At the same time, to determine if micro-black hole is correct, the Milky Way is also bound to be such a micro-black hole, but should also focus on the most central region of the Milky Way. Galactic center for focus on the micro-black hole near the far distance from the sun, the sun will not jeopardize the security, but also a part of micro-black holes will be located in other regions of the Milky Way, then, these micro-black holes will not be a danger to our solar system's security?

Let us take the mass of the moon the size of a micro-black hole sun as the impact that micro-black hole should be as large as the quality of the moon is big enough, but the quality of the black hole of the Moon is only 0.1 mm of its size, as a barely recognizable fine sand.

If such a big lunar impact of celestial bodies first the sun will be earth-shattering impact of the spectacular scenes, and then the moon will be swallowed up by the sun. However, the Moon has a quality of a micro-black hole "fine sand" when the sun met the situation is entirely different, so when a small "sand" has a great quality, just a little with a certain speed, its kinetic energy are very great, but "fine sand" in a very small cross-section, into the sun after the resistance will be very small, therefore, it will easily penetrate from the sun and the reverse side and out, to continue into space. Micro black holes will not be evaporation, but the quality of absorbing the sun after some energy radiation, their weight will increase, due to the quality of micro-black whole absorption is limited, then the sun did not seem to like what happens, continue to their combustion.

However, when this "fine sand" when the speed is very slow, in the penetration will be the sun after the sun's gravity and resistance remain in the solar interior, if there is such a situation, the micro-black hole sun will continue to be material themselves, the quality of micro-black holes continue to increase, decreasing the quality of the sun. At first, it seems that the sun looks nothing happened, after millions of years of continuous suction on macrophages, and finally one day, the sun's nuclear fusion within the complete destruction of the system, the entire Sun Microsystems will suddenly collapse into a black hole, micro black holes will be changed has become a black hole about the quality of the sun, Earth and other planets of the sun is still around that has the quality of the functioning of small celestial bodies, and the sun is shining no longer exists, the Earth's surface temperature dropped rapidly, and finally become a no life the world can not survive in the cold.

Of course, micro black holes may also be a direct hit on Earth, if there is such a phenomenon and the micro-black holes directly into the sun of their situation is similar, that is, either to wear over the Earth, or Earth macrophage depleted suction, and finally collapse into a black hole the earth.

With regard to the threat of micro black holes have to be considered in both cases, micro-black holes do exist based on the assumption, and the other is to analyze the authenticity of the existence of micro-black hole.

If we assume that micro black holes do exist, after 150 million years after the evaporation, a small number of survivors of the large number of micro-black hole and we will not encounter a higher than hundred billion years. Even if met, there will be three kinds of results, the first results of the sun while wearing a micro-black hole that will not pose much harm to the sun; the second result, into the solar interior, solar absorption material macrophages to collapse and destruction. These two results have been described before.

The third result is micro-black holes are captured by the sun's gravity, the solar system to become a member of the family. Micro-black holes as celestial bodies smaller than the sun, when its scope into the sun's gravity, but also has some speed, do not hit as long as the sun, captured by the sun as a celestial body by its own rule is very natural.

In the above-mentioned three kinds of potential, the third largest possible probability, because the sun crashed into the need for very accurate, and should be captured by the sun's gravitational force as long as access to sufficient scope; first the probability of a possible second, because a celestial body in relation to the relative speed of the other celestial bodies are usually very high, especially in the powerful role of gravity, would put this higher speed; The second possibility is the lowest probability, as a celestial body slowly crashed into the possibility of another celestial body is far too small. In the above-mentioned three possible in fact only the second smallest possible probability of the sun can really pose a threat, which makes the threat of micro black holes become more insignificant.

Here we will look at the authenticity of the existence of micro-black hole, in accordance with the famous scientist Stephen Hawking's theory, the existence of extensive micro-black hole all galaxies in the universe and each space, if this is really the case, it will have a micro-black hole absorption macrophages stars because the universe has a number of billions of stars, since the prevalence of micro-black hole, it is impossible to not encounter micro-black hole and stellar absorption by macrophages, then If so, then there will certainly be the star and release a sudden collapse of a large number of X ray events, if we are surrounded by micro-black hole, it should also have their objects swallowed and X-ray of the situation out. However, the observation of the vast universe, we still did not find evidence of micro-black hole.

 (2) Threat of antimatter planet

Antimatter is based on Big Bang cosmology deduced from the. We know that the composition of the material is the basic unit of atoms, atomic nuclei from the center and the outer electron of the atomic nucleus composed of protons and neutrons while, electronic with negative charge, positively charged protons, neutrons with no charge. The water we drink is made up of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom, composed of water molecules, the salt we eat is from a sodium atom and a chlorine atom molecule composed of sodium chloride. What we have seen and felt by all substances are composed of countless electronics, protons, neutrons, as well as by their composition of atoms and molecules exist in this universe.

However, according to the principle of the Big Bang cosmology, the formation of the universe in the Big Bang, while the material world, should also be formed almost the same amount of antimatter. So-called anti-material, that is, with the negative charge of the electronic band corresponding to the positively charged anti-electron, and the positively charged protons with the corresponding negative charge of the anti-protons, neutrons and anti-neutron although not with the same charge, but otherwise, the opposite is true. Anti-e, anti-protons and anti-neutrons can combine to form an anti-nuclear, anti-atoms and the formation of a combination of different anti-molecule, to form the anti-material world.

Earlier scientists from the laboratory to obtain an anti-electron, anti-protons and anti-neutrons, which will happen with the material and annihilate each other, releasing energy and γ-ray. If the sun and the sun the size of a planet antimatter meet, will be turned into a huge fireball and a very strong γ-ray, and then will disappear, the disappearance of the sun will exist in the form of energy in the universe. Therefore, if the sun hit a large anti-material objects, will be the extinction of the human disaster.

So, if Big Bang cosmology, in accordance with the judge, the existence of the universe, and material of antimatter roughly equal, the universe is full of antimatter bound, so that will inevitably occur and material antimatter planet annihilate each other and produce events, but the reality is that how are we doing?

Over the years, in the search for anti-material, scientists have done a lot of work, which concluded that in light of 30 million are certainly not anti-material objects. That is, where in our Milky Way galaxy and the group will definitely not anti-material objects.

Principles of scientists is not difficult to understand in order to determine whether the sun is antimatter as an example, the solar wind blowing all the time in our planet, the solar wind is the main component of the proton, if the sun is the anti-material, it will produce an anti-proton protons, the earth must always face the anti-proton annihilation. In fact, this situation does not exist, so the sun can be confirmed by the composition of the material rather than antimatter.

The same method can be used for the Milky Way and the galaxy cluster observations. In our Milky Way and nearby galaxies, the cosmic rays are everywhere as the particles in flight, and they do not occur with any celestial annihilation, it is proved in our local group of galaxies and the Milky Way there are no major celestial bodies of the existence of antimatter.

However, for more distant galaxies we do not have sufficient basis for the. Because we only receive the astronomical observations of distant celestial light, material and photon radiation, anti-radiation reflective material will be sub, but the photon is neutral, photons with sub-reflector are identical particles, we can see that for more distant objects, we can not afford today to determine the exact composition by material or by the composition of antimatter. Of course, neutrino astrophysics is also radiation, neutrino radiation from the material and radioactive substances by the anti-anti-neutrino is definitely not the same, but neutrinos interact with any substances are very weak, as issued by the sun neutrinos can penetrate the earth unimpeded, and what almost no wear and tear, therefore, to design a device capable of receiving them is very difficult.

Then, on the threat of antimatter, the distance Leaving aside whether it is really a large number of anti-material objects exist, only 30 million light-years of anti-material objects are not the definite conclusion, we can sit back and relax to live in the solar system, 30 million light-years in addition to material objects even if there are anti-collision system, at least after a few of ten billions of years to reach, and after a few of ten billions years, sun does not exist already.

IV. End of universe

The end of the universe is no doubt that the end of human being, in fact, far from being in the universe before the end of the universe should have doing not have the conditions for human survival. In that case, the universe will end how and when coming to an end?

Our rapid expansion of the universe is a universe, the expansion of its power comes from 150 million years ago the Big Bang, but the universe, there is a ubiquitous force in restrict such expansion, that is, between material and gravity, the size of gravity depends on the quality of the material universe, as well as the distance between the material.

Is the expansion of the universe, the ultimate force of gravity to overcome substance or substances in the final gravitational force to overcome the expansion of the universe, which is to decide the ultimate fate of the universe, the fundamental factors? If the strength of the expansion of the universe to overcome the gravitational material universe, the universe will continue to expand, opening up the universe called. Conversely, if the material universe, the gravitational force to overcome the expansion of the universe, in a number of billion years after the expansion of the universe will reach the maximum, and then the effects of gravity starts to contract, and the last to return to the starting point of the universe, said the outcome of such a universe for the closure of the universe. Cosmology the Big Bang created the universe model, the universe, the ultimate outcome may be only two, then the universe will take a in the end how the end of ourselves?

If we can know exactly what the universe's average density of the material to determine the outcome of the future of the universe is not a difficult job for him, but apart from the universe does not know the depth of our material can be seen, there are a large number of us do not understand dark matter, which makes the universe we can not clearly determine the future. Allow us to elaborate here only two types of assumptions.

The first is, if our universe is an open universe, the galaxies around us will continue to run away from us, a number of trillion years, we can see only the universe of the galaxies in our group of more than 30 of these galaxies, while the other galaxies are out of our sight, that is, observing the use of any equipment not be able to see, then, we have observed the universe as if the universe only one tenth billion today.

In other galaxy clusters (groups) will be the same, because clusters of galaxies (group) as independent objects in the universe system, its internal galaxies are linked, and are outside the galaxy would be far away from away, until no longer be able to see.

The galaxy clusters (groups) are not static within each galaxy will continue to merge, so that the increasing scale of galaxies to form the number of super-galaxies. Have to rely on nuclear fusion as a result of the star to the issue of light and heat, the hydrogen in the universe after the depletion of elements in the universe only brown dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes, which are the stars of the wreckage after the death of the universe it is this the end of the stellar period, enter degenerate period. During this period will be after a few of trillion years.  

Degenerate during the period much longer than the star, at least until after the end of 1037. This period is the star of the wreckage after the death of the collision, the black hole in such a collision would be swallowed up all the remnants of the celestial bodies, and another black hole collision, the collision in the black hole is a small black hole into a black hole, which the quality of the black hole become larger and larger. Thus, in the post-1037 period of the universe will enter a black hole.

The black hole period is much longer than acquiring period. The greater the quality of the black hole, the lower surface temperature, the slower the rate of evaporation, the black hole will last a long period of time can not be calculated, only a concept can be used as a reference, that is, a solar mass black hole evaporation period in 1065, and a the quality of the Milky Way's black hole evaporation period of 10100 years. When all of the black hole evaporation after all, the universe will enter its final period, that is, the dark period, when only the energy of the universe rather than any celestial body.

Second, if our universe is a closed universe, the universe will reach in a number of trillion years its maximum, and then to stop the expansion, in turn begun to shrink. At this point, standing far away to observe the Milky Way galaxy, all galaxies will no longer be away from our left, but closer to us. When the arrival of this day depends on the density of the material universe may be, at least it appears from today to stop the universe there is no sign of expansion. Observation of human vision of the universe while not exhaustive, but we can observe galaxies away from our borders speed of more than 90% of the speed of light, which would indicate that many millions of years of expansion of the universe will not stop.

It is basically to determine the universe of the contraction process and the expansion of the universe is basically symmetrical course, how long it will be the expansion of time how long the contraction time.

When the contraction of the universe from its destination when there are 150 million years, the background cosmic radiation temperature of the universe more or less the same as today is around 3K; When 10 million years from the end of contraction, the background temperature of up to 30K, galaxy clusters began to merge; When the end of 1 million years from the time of the background cosmic radiation temperature to rise to 300K, that is to say, the general temperature of the universe than it is today Earth's temperature is higher, life has been difficult to survive in the universe; then, with the universe continuous contraction, as well as the background of rising temperatures, the universe, the sky will be dark today's bright colors slowly change, and then turned into a fiery red; when the end of 30 years from when the universe temperature up to 3000K, atoms were cracking, material to nuclear, electronics, photon and neutrino form; then the sky will no longer be transparent; when away from the end of 1 hour when the temperature of the universe to reach 100 million K, the main component of the universe as photons and neutrinos; from the end of 3 minutes when the temperature of the universe one billion K, the universe is full of electronics, neutrinos and their anti-particles, and a small number of protons and neutrons; when the seconds from the end of 10-4, the temperature of the universe as much as one trillion K, the universe of only neutrons, protons and their anti-particles; when 10-35 seconds from the end of the universe's temperature up to 1027K, the four forces of nature attributed to reunification; when 10-43 seconds from the end of the universe's temperature up to 1032 K, rapid contraction of the universe, and then reach the end.

The threat of the end of the universe to the overall survival of the human is so distant from us that  it has no direct relevance for us to talking about these issues. But as one of the factors explaining survival of mankind, it is necessary to thoroughly explain the problem.


Section II Threat on Solar System

Section II Threat on Solar System

In the vast universe, the solar system only a very small corner of living, but it is home to our common human being, the planet we live on the sun is a star system in this one small planet.

Stand in the sun over the Arctic, we can see all of the solar system eight planets are in the same direction along the same anti-clockwise rotation around the sun, their orbits almost in the same plane, the plane known as the ecliptic plane, which is elliptical orbit In fact, almost circular.

8 composition of planets vary considerably, but it can be divided into two categories known as terrestrial planets, they are Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars, by rock, metal composition of the solid planet, their density high, slow rotation, the satellite less the same as the Earth; the other known as the Jovian planets, and Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, their size, quality, weight, but the density is very low, like Jupiter, the main by liquid substances such as hydrogen and helium composition, as "water polo" wandering in space, they spin faster, multi-satellite, as well as Central.

Earth as the solar system's third planet from the sun 150 million kilometers, the outermost of Neptune from the sun is 4.5 billion kilometers, but this is far from the boundaries of the solar system, in addition to dwarf planet Neptune (such as Pluto) and many small celestial bodies, as well as interstellar matter.

The planets in the solar system is also very important satellite of celestial bodies, is already confirmed a total of 139 satellites, and there are many satellites need to be further identified. Although our planet in the solar system is a smaller planet, but Earth's moon is a satellite of the larger satellites, each satellite in the solar system was ranked No. 5.

In the solar system there are a large number of small objects such as dwarf planets, asteroids, comets and meteoroids, as they are too many specific statistics as well as impossible. In addition, interplanetary dust and interstellar rays, they are part of the composition of the solar system.

I. Threat of the sun

(1) Sun into a red giant

The quality of the sun for 2 × 1030 kg, a diameter of 1.39 million kilometers, which is composed of 71% hydrogen, 27% for helium, and 2% for carbon, oxygen, silicon, iron and other elements. First and foremost the protection of human existence are the sun, its brilliant shine and warm us, to leave the sun's shining on Earth would be a dead, cold planet, major changes in the sun, the earth and mankind will be drowned.

Issued by the sun light and heat is to rely on nuclear energy, which the energy generated per second is equivalent to 12 billion tons of coal combustion, the Earth its only less than 22 billionths of a brilliant, but sufficient to maintain the earth's ecology, so that the earth has become a beautiful and pleasant planet.

On the sun's energy has always been a concern of scientists, it is a time of combustion in the human experience, has never been divorced from the concept of chemical combustion, regardless of the burning of coal, oil, or trees, are based on atomic displacement can be caused by chemical , according to people that the highest value of burning fuel, the sun kept burning this continues, the burning period of several thousand years, however, is not the most optimistic estimate several hundred thousand years. On this basis, a lot of people come to wrong conclusions, such as: that the Earth's history, as well as human and biological history significantly less than the actual length of time. Further concluded that for the future of human being  is extremely pessimistic, because the fate of the sun determines the fate of the planet and human being , if the sun out in the thousands of years, mankind will not be able to survive no doubt, this is also said that after thousands of years human beings will be extinct.

However, research on the Earth's crust, as well as paleontological studies suggest that the Earth's age and history of life on Earth is far longer than people imagine, and then also understand that, through astronomical observations, the actual history of the stars of the past than the understand the difference between the thousands of miles, therefore, the energy of the sun have had doubts.

As early as age 60 in the 19th century, scientists have been based on optical analysis of the major components of the sun that for hydrogen, the late 19th century the discovery of radioactive elements, scientists recognized that the existence of a natural world that we do not know the past has the energy, which is nuclear energy. Understanding of nuclear energy after the constant breakthroughs, especially Einstein's famous mass-energy formula proposed theoretically established the existence of nuclear energy, as well as the relationship between energy and quality. Further observation and studies have shown that the sun there are more than 10 million degrees Celsius, which show that the core of the sun, high temperature, the nucleus of intense exercise can be to break through the electromagnetic force between the nuclei of the exclusion. Thus, the scientists finally come to the conclusion; I believe that the ongoing thermonuclear reaction inside the sun, the sun's light and heat is provided by nuclear energy. Moreover, the other stars of the energy come from nuclear energy.

Today, our understanding of the sun has reached a very high degree of elaboration that the following have sufficient grasp:

Our sun as a star was born in about 50 million years ago, the predecessor of the sun's heat is a huge corporation, basically can be identified, the hot group is the second generation of the universe or the third generation of great stars of the ruins after the explosion. Through the hundreds of millions of years of evolution, the final heat, through their own quality of its own gravity to form the center of intensive regional, and then formed a primitive planet, the planet through their powerful gravitational absorption material around, and finally set fire to the core parts of the hydrogen atom, and this is the sun as a star was born.

Elements of the solar hydrogen burning roughly 100 million years time, at present, it has been burning for 50 million years, and then also is able to burn 50 million years, and this is a period of moderate stability in the sun. However, after 50 million years, the helium atoms inside the sun will be lit, the sun will be turned into a huge red giant. He will continue to burn 10 million years, when all the helium burning, the sun will become a white dwarf quietly, although it is heat, but has no internal nuclear burning, and then slowly over time will be the natural cooling.

The sun turned into a red giant, as the new diameter of the sun than the sun's diameter will be more than 100 times larger, it will quickly Mercury, Venus swallowed, and eventually swallow the Earth, we gave birth to the life of this planet -- Earth will cease to exist, the homeland of mankind in the universe disappear.

Hundreds of millions of years of standing on a long-term point of view of the external forces for the threats to the survival of mankind, then, after 50 million years, the sun turned into a red giant is a definite threat. In fact, before the time of the last million years the sun has not so stable, and in this transition period, the Earth will continue to suffer harassment sun.

And when the sun turned into a red giant, when its flame will remain around the proliferation of not only the earth will be swallowed up, it will not be able to live on Mars, the world needs to continue to consider the relocation field. At that time, Jupiter or Saturn, satellites of a satellite or a few may be transformed into a place for human habitation, but the external environment has become very poor.

Then, when the sun is into a white dwarf, the last human in the solar system will not continue to survive. Although the hot white dwarf in the cooling process can also be light and heat radiation from outside, but its radiation energy is extremely limited, and perhaps the location of this Mercury can enjoy just such a brilliant, but the Mercury into a red giant in the sun has been swallowed up when therefore, it is human must be time to move out of the solar system, unless human being can be moved around a white dwarf planet or living in the man-made objects. Moreover, the white dwarf can not rely on a planet a long time; it will cool slowly, until the total loss of light and heat.

In fact, the human from the beginning of the transition period may be simply that they can no longer survive in the solar system, because that's when the sun is already very unstable, radical changes in the total, the human race can not be fully and accurately grasp its laws, which as long as there is a strong changes, will be able to complete the destruction of mankind.

(2) Impact of solar activity

Then, in the sun into a red giant before the billions of years in the future, we can absolutely rely on it? One day it wills suddenly some problems, greatly against human being again? We really understand the sun and have no problem with that base?

The Sun is a gas planet; it is divided into the core from the inside out, the radiation layer, the troposphere and the solar atmosphere. Solar atmosphere can be divided into photosphere, chromospheres and corona, which is not separate from the three-tier, but their penetration. Sun part of the troposphere and below the adoption of an astronomical telescope can not directly see only by the nature of their data and to determine the theoretical calculation.

Sun on the Earth have a direct impact on the factors that are mainly the activities of the sun's surface, the surface activities, including sunspots, flares, prominence, and the solar wind.

People do not use instruments can also be observed on the sun often black ball point, these spots is that sunspots. Sunspots are often inseparable pairs, and from west to east with the sun's rotation direction and rotation around the sun, to disappear from the formation of at least a few days, as many as dozens of years. Sunspot center temperature is about 4500K, the surface than the light ball about 1200K, so show contrast black. Sunspots generally oval-shaped, black son of a few kilometers in diameter, large sunspots up to tens of thousands of kilometers in diameter, and sometimes appear in groups of sunspots, and even as a few up to 100,000 kilometers. Is generally believed that the emergence of sunspots is the result of the solar magnetic field? Sunspot activity has obvious cyclical, sometimes frequent, sometimes a rare occurrence, with an average period of 11 years.

Flare in the chromospheres appears bright local region; it is in a very short amount of time focused on the explosion of solar energy. Flares broke out, in a very short period of time out a large number of charged particles and solar wind can be accelerated at times.

Prominence is the explosion of chromospheres layer of a strong stream of hydrogen, this hydrogen flow into the combustion flame red, the number of 100,000 kilometers straight. Is generally believed that the solar magnetic field prominence is the result of a sudden change, or because changing the hydrogen flow generated.

Flares and prominence of the activities are related to sunspot activity is closely linked to sunspot activity has been that solar activity is the main indicator of the strength.

The earth's ecology and the sun's activity is closely related to, when the flare erupted, the strong solar wind on the Earth's magnetic field have a strong interference, known as magnetic storms. Earth's short-wave communications, through fifty or sixty kilometers above the surface of the ionosphere reflection of the dissemination of information, the occurrence of geomagnetic storms, the ionosphere sharp increase in degree of dissociation, resulting in the ionosphere reflection of electromagnetic waves can not be normal, and will absorb electromagnetic waves, resulting in The attenuation of the signal, making short-wave communications.

Geomagnetic storms affect the Earth's upper atmosphere but also the chemical structure and dynamics, and long-term harassment of the storm will affect a large extent, the Earth's climate, causing floods or drought. Based on the analysis of global climate, climate change cycle is about 22 years, which the sun's magnetic cycle is the same.

Solar activity and Earth's earthquake was also associated, through the cycle of seismic activity around the world for many years to analyze the earthquake cycle for 11 years, with the sunspot activity cycle, exactly the same. With regard to the impact of solar activity on the causes of earthquakes, some scientists believe that when the peak year of solar activity, solar wind energy on Earth than the impact of higher than normal, making the earth's rock layers have a discharge pressure, and under the alternating electromagnetic field stretching vibration generated, making the already pent-up stress of the rock layer in the case of resonance when the fracture and dislocation, which triggered the earthquake.

In the study of old trees that ring the solar activity years wide, that fast-growing trees, on the contrary, low solar activity years narrow rings on the slow growth of trees, which confirmed the solar activity effects of life on earth. Based on historical statistics, the growth of crops is also in line with the law.

The sun's activities and human health is closely related to, for example, solar activity increased UV-strong, and strongly disturbed the Earth's magnetic field, so easy to influence cardiovascular function. Solar maximum bacterial growth was faster, so influenza, diphtheria epidemics of diseases such as high incidence. According to Russian scientists study the history of cholera pandemics have occurred in basically peak in solar activity.

However, while the sun's activity can be completely sure about the earth's ecosystem can be, the sun can not only nurtured life on Earth, can also harm life on Earth, but above all the factors that can endanger the survival of mankind.

This conclusion is not the sun decade, observed for centuries, nor is it for thousands of years, years' experience, but 50 million years of history has proved. In the past 50 million years in the sun with its warmth and good to the Earth's environment from a transformation of the planet has become a beautiful and pleasant planet, it makes the Earth from the doldrums of reviving them, finally the 38 million years ago has nurtured the first life, it is the most simple organisms. This started life in the glorious sun evolving, never stopped until 5.3 billion years ago large and complex life in the ocean there, and then the lives of 4 million years ago to the land, 600 million years ago apes into the human threshold, and nearly 5 million years ago to complete their own human evolution.

50 million years have lived up to the sun from us, from this point we can have every reason to believe that the next 50 million years old remain in the main sequence stars the sun, we also will not live up to. This conclusion, of the universe, astronomers from other similar observational stars the sun, as well as analysis of existing scientific theories can be confirmed.

II. Celestial collision

July 1994, amateur astronomers around the world through telescopes, witnessed the collision of comet astronomical wonders of wood. Shoemaker - Levy 9 comets on Jupiter over the enormous gravity of Jupiter have been torn into 21 pieces, these fragments to the speed of 60 kilometers per second crashed into Jupiter produce an explosion, a huge fireball and flash, and Jupiter the atmosphere to form a series of spots. So every time the impact is equivalent to 100,000 of the power of nuclear bomb, if there is on Earth, the Earth as a whole will suffer a great ecological damage, human survival will be seriously threatened.

However, the impact relative to the Earth has been subjected to the impact is certainly not the largest. Before 6500, have been rampant in the earth's giant dinosaurs, which many people believe that extinction is the result of an asteroid colliding with Earth, and believe that a diameter of about 15 km asteroid impact in Mexico's Yucatan peninsula. At present, scientists are on the Yucatan Peninsula in the sedimentary rocks buried under an estimated diameter of 180 kilometers, 900 meters depth study of the impact crater. So, the survival of mankind in those days also should be subjected to a major catastrophe. In fact, a sufficiently large extraterrestrial objects colliding with Earth can be the extinction of mankind, therefore, to study the survival of human being  as a whole, it is necessary to study the impact of the issue of foreign objects.

The solar systems that may exist within the scope of the impact of celestial bodies are asteroids, comets, meteorites and meteoroids. As a result of meteorites and meteor is too small, not to human being as a whole constitute a threat to survival, therefore, here we only discuss the impact of asteroids and comets problem.

(1) Asteroid impact

Asteroids are the same as our planet around the sun, but its size is very small. A lot of the solar system asteroids, which are mainly concentrated in two regions, one near the orbit of Pluto Kuiper Belt, and the other are between Mars and Jupiter in the asteroid belt. Because we are very far away from the Kuiper, where the asteroid can not threaten our security, the threat of asteroid scientists generally do not consider the Kuiper Belt of asteroids.

Roughly estimated that the total number of asteroids in the solar system more than 500,000 (other than the Kuiper Belt of asteroids and lateral), and they are mostly very small size, although the large number, but the total does not add up to five ten thousandths of the Earth's mass. The vast majority of these planets are in the asteroid belt, a region in the 2.17-3.64 astronomical units (an astronomical unit is the distance between the sun and the earth, the day the text of units of about 150 million kilometers). Therefore, the asteroid belt asteroids are very distant from us; the general could not pose a threat to us. However, the asteroid as a result of small size, light weight, the planet vulnerable to disturbance, resulting in the possibility of changes in the larger orbit, which requires us to distance to the asteroid belt to give a considerable degree of concern.

Why did the solar system's asteroid on mainly in between Mars and Jupiter, and many scientists believe that this is because of Jupiter's gravitational force of the original asteroids in the inner circle to attract the past, because Jupiter is the solar system's largest planet, as opposed to inner circle planet, its gravity is much greater.

A small number of asteroids are very special, and they stay away from the asteroid belt, near the Earth orbit to go inside, then went to the far outside Saturn's orbit, especially close to some of the asteroid away from Earth, known as the Near-Earth small planet. We really care about is that these near-Earth asteroids, they are more than the asteroid belt asteroid threat to our much larger.

Although written in the year, human being has not had a record of asteroid impact, but in the face of so many around us asteroids, as well as reference to our experience of the universe, the observation of celestial bodies, or that the asteroid is a very real threat, it compared Day said before the threat of the universe, as well as the sun into a red giant, it seems, in sight of the threat. But really a large enough asteroid colliding with Earth is entirely possible for the extinction of human being , even if a large asteroid colliding with Earth also has the potential to cause great harm human beings, so, several major countries have considerable used for observation and research into the asteroid. For example, NASA asked the U.S. Congress on the need for all the diameter of the asteroid more than one kilometer recorded and classified.

At present, we have found and a number of near-Earth asteroids close to 3000, of which more than one kilometer in diameter to about 1100, and the largest is the well-known stars of Venus.

Venus stars in their orbits between Earth and Mars, 22 kilometers in diameter. Like this is really an asteroid colliding with Earth, it will greatly affect the global ecosystem, many species would have been extinct, human life will not only suffer great destruction, and the results of human civilization would have been great damage. Fortunately, this asteroid we have full understanding of the special launch from NASA's exploration of Eros stars no probe NEAR-Shoemaker on February 14, 2000 entered orbit around Venus Star in the successful detection of one year after close and in February 12, 2001 Eros landing smoothly stars, their research has been very successful.

However, not the entire near-Earth asteroid Eros as the stars we all know it, especially those the size of small asteroids is their situation; we do not fully grasp it. For example: March 18, 2004, small objects from the Earth 2004FH over 43,000 kilometers (more than the Earth-Moon distance of nearly 10-fold) over, astronomers over the first 3 days and found it, this 30 meters in diameter if the objects just hit a medium-sized cities, the city will be destroyed. Of course, this is still far from adequate for the destruction of human extinction.

Some from very close to the Earth if an asteroid hit the Earth it is possible to bring greater harm. According to observation and analysis, the asteroid (29075) 1950DA will be in 2880 from the Earth's surface over a very low place, if its orbit changes slightly small it may be crashed into the Earth, this 1.4-kilometer diameter asteroid would hit the earth, to bring disaster on Earth can affect the global ecology, and tens of thousands of square kilometers of the scope of a large number of organisms (including humans) will most be destroyed. Fortunately, there are 800 years, we have sufficient time to track this asteroid re-evaluation, but also have enough time to deal with its impact.

(2) Comet impact

Comet from the rocks, frozen water and carbon dioxide, dust and a variety of impurities, is a quality of smaller celestial bodies. Comet material will be fully compressed together, the comet but also dozens of kilometers in diameter.

Referred to as the core of the comet nucleus, the external cladding cloudlike fat known as coma, when the comet close to the sun, the strong solar wind and the sun's radiation pressure will push the growth of hair coma tail length, tail length is shorter Tens of thousands of kilometers, while the 100 million kilometers long. Tail is very thin material, the surface density of only a few of one billionth billon of atmosphere.

Comets is difficult to grasp the running track is not only an oval-shaped track, as well as parabolic and the hyperbolic orbit. Moreover, the comet's orbit is highly susceptible to via the planets and the impact of distant stars, so some of the comet's orbit changes continuously, and some comets gone forever, there are some new nameless came to the solar system comets.

Many of the comets in the solar system, but scientists only observed more than 1600 stars, and only a small portion of the comet's trajectory has been to master. The gap between the operating cycles of the comet is also very large, short, or only a few years more than 100 days, up to several thousand years’ long or even years.

The comet itself is unstable, and each time when passing the sun, the solar wind would disperse the material will be part of it into space, thus, the quality of the comet is getting smaller and smaller, and finally left the nucleus, and some entirely by ice and dust the composition of the comet may be the last completely disappear.

Comets also are likely to be the sun or the planet's gravitational force cracking, the famous comet than the drawing is an example of revolution around the Sun's cycle of 6.6 years, January 13, 1846 Birane comet suddenly split into two, and then return after they At the same time also the return of two comets, but in 1859, they were gone, and then, in their orbits intersect Earth's orbit and where there is a large meteor shower, comet Birane This shows that have been completely neutralized.

Large comet colliding with Earth at the time, the threat to humans is obvious. So far, there are records of a comet colliding with the largest in the June 30, 1908 took place the morning of that day, the Tunguska in Siberia in Russia have taken place over a violent explosion, in addition to 1,000 km have seen a huge explosion fireball, but also heard the explosion sound explosion shock wave will be within the scope of a few hundred square kilometers of forests and tear down all the burning, the forest full of dead animals, including feeding a large group of reindeer in this. Fortunately, this desolate and uninhabited, so there were no casualties. After the visit here of scientists found that in addition to the land, as well as charred animal died, the meteorite and found no crater, so assume that this is a matter entirely composed of water comet, the comet into the Earth, friction with the atmosphere produce very high temperature, its evaporation so fierce comet at about 10 kilometers away from the ground over the intense explosion occurred.

Compared to the larger asteroids, the comet's impact on the devastating impact of human being  smaller, but a large comet impact, but also human enough to suffer huge losses overall, it falls short of human extinction.

Near-Earth comets and asteroids than the much smaller, and they generally have a long tail, but also to facilitate observation. Today, we have observed near-Earth comets have been about 50, the figure is far below the near-Earth asteroids; it seems that the probability of a comet colliding with Earth is much smaller, but this is not the case. The most prominent feature of comets is that it highly vulnerable to the sun with the planets orbit perturbations and transformation, but also in the edge of the solar system's comet may inexplicably went inside the solar system, so the probability of the comet colliding with asteroids even have to large, and very hard to detect. Thus, scientists in recent years have paid more and more attention to the study of comets.

(3) Comprehensive analysis of extraterrestrial objects'impacts

Large extraterrestrial objects the chance of colliding with Earth is very small, but is a sufficiently large asteroid colliding with Earth, was the whole of human being may become extinct. Therefore, we can not because of the small probability of such a thing then to ignore it, because as long as human beings to catch up so once again it is impossible to make up for losses, Furthermore, this kind of impact there is very realistic.

What would be finally the threat of extraterrestrial objects for human being? Many scientists have carried out this study conducted an in-depth, but the difference was larger perspective, different people have different conclusions, in a combination of many different viewpoints, we can narrow it down the following conclusions:

1. The more the impact of large chance of the smaller objects, and each of the solar system with a large celestial bodies (including Earth) billions of years in their own orbit operation repeated several times against this kind of impact will the increasing frequency lower.

2. For objects of different sizes against the impact of frequency and can be estimated as follows:

① 1 for about 80 meters in diameter, the impact of celestial bodies may occur once in 100 years, so the impact can cause a few hundred square kilometer area of a large number of lives have been destroyed, and the range of 10 thousand square kilometers on the ecological impact will be;

② A diameter of about 800 meters in the celestial collision may occur once in 2000, so the impact can cause tens of thousands of square kilometer area of a large number of lives have been destroyed, and one million square kilometers on the scope of the ecological impact will be;

③ A diameter of about 3 kilometers in the impact of celestial bodies may occur once in 1,000 years, so the impact can cause one and two hundred thousands of square kilometer area of a large number of lives have been destroyed, and the global ecosystem will be affected;

④ A more than 10 kilometers in diameter, the impact of celestial bodies may occur once in 7,000 years, so the impact could cause global extinction of many biological species, subjected to enormous global ecological destruction, until the restoration of many years;

⑤ A diameter of more than 100 kilometers to the impact of celestial bodies hundreds of millions of years to occur, so the impact should be able to destroy the global ecosystem, the extinction of mankind and human civilization.

3. The most frightening and more realistic impact of celestial bodies is the impact of Eros stars, it is the largest near-Earth objects in the first, as a diameter of 22 kilometers of the asteroid, if colliding with Earth, will lead to a large number of personnel were killed and the Earth the overall ecological destruction of human civilization suffered great devastation. However, the impact of Eros stars does not lead to human extinction. But it appears from the present it does not impact the earth signs, and this asteroid we have a reliable follow-up observation.

In fact, today we have the impact of extraterrestrial objects has considerable ability to prevent. Observing the development of space technology has been more and more details will allow us to grasp the solar system and operation of the distribution of celestial bodies, in particular, larger for those who may pose a threat to the survival of human whole objects, the degree of master is increasingly high. And the development of space technology, it gives us the ability to travel in space is becoming increasingly strong, and mankind has landed on the moon and continue on to Mars or other planets, in this century will be entirely achievable. As for the explosion of nuclear warheads, not only can destroy large celestial bodies, but also can change their orbit. Moreover, not only the spacecraft can be nuclear warheads accurately into the depths of space, missiles can also put them into the space near Earth. Because of the conditions above, then to the power of human beings the possibility of interception of the celestial bodies colliding with Earth, it is becoming increasingly likely.

Scientists are optimistic that, as long as several years in advance to predict the possibility of objects colliding with Earth, they can change their orbit, away from the earth away. If the forecast for several decades ahead of such objects, using ordinary explosives spacecraft into space will be slightly changed the orbit of celestial bodies would be able to impact the Earth from. Therefore, as long as human observation to further enhance the capacity of its own, completely avoid the impact of small objects is a very real thing.

In fact, scientists for celestial bodies colliding with Earth to deal with a wide range of options being considered, it was suggested that the laser can be used to allow slow down the asteroid to change its orbit; was also made to promote an even smaller possibility of the asteroid impact into the Earth's larger asteroid to change the orbit.

It is worth mentioning that, NASA is implementing an asteroid colliding with Earth to prevent the plan known as the "angry Chinese" project. It is to be known as "Han anger" of the robot equipped with a nuclear power may be launched into the celestial bodies colliding with Earth, and then, like a pile-like robot fixed in the celestial bodies themselves, and the use of electromagnetic thrust has always been the role of technology in objects so that objects to change its orbit gradually.

Section III Threat on Earth

Section III Threat on Earth

To see from space, our Earth is a beautiful blue planet, which stand out, be different, in the current scope of human vision in space, Earth is the only planet of an ecosystem, and is the only planet of civilization, it beauty is unique.

The main components of the Earth is the metal and rock, and it is mainly the surface of the sea, the sea area of more than 70% of the Earth's surface land area of less than 30%. A rule of the earth is not a complete sphere, and its equatorial radius of about 6378 kilometers, larger than the polar radius of 21 kilometers. The Earth's surface is the highest peak Mount Everest, 8844.43 meters above sea level, the depths of the ocean is the Mariana trench, the depth of about 11 kilometers. Therefore, the Earth's solid surface and downs of about 20 kilometers total.

The Earth's interior from the earth's core, mantle and crustal structure, external from the hydrosphere, atmosphere and magnetosphere composition, both within and outside the Earth's various parts, the overall composition of the Earth.

Earth is like the human mother, it gave birth to human beings, human feeding. However, it is far from being a loving mother earth, earthquakes, volcanoes, floods, winds do not know how many people have claimed the lives of so I do not know how many people were left homeless, and to this suffering and sorrow. We are well aware of the importance of the Earth's human, very human on the Earth's unique attachment, from the Earth of human being will not be able to survive, and are for this reason that we must take into account the Earth's impact on the survival of mankind.

I. Plate movement, earthquakes and volcanoes

Early in the 19th century, on the laying of undersea cables in the Atlantic Ocean, we have found that the central seabed of Atlantic Ocean is much lower than that on both sides.  After further inspection of the Atlantic understand that the Mid-Atlantic seabed uplift in the existence of a central deep-sea ridge, like the Azores, Ascension Island is the central ridge portion of the exposed surface of the water. After scientists in the Pacific at the end of the echo sounder were also found in the eastern Pacific Ocean has a very long table mount.

The 20th century, the 50's, there is more in-depth study of the oceans, scientists have final confirmation, the world's oceans, there is a coherent and long-kilometer submarine of sixty or seventy thousands of mountains, as a result of this mountain range in the Atlantic Ocean and part of the Indian Ocean is located in the middle of the ocean, so called mid-oceanic ridge, the above-mentioned central Atlantic ridge table mount and the Pacific are part of mid-oceanic ridge. The total length of mid-oceanic ridge around the world could be two weeks, the land of mountains on earth, none can compare, but deep in the sea, people can not see.

Mid-oceanic ridge in the further study found that, in general, the top of mid-oceanic ridge has a deep rift, which may be as deep as 1000-2000 m, the ridge from the top split into two semis - This phenomenon in the Atlantic Ridge Mountains parties. Ridges are often in the vicinity of the earthquake and volcanic activity. Determination of seismic waves through and found the top ridge of the earthquakes Department mantle longitudinal wave speed is less than at the top of the general mantle longitudinal wave speed, which in the mid-oceanic ridge under the heat and light than the mantle material, it is this material Chung or the ever-expanding, causing uplift of mid-oceanic ridge.

A better understanding of the oceans lies in the detection of the ocean trench; the world's deepest trench has a greater depth than the height of the highest peak 2000 meters larger than the trench in the ocean along the Pacific coast in the distribution of the most common of the trench, between the most sharply.

At the conclusion of a large number of geological survey and research information, the scientists said the sea-floor spreading. In their view, the Earth's magma ocean upwelling is the driving force for expansion, mid-oceanic ridge is at the top of the upwelling of magma underground exports, the upwelling of magma at mid-oceanic ridge oceanic crust will tear, and will continue to push the oceanic crust to both sides, and the magma will cool and then kept on tearing the mouth filling, mid-oceanic ridge in the ocean as the center to both sides of the expansion of mid-oceanic ridge uplift, magma upwelling is caused by thermal expansion results.

Specific analysis of the Atlantic Ridge seamounts, it is to the end of the upwelling of magma in the expansion of Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the Atlantic oceanic crust into two, the west side of West Atlantic and the Americas, the eastern side of the Atlantic and East Africa and Europe. Upwelling of magma continued to promote both sides of the oceanic crust, oceanic crust to make the West Atlantic and the Americas continue to move west, the Atlantic oceanic crust east Africa and Europe and continued to move eastward, so, more and more wide Atlantic.

In that case, the introduction of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, who is going to take this space? In other words, widening the Atlantic Ocean at the same time, there must be other regions will narrow, narrowing the region where it is? We can see from the other side of the earth to find the answer to the Pacific. When the Mid-Atlantic Ridge Department of magma upwelling at the same time to promote the expansion of the Atlantic, the Pacific ridge upwelling magma Department is also on both sides of the ridge push mobile oceanic crust, but the movement of the Pacific, the result of oceanic crust and the Atlantic Ocean is different, because no space can hold the Pacific oceanic crust, therefore, in the oceanic crust at the junction with the land, chose the down oceanic crust seduction, it is in the trench, the oceanic crust sub ducting into the ground, and mantle melting for high-temperature magma. Therefore, the Pacific ridge magma Department to promote both sides of the oceanic crust moves to the Pacific did not widen, but to take the space after the expansion of the Atlantic, so, on the contrary has been narrowed to narrow.

It is precisely because of these reasons, we can see both sides of the Atlantic rarely found the existence of trench, and the Pacific Rim are all over the trench.

Expansion of marine continental drift is that the inheritance and development, on this basis, it is further proposed that plate tectonics. Scientists believe that Earth's lithosphere are few clear-cut fissures, they are a mid-oceanic ridge, trench, or fault as a symbol of the earth's crust split into many units, forming a relatively independent of the plate, the plate floating in the mantle asthenosphere above and under the Earth's internal heat drives moving, and they squeeze rifting or collision, the formation of mountains, valleys and rivers, or ridge, trench and island arc.

Earthquakes, volcanoes and tectonic plates and is closely related to movement, from the history of the distribution of earthquakes and volcanoes can be seen that plate boundaries and the distribution of earthquakes and volcanoes are the same. For example, the earthquake-prone province of China Taiwan and Japan's Ryukyu Islands, that is, as a result of the Philippine plate and the Eurasian plate collision caused by the formation of the collision of the North Luzon Trough to the east is the Luzon volcanic arc. Earthquake-prone areas of the United States, San Francisco, it is as a result of the Pacific plate and the result of the Inter-American plate.

Seismic and volcanic disasters to human beings is brought about by long-lasting, but also enormous. To volcanic eruptions triggered by the disaster as an example, the Year 79 years August 24, the sudden explosion of Vesuvius in Italy, together with fierce hot lava with gas to go up the sky, moment the foot of the hill between the bustling city of Pompeii was buried in volcanic eruption objects. Occasionally after more than a thousand years people have been found in the buried cities during the excavation, they also can see the city's residents died of gesture, their fears and look unprepared clear. The Caribbean Sea in 1902 on the island of Ma Pei-lei tam Nick volcanic eruptions, April 25 at the beginning of a volcanic eruption, volcanic ash and steam direct sky, loud rumbling volcano triggered by a magnificent view from its 10 km outside of St. Pierre the inhabitants of the city every day in high spirits to watch this rare landscape. However, on May 18 suddenly angry volcano, volcanic eruption suddenly rose several hundred meters high, mixed with volcanic ash in a large number of toxic gases, to sensational wave pressure to the St. Pierre, this bustling port city of the beautiful to become an instant a sea of flames, with the exception of a shoemaker and a prisoner of repair, the entire city of 28,000 people were buried in the disaster. After that, the prisoner is being held in the basement of a semi-confined only survived, but his police guards were spared.

Plate seismic activity has caused more destruction, such as the famous 1923 Kanto earthquake, resulting in 143,000 deaths. The centuries the greatest casualties of China's Tangshan earthquake, the earthquake occurred in Tangshan City of Hebei Province. July 28, 1976 is extremely hot day, at midnight, people from the heat wave in the agitated by the slightest breeze of love, just to sleep, 3:42, magnitude 7.8 earthquake destroyed Tangshan instant the industrial cities. Earthquake caused houses to collapse, collapsed roadbed, bridges destroyed; near a large coal mine cave, tunnel goes down, the collapse of support, equipment flooded, mined-out area collapse; some areas the spread of highly toxic gas, explosive combustion of inflammable materials. In this earthquake, a total of 242,000 people killed 164,000 injured people.

Occurred in China's Wenchuan earthquake in Sichuan is another very serious earthquake casualty. At 14:28 on May 12, 2008, the Indian Ocean Plate and the Asian plate collision, resulting in up to a magnitude 8.0 earthquake in Sichuan occurred in the mountains, earthquakes and even the scope of damage and affected more than the Tangshan earthquake, even 2,000 km outside the capital city of Beijing and neighboring Thailand, Myanmar and other countries felt that there can be marked. Caused by the earthquake killed nearly 90,000 people missing, injured more than 30 million people, the earthquake also formed a mountain gorge in more than 30 Barrier Lake. If the earthquake occurred at night or in densely populated areas, it would result in more disastrous casualties.

Earthquake and volcanic eruption also caused a tsunami and fire, in 1923 Tokyo earthquake just occurred in the noon hours of cooking, the stove makes the dumping of the earthquake, resulting in two to three hundred Department instantaneous fire, Daisaku wind, fire by the wind, resulting in 10 Multi-million people perished in the flames.

Recorded the biggest casualties since the tsunami occurred in December 26, 2004, when the Indonesian island of Sumatra in the Indian Ocean near the sea, have taken place in the 8.9 magnitude earthquake, the earthquake triggered the tsunami led to Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Thailand more than 10 countries affected, etc., and even far away in the other side of the east coast of Africa have been affected. In the tsunami affected areas, many are well-known tourist destination, at this time and are the tourist peak season; tourists from all over the world are gathered in the waterfront, but suddenly and unexpectedly to drowned. Tsunami caused death and the final number of missing more than 225,000.

However, earthquakes and volcanoes to human beings regardless of the disasters brought about by too great, either to human beings no longer will bring the number of disasters, the impact of these disasters is the human individual and group survival and well-being, which is impossible to human beings after all, the overall survival and pose a threat to the well-being.

Instead, we should be more objective, scientific understanding of plate activity, there is no activity on the plate can not be formed mountains and rivers, no mountains and rivers of the Earth's ecology will not be able to form a circle as the Earth will be a lack of vitality, there is no vitality, and biological in this environment it is difficult to develop and evolution.

Astronomers in the solar system major planets and their satellites are considered the earth is only the existence of the solar system planet plate movement. With our satellite the moon as an example, it is almost the same period of the formation of Earth, we can see numerous craters on its surface, that are pre-formed in three or four billions of years. Earth and the Moon are also in the same environment, but the initial formation of the Earth's surface that has long been difficult to find traces, which are the vast majority of the surface, has been updated. It is only the earth's plate movement was unique, that makes a 46 million years after the Earth is still unlimited vitality, and perhaps this is the planet Earth and life have become an important factor in a civilized planet.

In fact, the plate movement to the human disaster, it is also the benefit of mankind. The formation of many important mineral deposits with the plate movement is closely related to plate movement led lithosphere, asthenosphere, hydrosphere, the atmosphere between the material and energy exchange, the exchange is such a variety available for human use of mineral.

II. Climate change and glacial period

Earth's normal climate change is the law of the cold winter, spring and autumn warmth, hot summer, because all over the Earth by sunlight due to a difference, even in equatorial regions such as the temperature difference is relatively small, but there are also the rainy season and dry season of points. Often some unusual weather in some years, or an increase in hot weather or extended cold season, all this will bring some trouble to the people, such as global warming may cause flooding, hurricanes harassment, disease prevalence, or an increase in agricultural pests and diseases; to reduce the possibility of global warming caused by agricultural production, livestock froze to death, traffic congestion, and so on avalanche wounding. However, the overall survival of human events have affected this year, agricultural production may be a good harvest next year, and general disease, floods, disasters such as avalanches can not be far from endangering the whole of mankind. As for the four seasons climate change is beneficial to humans, such changes can not only enrich people's lives, and the spring harvest species, it is tough for half a year in winter people can enjoy while sitting on the stove for some quiet time, our ancestors have been so overnight.

However, there is a degree of anything more than a certain limit, there have been good things may become a disaster, if a cold for up to tens of thousands of years, or a fever for several years on it is different. The surface of our planet not only change throughout the year, and the total risk of long hot cold illnesses, and sometimes even longer cold or heat for several tens of millions of years long, or even millions of years.

More than 700 million years ago, the Earth has gone through a very cold day, up to several tens of millions of years in time of snow-covered half the globe; even near the equator are the traces of glaciers. And 1 billion years ago, the Earth has gone through a very hot season, in a few tens of millions of years, the polar ice melting, Antarctica and Greenland as warm as in spring, dinosaurs walk here.

Earth is experiencing a time when the heat changes in the cold, scientists in-depth analysis of the Earth found that there seems to be much change in the law of this, about every 2.5 million years or so there is a long cold period, and this cold period known as the Ice Age. In fact, the glacial period the temperature is not set in stone, each can be divided into a number of Ice Age of Ice Age a little, in order to show the difference between the former general said that for the Ice Age, the latter for the Ice Age, Ice Age in between two warmer called inter-glacial period. At present, we are in a state of "Quaternary Ice Age" is a large glacial interglacial stage.

In the Quaternary Ice Age since the big time in 200 years, can be divided into several glacial and interglacial stage, because we are in the interglacial stage, there is no sense of glacial cold.

From our most recent Ice Age began 1.8 million years before that, beyond 1 million years ago, when the Northern Hemisphere of Greenland, across Canada, Alaska and the northern United States, all of Siberia and northern Europe, Iceland and most of all were snow-covered. Due to large amount of water converted to snow and ice, causing sea-level drop of 150 meters, the disappearance of the Bering Strait, North America and Siberia, together; in Asia, the Yellow Sea in eastern China, the Bohai Sea off all exposed, the Korea Strait and Tsushima Strait are also gone exist, linked to the Japanese archipelago and the Eurasian continent, Indonesia and Asia are also connected together; In Western Europe, the sea water out of the English Channel, the British Isles has become a part of the European continent; and Australia and Asia by a land bridge connecting the mainland.

Why on Earth would appear alternately glacial scientists conducted a long-term study, many perspectives, but also very different, for example: Some people believe that Himalayas uplift from the sea floor, a large number of carbon dioxide in the air or from the seabed occurred in Shanghai combined with the rock surface is 200 million years to reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, global climate cooling one of the important factors. Others believe that the sun around the galactic center in the operation of an orbit relatively dense material and interstellar clouds, when the sun through this piece of interstellar clouds, the interstellar clouds will cover part of the glorious sun, although it is difficult in the face of the earth interstellar clouds to the naked eye to see the effects of sunlight, but it suffices to change the temperature of the earth's surface. The reasons for holding this view is that the Ice Age cycle coincides with the center of the sun around the galaxy coincides with the cycle, is 2.5 billion years. So on and so forth.

However, there are not any kind of perspective to fully explain the root causes of ice age, but also not able to persuade all people. Ice Age is likely to be from a variety of factors; including those we may not realize that factor.

Earth's major climate change cycle, the overall human and ecological impact of the Earth is huge, but it can not affect the overall survival of mankind.

Global climate is a gradual process, rather than mutation, regardless of heat by the cold, or from warm to cold, during which at least after all of the Millennium. In the ice age comes, the ice sheet covering the first two, and then from high latitudes to the low-latitude regions, the northern and southern hemisphere high latitudes will not fit for human habitation, neither for farming. However, with the increasing global ice and snow, the sea will continue to retreat, and much shallow water above the surface will become available for agricultural cultivation and human a place to live. The colder the water more easily dissolved oxygen, and thus more conducive to the growth of marine organisms, the Antarctic has become a paradise for fish and shrimp, the reasons in the case. Whales, seals, walrus, penguins can survive in the Polar Regions, but also rely on a wealth of marine life as food for survival.

When the climate became hot, melting polar ice caps, sea level rise, sea eroded coastal lowlands, it seems that the space for the survival of mankind has become smaller for the cultivation of farmland less, in fact, is not so. When snow and ice melt, global warming, Antarctica and Greenland will become suitable for farming and living areas, and northern Siberia, northern Canada, and northern Scandinavia, is the original environment of the area, and then everything would have to change amount to anything good and pleasant and good farm ranch. The increase also includes the land has long been on the original kilometers-thick ice sheet Shen Harbor land pressure, when the snow melted, they will continue to rise, and finally promoted to the land. Warming lands are suitable for plant growth and reproduction of animals on land.

From this we can see that climate change can make all the basic balance, regardless of temperature increase or decrease the land available for human use area there will not be much change in the Earth's ecological environment will not be too much damage.

If we take into account the extreme circumstances, such as 7 million years ago as the Ice Age, even near the equator there are glaciers, and the overall survival of human being will not be jeopardized. Development of science and technology can do today, the snow and ice in the cold winter greenhouse can be used to produce fresh vegetables and fruits, only this point, and we have confidence in the view that Ice Age can not endanger the survival of human being as a whole.

In fact, it is the Quaternary Ice Age 200 million years ago, from primates to human beings capable, upright, and the final completion of the milestones of modern Homo sapiens evolved. Ice Age in order to ward off the cold, the evolution of animals with thick skin, long hair, and hair of humans has less and less, because they learned to use animal skin as a simple clothes, learned to use fire for heating.

Our courageous ancestors, in the face of cold, they had no choice to survive the warm equatorial Africa, the environment, but to Asia, to Europe, although much cooler here, conditions are even worse, but the ancestors of human courage.

It is cold ice age, resulting in snow-covered northern and southern hemisphere high latitudes, sea level dropped more than 100 meters, so that Australia and the Asian continent to form the land bridge to the disappearance of the Bering Strait, so human, through a land bridge to enter Australia, but also across the Bering Strait into the Americas, then, the human footprint all over the world.

Quaternary Ice Age in the cold, many organisms can not stand the cold test, as each of extinction, and human nature in the struggle with the constant development and expansion, completed the history of Earth's greatest biological evolution. As the original, as the conditions are not difficult to destroy human ancestors, we do not have any reason to believe that the face of the next Ice Age, with a high degree of wisdom and has advanced science and technology of modern humans will succumb to cold and suffer extinction.

Earth 38 million years ago, there will be a low life, 5.3 billion years ago large and complex life in the ocean, 4 billion years ago to the various biological comprehensive land, the Earth experienced this many times during the Ice Age, since it is not suitable for the environment, subjected to the extinction of many species, but life has been extended to today, has never completely stopped. Earth today has never had the wisdom and civilization, from this point can be corroborated, Ice Age should have nothing to fear.

III. Disappearance of geomagnetic

Space is full of cosmic rays, cosmic rays come from a variety of high-energy space particles, they are close to the speed of light is not the time to attack our planet. If the human or other organisms are directly affected by the cosmic rays is a very dangerous attack, and those high-energy particles can penetrate the human cells will not only kill cells, but also to kill or change the human genes.

However, usually we do not feel the injury cosmic rays, because the earth's surface there is three barriers to block cosmic rays. The first barrier is the Earth's surface layer of the atmosphere, which is the most powerful bulwark. When cosmic rays at very high speed "visit" the earth when the atmosphere is bound to molecules and atoms in the collision occurred, each collision, energy will be consumed, when the particles reach the surface when the final, energy has become very low, on the human body will harm the ability of very small.

Another barrier is the Earth's magnetic field. When cosmic rays across the magnetic field, the need to use energy to overcome the role of the magnetic field, a number of low-energy cosmic rays penetrate the magnetic field in the absence of that it is being captured by Earth's magnetic field, and some higher-ray energy through the magnetic field can reach the surface its energy has also been a great loss. Earth's magnetic field on the barrier function of cosmic rays, second only to the protection of the Earth's atmosphere.

There is a layer of earth over the barrier of cosmic rays, which mainly come from the sun is the interplanetary magnetic field, the magnetic field in the Earth's magnetic field and the formation of a layer of the external barriers, it is wrapped with the Earth, its role and the role of the Earth's magnetic field is similar to the energy consumption of cosmic rays.

We would like to say here is related to the issue of the Earth's magnetic field. Earth's magnetic field for the protection of life on Earth is very important, but in the longer time scales within the study, the Earth's magnetic field is not stable, it is weak when strong and sometimes change Arctic Antarctic, the Arctic into the Antarctic, and entirely disappeared when the magnetic, Earth's magnetic field so that total loss of protection. Need to think about the disappearance of the geomagnetic influence on human beings, we must first understand the nature of the formation of the geomagnetic field.

In physics we all know that electric and magnetic induction can be each other's, and was known as the electromagnetic effect, that is, power can be magnetic sensors, magnetic sensors can also be electric. In the core material is a melt-shaped part of the iron-nickel metal, rapid rotation of the earth by the role of liquid iron-nickel metal in the earth's core is rotating the way in the campaign, which is like a strong current in underground flow, this stock would have a strong current of the magnetic field, which is the Earth's magnetic field.

In the study it's found that the geomagnetic field was in such a law change: the location of the pole to pole position away from the axis will not be too far away, and after the strongest magnetic field strength will gradually after weakening to a certain after the magnetic field will disappear briefly and then the magnetic field will be restored, and gradually changed, but the direction of the magnetic pole will be reversed, that is, the original North Pole into the South Pole, Antarctica will be turned into the Arctic, and so back and forth. In the past 70 years, the Earth's magnetic field direction has been so, but again over the past 45 years is the turn. In the last 1 million years of geomagnetic field study found that an average of 400,000 to 50 million years polarity will be reversed once the shortest turnover time is only 5 years.

The phenomenon of magnetic reversal for now there is a reasonable explanation, this is the core of the molten state due to iron-nickel metal-induced changes in the flow direction. The iron-nickel core melt will not always flow in one direction, when the flow direction at the Earth's magnetic poles reverse naturally reversed, and the flow direction to change the pause in the process of critical points, that is, than that of the disappearance of the geomagnetic short period of time. As the core of iron-nickel melt flow direction by the direction of the earth's rotation around, so regardless of the direction, the magnetic pole will not deviate from the polarization axis too far.

In that case, the local magnetic field in a loss of short-term phase, the Earth's magnetic field is lost to the protection would be a kind of situation? To be sure, under normal circumstances, the protection of the Earth's atmosphere, cosmic rays and solar particles can not disappear in a short period geomagnetic fatal lethal to humans. Because of the 600 million years of human evolution, the Earth's magnetic field has disappeared briefly before, the evolution of mankind has not been great at least the impact of life on Earth have not been affected. Scientists to stop the Earth's atmosphere by cosmic rays and solar radiation research, has also been evidence of a corresponding, which is short-lived geomagnetic disappeared, under normal circumstances, the impact of the survival of mankind will not be decisive.

However, the special situation of non-normal is what? Because in human life on Earth billions of years in the future, many have special circumstances that may arise.

The most important source of cosmic rays is a supernova in the Milky Way the explosion , a large-scale explosion  of supernovae, the release of the intensity of cosmic rays is the sun-ray release of such a star of many quadrillion times. So, if a supernova we are not far away from an explosion occurred inside the scope of what is the situation?

Studies have shown that as long as the explosion of supernovae over 25 light-years from Earth, the Earth's atmosphere, the Earth's magnetic field and the protection of the solar magnetic field, such a high intensity of cosmic rays to a large extent, will not endanger the survival of human being. However, if the magnetic field at this time just to catch up to the disappearance of short-term, the situation will be much more severe, due to the disappearance of the geomagnetic field, Earth would be subjected to the solar cosmic ray particles and the double attack, only the Earth's atmosphere and the solar magnetic field would not be sufficient to resist this kind of offensive. Therefore, it seems to be a safe distance from this to about 30 light-years. Moreover, from today to the changes in magnetic field can be aware that in the next 1 million years, the geomagnetic field will inevitably disappear once the process of short-term.

In the next 1 million years, the most likely to break out from our more recent supernova is Betelgeuse, but it is 600 light years away from us outside, even if it coincides with the explosion of the short-term disappearance of the geomagnetic field line, generated by such a large distance cosmic rays, we are the Earth's atmosphere and the solar magnetic field can be sufficient to remove its security.

In fact, in the range of 30 light-years we have not found the explosion of the possibility of a supernova, but also by the scientists calculated the probability of the explosion of a supernova 30 light years the scope of the explosion of the opportunities supernova can only be met once in ten billions of years, which Geomagnetic again just to catch up with the disappearance of, the opportunity is too small.

If that happens then we do not have to fear, first, the Earth's atmosphere and the solar magnetic field the two Road barriers of distance in this explosion  posed by supernova cosmic rays, after the weakening of human beings will not pose a threat to the overall survival; Second, the explosion  of supernova cosmic rays have a strong will not be very long duration (23 weeks there), but the explosion  of pre-supernova should have signs, as long as the proper arrangements to do a good job can be avoided strong cosmic rays of the injury, because we the external walls of houses and roofs, can be a barrier to block cosmic rays, as long as not exposed to the outdoors, pay attention to the appropriate houses to deal with, it would not have been hurt by strong cosmic rays.

Section IV Threat on Extraterrestrial Life

Section IV Threat on Extraterrestrial Life

Extraterrestrial life means that, apart from people outside of our planet's intelligent life on other planets that is what we usually aliens. Alien invasion is keen to talk about the topic, many science fiction movies, by people's curiosity, but also play up to the danger of invasion of extraterrestrial life. So, if there is a genuine invasion of extraterrestrial life, no doubt for a devastating human catastrophe may be because in the eyes of extraterrestrial life, the earth is completely different organisms, may treat as ordinary human beings like animals, they will not be human to give any sympathy and human being, the brutal massacre of the Jews for even more than Hitler. Of course, extraterrestrial life may be very friendly towards the earth; they came to Earth not to occupy, but to tourism and friendship, or to out of curiosity. Nevertheless, in dealing with the attitude of extraterrestrial life, the guard against the invasion of extraterrestrial life and the killing, far more than hope that the friendly extraterrestrial life far more important, must not be wishful thinking to hope that things taken for granted in our lives friendly.

No doubt that so far we have not found the existence of extraterrestrial life of any evidence of the Earth in a variety of archaeological excavations and geological exploration, and there is no definitive evidence that extraterrestrial life has visited Earth, and all on the question of extraterrestrial life just stay in people's subjective thought.

Even so, we have every reason to request hundreds of millions of years the human standing on a long-term perspective, the threat of extraterrestrial life should be taken seriously.

Because so far, we know only the wisdom of life on Earth who, in addition to the earth from falling into the hands of individual meteorites found traces of micro-organisms in addition, there is no other way of clues to the existence of extraterrestrial life. Therefore, only through the study of our planet, and in order to infer the existence of extraterrestrial life may be; extraterrestrial life may exist in the universe, regional, and extraterrestrial life are likely to form on our threats.

I. Nurturing of Earth life

Through the solar system planets and their satellites to take close-up observations, as well as more in-depth and comprehensive scientific analysis can confirm, at least in the solar system, only Earth where we have the conditions for complex life to survive, and only have the complexity of life on Earth existence. So, what is given the power to create life on Earth then?

The formation of celestial bodies impacts the natural going through process of the earth. Many asteroids, meteorites and comets contain internal water molecules, when they hit each other and form larger objects; such water was taken corresponding to the Celestial Bodies. Impact caused by volcanoes and lava flows will be generated by high temperature evaporation and carbon dioxide along with喷向Sky, the Earth's early atmosphere of carbon dioxide is the main ingredient.

Carbon dioxide is the complexity of life can not be nurtured, but would also produce the greenhouse effect. Soon after the formation of the ocean, the ocean will have a micro-organisms, the first micro-organisms was born in about 38 million years ago, that is to say in just a few million years the Earth after the formation of a simple life with. After the emergence of a large number of biological species, and is the algae absorb carbon dioxide and biological oxygen release.

This absorption of oxygen in the process of release of carbon dioxide up to more than 30 million years, because the Earth needs a place too much oxygen, such as oxygen will have encountered most of the metal oxidation reaction, iron oxide, copper oxide and aluminum oxide, these elements are The combination of materials with oxygen, algae release oxygen biological must meet these consumer of oxygen.

5.3 billion years ago is the geological era known as the Precambrian era, the Earth appeared a large number of complex organisms, these organisms seem to appear in a vast ocean, the phenomenon known as the Cambrian explosion. We know that animals need oxygen to survive, therefore, must be a Precambrian oxygen production and consumption of surplus arising from the era. It is the birth of the extra oxygen Cambrian explosion prerequisite.

However, at this time has been only in the biological ocean, land is a dead silence in another 100 million years. About 4 billion years ago existed the only land-based organisms, as well as some animals and plants coming to land at the same time.

If the animal must have oxygen to survive, then it is the growth of plants to absorb carbon dioxide emitted oxygen, therefore, appear as early as shortly after the marine life, land plants should have, however, why the choice of plants and animals the same time from the Ocean to the land so slowly? Scientific research has shown that the ozone layer over the Earth's atmosphere is also in the 4 billion years ago, when formed, this time onto the land and biological time line exactly, this is a fortuitous coincidence?

The glorious sun of life has been described as the first element, if there is no sunlight and warmth, life will not happen, however, released from the sun, after all, is nuclear energy, it's glorious in not only the warmth we need, as well as A large part of highly destructive to life-ray, such as ultraviolet, X-ray, γ-rays, etc., if there is no protective device astronaut in space will soon be the face of the sun by the sun rays to kill.

Atmospheric absorption of harmful radiation is a protective coating, but the general atmosphere of oxygen absorption of the harmful rays is not enough, in the 4 billion years ago, due to harvest more than oxygen consumption, in the earth's ozone layer over the formed. Harmful for the ozone-ray absorption capacity particularly strong, although it is relatively small proportion of the atmosphere, but this has been enough to resist the harmful rays of the injury to life, there is no protection of the ozone layer, all life will forever be hiding in the sea; rely on water protection to survive.

We have a good life, "Shield", as a satellite operation of the moon around the earth; I do not know how many to decline to receive a guest from outside the Earth's celestial attacks. At the same time, the periphery of the earth have a series of planets like the Earth revolving around the sun, such as Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and their quality is much greater than Earth, it is their enormous gravity of the inner solar system asteroids to attract out, and the Earth as a planet smaller, it could have been avoided by the impact of extraterrestrial objects trouble. Scientists had concluded that, if the solar system does not have a protector of the Earth, the Earth may never be the development of wisdom of life. Because the wisdom of life fostered by a very long time, if the wisdom of life whenever the fast breeding success on the impact of celestial bodies to a larger global disaster, all the efforts of the past will come to naught.

In recent years, the human exploration of the universe, the focus of our neighbor Mars and Venus have been studied, the human probe has landed this two planets, but also close to many of them in the air has been observed.

Observation results show that, although the distance of Mars from the sun than the Earth's distant third, but the average temperature of the surface of Mars is lower than -60 ℃, due to the diameter of Mars is only half of the Earth, it's the quality not only the Earth one-tenth of the quality of such a small planet is very difficult to seize the air outside, only the surface of Mars is extremely thin layer of air, the density of the Earth's surface is less than one percent of atmospheric density, mainly composed of carbon dioxide. Therefore, the Mars environment is not suitable for survival of life.

Venus and Earth are the most similar to a planet; its diameter is only slightly smaller than Earth that is the weight of 80% of the Earth, the distance from the sun than the Earth nearly a quarter. However, if as a paradise on Earth, then Venus is the real hell on earth, it is the surface temperature as high as 500 ℃, no water, a thick layer of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere than the Earth's atmospheric pressure is nine times higher in the surface of Venus, volcanic magma everywhere were signs of erosion than any life can not survive here. However, we have found in the surface of Venus have traces of the existence of shallow seas, the shallow water about 30 million years ago disappeared.

Why such as Venus and the Earth planet so similar conditions, can form a breeding life conditions? Moreover, the natural environment only in terms of simple, so similar to its environment, there were two different planets. After in-depth research and interpretation, two views were acceptable to all higher degrees. The first point of view, Venus from the sun than the Earth nearly a quarter of 30 million years ago, when the sun temperature, it will be Venus water to evaporate into space in the. In other words, precisely because of Venus and Earth from the sun is only a difference of a quarter of the distance, completely changed the fate of two planets.

Another view is that the two different from the fate of the planet does not lie primarily with the distance from the sun, but Venus's rotation is too slow, can not produce magnetic fields, and the metal center of the earth by the rapid rotation rate of magma of the earth have had a role magnetic field, which for the two planets was a foreshadowing of the fate of seeds. Because these scientists believe that the evolution of the magnetic field for the planet and the life to play a decisive role in breeding, it can prevent the solar wind and cosmic rays of the injury to life. Early Venus and the Earth have also gone through the same asteroid collisions, but also with the formation of the oceans, and the emergence of a carbon dioxide atmosphere. However, as Venus did not protect their own magnetic field, solar wind and cosmic rays of very strong anti-role, so that algae and even bacteria can not survive on Venus, so Venus's oceans like the Earth does not appear as algae biology, and thus there is no absorption of carbon dioxide and the release of oxygen systems. Thus, the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere thicker, increasing the greenhouse effect, the surface temperature is getting higher and higher, so that all the water evaporated, until today, the temperature as high as 500 ℃, become a veritable hell planet.

There is no magnetic field on Mars, why is not the speed of its rotation, in fact, the rotation of Mars is also much faster than the Earth, but because of its size is too small, so there is no magmatic center, so there is no magnetic field of the protection of Mars. Thin air on the surface of Mars, the lack of sun block cosmic ray particles and the effective barrier would made life on Mars so complex.

Astronauts in space to observe the planet we live in when found on Earth is blue, very beautiful, it is different, stand out, like the desert in a small oasis. Over the past decades, many scientists in the detection and study of very complex form of life on the harsh conditions, when they are all the past results of observation and research into sorting out, and after a series of demonstration, many of Thinking people will return to the starting point for one of the most simple, that is, the earth is only an accidental universe, namely: in the vast universe of the galaxies a very fortuitous coincidence of a great star of a very casual around the planet, in the long the universe is not too long a time, a number of billion years, the occurrence of a series of very fortuitous events, the chance of this series is to create an extremely nurturing environment suitable for life, thereby creating a miracle in the lives of Genesis - mankind was born.

However, we are not ready to such an interpretation, because it is the scientific conclusion is yes, as long as there is sufficient time and sufficient conditions for the movement of material must be able to breed out of life, as well as the wisdom of human life this way, but such a long time, so that the requirements of the conditions too harsh, and we can not accurately predict, in the universe to a position if they would have created a miracle of life.

II. Required conditions for intelligent life nurturing

(1) Possible star system to nurture intelligent life

The wisdom of life needed to nurture extremely harsh conditions, first of all, must depend on stable, good and lasting burning stars. At the same time, the planet must have the required conditions for many, many, many, many times also need the chance, but also the needs of very, very long time Wild bred. According to our current ability to run, and it was not far from this series of conditions, one by one extra solar planet demonstration. However, we can open a list of prerequisites. It should be noted that these conditions are necessary but not sufficient condition, not sure that these conditions can not be bred out of the wisdom of life, and with these conditions are not necessarily on the wisdom of life to nurture. Because of the nurturing wisdom of life there are many we doing not fully understand the factors. Well, first of all, let us nurture the wisdom of life to analyze the necessary conditions for the stars.

Nurtured by the wisdom of relying on the lives of the stars must meet the following conditions:

1. It must be ongoing nuclear fusion of hydrogen in stars, the stars the only way to more stable combustion.

2. The system can not nurture the lives of stars. The quality of the larger star, its gravity caused by the more intense the internal thermonuclear reaction, the stars stay in the main sequence stars, the shorter the time. For example, a significant 1.2 times the solar mass stars in the main sequence stars only time more than 30 million years, according to the Earth's incubation period (i.e. 50 billion years), this star is only slightly larger than the sun is not up to standard.

3. A smaller stars around it is impossible the existence of intelligent life. The smaller star, issued by a corresponding smaller the light and heat, heat a small light-emitting stars, the planets must be able to rely on very close to the required access to the glorious life. However, when the planet is too close to the star, the star's gravity will be the planet's rotation will be slowed down greatly, so that the star of a face to face to receive long-term star baking, while the other side of the long-term cold in the dark, the In such a planet can not be complicated life.

In addition, when a star is only a small red dwarf star, its surface would be very unstable and often have enormous flares, a very destructive life-ray and such a star system is not suitable for the survival of life.

4. An entirely appropriate star must also be stable for billions of years gone through a history of burning, because the wisdom of life itself on the need for billions of years of breeding time.

5. The survival of life as a result of the wisdom of the planet must be a solid planet, there must be a carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, iron, silicon and other elements, and life itself can not be separated from carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and other heavy elements, because of heavy elements is by produced by the star, so only two or three generations after the life of stars can be bred.

6. In the universe there are many binary and triple stars, that is, two or three of the close proximity of the star, this star can not have a life around. In such a system, each star's gravity would interfere with the system of planets, resulting in a very volatile planet.

7. Can not be away from the big star of the close proximity. Because of the late star will be the evolution of supernova the end of the explosion of the form of his life, wisdom, life evolved in the absence of a high civilization, it is not able to prevent the explosion of supernova strong thermal radiation caused by cosmic rays and the hazards. In addition, the quality can not be near the middle near the close binary, because the quality of the dense medium will be formed in recent supernova binary explosion.

(2) Possible planet to nurture intelligent life

There is a suitable star, but with the wisdom of nurturing a condition of life, and then have a suitable planet, it is necessary to nurture the wisdom of the life of another condition, this condition requires more than the conditions of the star is very likely more difficult . To the solar system as an example, all the planets, only Earth has bred the conditions for intelligent life, and even the conditions very close to Earth are Venus and Mars simply can not meet the environment for survival of life, then what kind of planetary conditions that must be met in order to have bred the wisdom of life's needs?

1. The planet must be large enough, you can "seize" the atmosphere.

2. The planet's atmosphere is carbon dioxide and oxygen, and nitrogen should be there; they constitute an essential element of life. The existence of the universe is a large number of hydrogen and helium, with oxygen or carbon dioxide is rare planet.

3. The planet must be the main element is a metal planet. It appears in astronomy, in addition to hydrogen and heavy elements other than helium are considered to be metal elements, only the metal planet, it may be a solid base for the lives of rock stars, the universe, this planet is very minimal.

4. The planet must be the right distance from the star position. A little far from the star was not shining, too cold; little access to the stars near the light and heat and too much will kill the life of overheating.

5. The operation of a planet around the star can not be too large orbital eccentricity. If the eccentricity is too large into a flat oval track, the recent stellar distance too, very hot, and the aphelion distance of stars and too far away, very cold, life will not be able to survive such an environment.

6. Planets can not be too inclined to its rotation axis. If you are too inclined, lying as it will be like Uranus rotation, therefore, always have a face for six months during the day and night for six months, which is actually half of the winter half of the summer, in the summer sun baking straight up to six months, the temperature up to several hundred degrees Celsius, in winter, the six months there is no bit of light, temperature as low as minus 200 degrees Celsius, life in this environment is not suitable for survival.

7. A planet on the development of a complex life there are many other conditions, some are definitely necessary, while others may be necessary, based on the Earth and terrestrial planets in the solar system research, including many of these conditions. For example, is generally believed that planets have water that is necessary, there is no water in the planet of life will not be able to survive (but on this point there are different views of life on Earth is oxygen metabolism - water system, it was speculated that some life on the planet may be nitrogen - ammonia system, or any other material system).

Another example: with the right of the magnetic field may be necessary because the magnetic field can prevent the release of cosmic rays and the star of the harmful rays of the injury to life.

III. Location of extraterrestrial life

(1) Possible location of extraterrestrial life

Based on the above listed breeds need the wisdom of the life conditions of the stellar and planetary conditions (although they are not only a necessary condition for a sufficient condition), let us take a look at the situation of the universe surrounding the solar system. 15 light-years we may wish to analyze for the sector, because more than 15 light years away even if we have to fly the fastest aircraft of more than 10 years.

So, in this range, there are 30 star systems, including 10 Double Star, a San stars, so a total of 42 single stars. Conditions from the star, in full compliance with the nurturing wisdom of life, little, barely in line with the only light years away from our Cetus 11.68 τ. Cetus τ is a single star, and the sun is the same as G-type stars, is a yellow star, but the sun's spectral type G2, Cetus τ is the spectral type G8, coolish than the sun, and it stay in the main galaxy on the same time with the sun is about 4000 million -60 million years. These conditions seem to have very much in line with the conditions for nurturing stellar life, but, τ Cetus is a metal-poor stars, it is only the metal of the Sun's 30 percent, which indicates that it is hard around the planet rock solid.

This shows that even in the absence of indicators to consider the conditions of the planet, the only indicators of a star is almost entirely ruled out on around us the possibility of the existence of intelligent life.

Of course, today we can confirm that very few of the extra solar planets, the first time since 1995 found that since extra solar planets so far discovered only less than more than 350 stars, but the vast majority of similar quality are big as Jupiter with hydrogen and helium planets, and these planets we are still far from reach-depth observation and research level. April 2009, astronomers found that the "Gliese 581e" is considered the best of our knowledge so far the most similar to Earth's solar system, extra solar planets, only Earth-based twice the quality, but it is a hot, fiery red planet, because it is too close from the star, the public is only 3.15 days to cycle, can never be the existence of life.

We are almost impossible to indicators used to determine the planets in the universe where life outside position, but only to study the use of stellar targets. But one thing is sure, and this is the planet of indicators should be more stringent targets than the star.

(2) Extraterrestrial life searching actions

March 2, 1972, NASA launched the space probe "Pioneer 10" successful launch, and its task is to detect out of the solar system after Jupiter to find extraterrestrial life, the information transmission earth. June 13, 1983, it crossed Neptune in the history of mankind after the first man-made aircraft flying out of the solar system. "Pioneer 10" on a gold-plated with aluminum, gold-plated aluminum sheet on the use of neutron stars on the positioning of the solar system marked the universe with the Earth's orientation, as well as both a man and a woman on Earth, and that the two circle the most simple molecular substance is made up of two hydrogen atoms. This is an earth card; this card can be preserved for 10 million years, which with the "Pioneer 10" has been toward the Taurus, about 200 million years after the star arrived in Taurus Aldebaran.

One year after the April 6, 1973, "a pioneer on the 11th," then set foot on the journey, its destination is the Eagle, about 400 million years after the arrival of the stars of this constellation. August 20, 1977 and September 5, NASA has launched the "Voyager 2" and "Voyager 1" two detectors, their objectives are Sirius and Ophiuchus. These detectors have brought the Earth's information and our greetings.

Send detectors to the outer solar system are only part of our lives outside geotropism one of the ways to transmit information, and more through the radio waves to send information on extraterrestrial life geotropism.

July 2003, in the authority of NASA and other departments, with the support of 52 countries from around the world more than 90,000 "e-greetings" from the earth toward the sun similar to five stars.

As early as November 1962, the former Soviet Union leaves Vitoria Observatory on the first extraterrestrial life geotropism sent a greetings message; it uses ordinary telegraph code sent to the depths of the universe of "peace, the Soviet Union, Lenin" simple words.

In November 1974, is located in Puerto Rico currently the world's largest radio telescope completed, in order to celebrate that with the telescope to the Hercules globular cluster M13 fired up to three minutes greetings telegram. After the leaves were also Vitoria Observatory in 1999 and twice in 2001 geotropism sent greetings extraterrestrial life, but also play a concert organ was sent to the space, hope can be heard outside the life earth of music.

Of extraterrestrial life have been very interested in not only keen to bring our message to the aliens, but also want to do everything possible to obtain information on extraterrestrial life.

In March 2003, U.S. scientists from the universe, billions of radio signals in the selected 150 using the Space Telescope Observatory of these signal sources for three consecutive days of observation, but the result does not tell us extraterrestrial life, the exact information. May 1960, U.S. astronomers has implemented an observation plan, they used radio telescope at Cetus τ observed for three months, but to no avail.

Almost every Observatory will explore extraterrestrial life as one of their work, but so far have not been the existence of extraterrestrial life of any reliable evidence.

We know, UFO phenomenon has always been a mystery not yet solved. Since ancient times, we have the UFO records, many of these people think that UFO is extraterrestrial life visiting Earth's evidence, but no one there is sufficient evidence to prove his aliens really seen.

Of course, it was claimed that aliens have seen, and even aliens have been hijacked. However, careful analysis can be found in almost all the hijackers claimed to be alien or aliens to get along with those who are middle and lower income groups in society, or a relatively low level of knowledge of farmers and members of the public. Is it a high degree of wisdom, and can achieve interstellar travel Constant extraterrestrial life, in one hundred trillion kilometers across the vast expanse of space, the only place willing to work with only a single way to deal with it the earth? Rational analysis of events like this should be far more than the composition of false real ingredients.

IV. Further understanding of extraterrestrial life

Although we have not yet got the exact visit to the evidence of extraterrestrial life, although we know that the wisdom of life's harsh breeding conditions, but should be sure that the universe must be the existence of intelligent life, on the grounds that our universe is extremely vast, even if the probability of re - there will be a small miracle to happen.

Just imagine, according to modern astronomical observation and speculated that the Milky Way have about 200 billion stars, the universe also has a three hundred billion galaxies, then stars in the universe will be up to as much as trillion stars. 150 million years ago in the since the birth of the universe, stellar evolution has been at least four or five generations (the first generation of star system, life can not be bred), so long years, so many opportunities, even if the wisdom of life and then bred harsh conditions, but also We can not just only the birth of a human intelligent life on Earth.

However, even then, extraterrestrial life visiting Earth is not the possibility, the possibility of a threat to Earth's smaller. Their breeding grounds or conditions for intelligent life is too harsh, dozens of our planet in the distance, hundreds or even thousands of light years between the scope of the development of a planet on the possibility of intelligent life is very small. The wisdom of this life and they do appear, they travel to the possibility of the same small planet. Because the distance is so far, by means known to mankind today, many problems are solved.

Star Trek only need to solve the momentum is a big problem. Apollo spacecraft landing on the moon program, only more than 40 tons, but the rocket has a launch mass of more than 2000 tons, more are part of the basic propellant fuel, which means the need for more than 30 of the propellant section of the train in order to more than 40 tons of the spacecraft to the moon. But the moon away from us only 380,000 kilometers and from our recent stars than the stars next to it is far more than 100 million times.

At the same time must also consider the constant need for an interplanetary flight of hundreds of thousands, millions or even tens of millions of years of time travel in this, there are a series of technical, physiological, psychological problems to be resolved. Moreover, as a smart person to carry out this kind of travel is also a lack of sufficient motive, because, in this journey will be accompanied by the generation of tens of thousands or even millions of lives and re-generation reproduction, and evolution, the realization of such a visit, its meaning and have to pay a very difficult to match. I think that if these smart people who really exist, that is, most likely, like our Earth to Earth on a probe, or an e-mail made to satisfy their curiosity only.

Of course, it was suggested that the theory of relativity will be in that time and speed on the formula. So, if the Einstein's formula is completely correct, then to further prove that ultra-long-distance space travel is not possible, because according to this formula, we can see, time, speed and weight of the relationship between interrelated, when objects close to the speed of light, the time has become very slow, but the weight of objects will become great, when the velocity of light reached when the weight of objects to reach infinity. In other words, human beings want to do the travel, in terms of speed is still far from reaching the speed of light, they took the bones of his body crushed. At the same time, there is no driving force to accelerate the spacecraft so heavy, it has moved from high-energy particle accelerator to accelerate the elementary particles in the test to be confirmed. When the accelerator to speed up a very light quality of the elementary particles, the faster the increase of energy can increase the speed after the less, when close to the speed of light, then how to increase the speed of energy can not be raised further to achieve the speed of light.

We also often see in science fiction movies through the "wormhole" to achieve time travel story. Then we can really do this kind of travel?

Wormhole is based on general relativity and quantum theory as a corollary, in accordance with this inference, time and space can be curly, which can create distance between or very close to find a way; in the future or far away from each other today between the past, to create or find a fast reverse to reach or arrive at the time. Because of this, people made time travel, as well as manufacturers can change the distance and time the idea of the time machine.

In fact, the wormhole is still a very immature inference, based on the idea of wormhole, can not explain many of the issues, such as: wormhole to allow travel into the past, it was suggested that, if a person travel to the past, his mother also will not give birth to kill themselves, what kind of situation? Another example: wormhole to allow astronauts in the absence of the starting time has been returned to the Earth, which is obviously contrary to the logic of relations.

In this regard has been at the forefront of academic Hawking, in "A Brief History of Time (Illustrated)" a book also frankly admitted that the possibility of time travel is not a conclusion.

The past century, we have been committed in the Earth billions of years this has experienced the vicissitudes of life on the planet to look for extraterrestrial life traces left exact, the result is negative.

Since the Earth 38 million years ago will be able to nurture a simple life, then it means that the Earth has the basic conditions for survival of life, extraterrestrial life would like if the occupation of the Earth, the Earth would like to colonial, vacation travel or think of the Earth, but also as early as that came to Earth. Then, in a few billions of years past since there is no extraterrestrial life came to Earth, we have reason to believe that the future will not be billions of years aliens visit Earth. Of course, this is only a logical reasoning, but should be a reasonable guess.

We know that the universe was born in 150 million years ago, formed in the early universe, the first group of star systems can not be bred the conditions for life, then the wisdom of life bred conditional second-generation star systems no later than 10 billion years ago, there should also be to re-consider the wisdom of life 50 million years of breeding time, so the wisdom of the universe, life in the first 50 million years ago should have been born.

50 million years for the development of an intelligent life is an extremely long period of time, in such a long time, no matter what kind of technology should be able to create out why there is no extraterrestrial life has visited this planet? I would like to only two possible reasons:

First, the laws of nature inherent in the universe and decided to constant interstellar travel would have on the long-range needs of an extremely long period of time, and to overcome the extremely difficult conditions, that can not be any intelligent life beyond the law to carry out long-distance Star Trek constant. In addition, the birth of the wisdom of life is extremely harsh conditions, only very occasionally may be seen in the universe to the very small number of individual planets, which then determines the Earth from the alien planet the past, away from the earth is also far away enough so that any land extraterrestrial life can not have visited the Earth's conditions.

Second, when the naturally produced any kind of intellectual life at the same time, it is possible to give at the same time the wisdom of the defects inherent in life, the inherent defects, making any extraterrestrial life have not yet had time to achieve the long-distance constant of Star Trek when the self-destruction. Is also possible extraterrestrial life will be active for some reason to stop the development of space flight technology, and therefore it has not obtained the capacity of Constant Star Trek. In this regard, the back of this book there are chapters on.

Although the possibility of alien invasion of Earth is extremely small, almost certainly should be negligible, but it should not shy away from this problem, thinking there are two points of reference:

First, any major events that have taken place in advance signs of extraterrestrial life should have threatened invasion, we will have time to prepare accordingly. This is specifically targeted to the specific preparations for extraterrestrial life, soldiers to be blocked, water to soil cover, has always been the case. Wait and see changes, calmly deal with the situation on Earth to fight to the death to defend their homes, perhaps the only thing we can do everything.

Second, in today's real life, too many to study the alien invasion, or to prevent the invasion of extraterrestrial life to do too much preparation, is a very foolish thing. Because, should there be any invasion of extraterrestrial life, we are all ready to be without any objectives to waste effort. We know that 5 million years of human history, however, into the industrial community and is committed to the development of science and technology, only 200 years, and today's science and technology has reached a very advanced level of the real strength of the alien invasion of Earth, its civilization the level of lead than a few people on earth billions of years, the gap between the number of billions of years, and can be used for thousands of years or millions of years to catch up on years? ! And we have no idea what the other side, the use of what to do to catch up with the preparation and is completely pointless. Moreover, the Earth 38 million years ago lives on with the environment to survive, but 38 million years have not been to visit a precedent for extraterrestrial life, and tens of thousands of years of human very long time, in the face of a few billions of years are impossible to determine the threat to the preparation and the absence of such input is necessary.

In addition, would like to stress here is that we have been committed to observing extraterrestrial life, but also has been sending information to the space and the solar system a number of probes sent, brought human being  information, I believe that such actions is not rational. Should be said that the observation of extraterrestrial life, what information there is no problem, however, send a message geotropism extraterrestrial life is likely to be attracted to us big trouble.

According to previous analysis of extraterrestrial life the possibility of visiting the Earth is extremely small, this conclusion means that the two issues:

On the one hand, if we really can not contact extraterrestrial life, all our efforts are in vain, we all invested huge funds for this purpose are simply a waste, if that is merely to satisfy the curiosity of the case, such a price too high something. On the other hand, if extraterrestrial life is really able to receive our information, and I do not know than we do with the advanced science and technology, the number of times to visit the earth, waiting for our most likely will be the fate of the overall extinction.

It has been said that only allows us to detect alien information, and we do not send enough for them to do ethics. Those who hold this view is very naive and we observed extraterrestrial life information is only out of curiosity, or simply in good faith. However, we simply can not guarantee that extraterrestrial life is our attitude.

According to human and animal community can determine the survival of the law, and contempt of the strong will always prey upon the weak, the high civilization are always those who despise low civilization. Can visit a high civilization, the earth's biological reach the Earth, most of us will not "people" to see (and we have not the same species), free to kill us, even our food as they are most likely the If there one day, we humans will come by the end. Therefore, today's policy makers and scientists do not order a momentary curiosity, or for other purposes, to continue to do that may put an end to the matter of human being.

Section V Threats of Laws of Evolution

Section V Threats of Laws of Evolution

I. Heredity, variation and evolution

A man can produce sperm, sperm cell, a woman can produce eggs, and the egg is the cell, when a sperm cell combines with an egg cell, and a new cell will be formed, which is fertilized. As a fertilized egg cell can be split into two completely consistent with their own cells, the cells of the two split their further split into four cells of exactly the same as their own, and then split into four and eight, it is so time and again split, and finally the formation of a living person.

Could be interpreted to mean the formation of life is the result of cell division, is the case, no true biological. So why do people have their own different, individual animals differ, each plant so strange? The decided biological characteristics hide in the internal biological cells.

In the cell there is a material known as deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, it is the basic unit for DNA, the genetic code of life is found in DNA. Simple division, cell structure from the peripheral cytoplasm and central nucleus of the composition, in the nucleus there is a very important material, which is the chromosome. Chromosome is a DNA carrier, which always appear in pairs, half from the male parent, half from the female parent, so half of the life traits of the decision by the male parent, the other half of the decision by the female parent. We are a total of 23 pairs of human chromosomes.

DNA molecule is composed of two long-chain structure of the double helix, like a twisted spiral ladder with handrails of the ladder by the composition of phosphoric acid and deoxyribose, which is the backbone of DNA, cross-files by the base pairs the composition of the genetic code of life on the cross carved on the ladder file. We usually decide what characters to life the "gene" is all the DNA fragments. Human Genome Project in accordance with the preliminary results, it is estimated that there are human genes 30000-35000.

DNA double helix of two long-chains, its structure is entirely consistent, but the direction is reverse, that is, both the two chains is the reverse, they were entangled with the right hand spiral. When in the cell division, DNA molecules of two separate long-chain removed, the formation of two separate chains, each chain with the other pair to form DNA, the formation of a new double helix, the new dual - screw with the original double helix is fully consistent, which will have two exactly the same DNA with the original DNA molecule, which is self-replication of DNA.

We say that the self-DNA replication, the newly formed double helix with the original double helix is the same, so that a copy of the results of almost 100% accurate. However, all things are not foolproof, as many times in the copy in very occasional errors in copying, which is called "mutation."

We sometimes found in pastures, cattle, sheep baby occasionally produced a hybrid variation of this is the animal. In cropland, the one occasionally found in different crops Miller, this is variation. This phenomenon will also appear in humans.

In fact, all biological phenomena are variations, some to the next generation of genetic variation can, and some are not genetic. Most of the biological variation of a bad thing, it generates the individual than the normal individual poor viability. For example, we are talking about cancer, the body cells is the event of adverse results of variation; we are talking about radiation sickness, is a high-energy rays penetrate the nucleus, DNA damage in the structure of the nucleus, resulting in variation of results.

Variation in the biological, there will be a great chance not only to the viability of individual variation is not bad, but stronger, if this mutation can be genetic, more viable groups will be formed, which is what we call evolution. Earth from the most primitive early life, the development of all living things contends vitality is the result of evolution; we humans are also a product of evolution.

Biological evolution also has the reverse situation, that is, a negative variation as a universal biological phenomenon, but this can also be genetic variation. This situation can also be referred to as degradation, degradation will lead to the species become increasingly unsuited to the environment, more and more not survive and, after a period of struggle and will be extinct.

Are in the evolution of any species, and in accordance with the views of the theory of evolution, all living beings on Earth are from the same ancestors, as a result of this primitive life in a different environment, different variations have occurred, so differentiation of animals, plants and fungi. These continue the evolution of life, strong who survive, the weak are eliminated from this rule has been referred to as "natural selection, survival of the fittest," or as the law of natural selection, and this is one of the most important evolutions of the law.

II. Species extinction causes

The world's biological species recorded about two million kinds of animals, 270,000 kinds of plants, 35,000 kinds of microbes, together with the record has not the species, scientists estimated that the total number of biological species should be as high as 1-30000000 kinds . However, the existence of the planet has been much more than this species, the basic can be sure, today the number of species on Earth has existed for less than 1% of number of species, while the other 99% of the species are already extinct.

The last of the mass extinction of life on Earth are the result of leading the forces of nature. Life on Earth has existed for about 38 million years, during which despite a number of large extinction, however, life has never been interruption. From the Cambrian explosion, the earth experienced five extinctions, the largest mass extinction occurred in 2.5 billion years ago at the turn of the Permian and Triassic, when 90% of the aquatic organisms and 75% of terrestrial plants and animals disappear, and this also shows that the extinction of the incident there are a number of species preserved.

This shows that the earliest life on Earth has its own, has never been the deterioration of their environment to enable all of the organisms can not survive here, even in the bio-mass extinction period, only part of the biological environment can not meet at that time.

Through the study of species extinction, the extinction of species can be drawn a total of three Su-a result of escape: 

1. Environmental factors

Environmental factors are the change as a result of the natural environment led to the extinction of species. Earth's environment by a variety of factors, such as volcanoes, asteroid or comet impact, magnetic disappeared, the cyclical nature of global climate cooling or heating, etc., which are the Earth's environment can change a lot. Changes in the environment, a number of biological itself will be able to adapt to the new environment, although there are biological and can not adapt to the new environment, but the slow process of change in the environment, make a corresponding adjustment to the environment evolution, it will be able to survive the biological . If the above two conditions are not met, this is bound to the extinction of species.

Environmental factors are the most important factor in the extinction of species, especially large-scale mass extinction of the role of environmental factors become more prominent. In the five mass extinction of biological research found that every time the main reason for mass extinction is to environmental factors, that is, changes in the natural environment.

Great changes in the natural environment led to the extinction of the cluster is a very good understanding of its causes, because in general the biological body are exposed in their natural environment is very sensitive to the natural environment, the natural environment will inevitably lead to a large part of the biological changes can not adapt to the new environment, especially in the case of drastic changes in the environment of its more prominent role in extinction.

2. Species competition

Competitive factors in a broad sense are a kind of species to environmental factors. Species refers to the strong competition is eliminated species caused the extinction of vulnerable species, or because of the interdependence of the reduction and extinction of species caused the extinction. Competition of species, including interspecies’' competition, leads to the extinction.

Species, the role of competition generally conventional extinction, will not lead to the extinction of the cluster.

3. Species degradation

Broadly speaking, the same species, the degradation of factors may be brought into the environmental factors. Species refers to the external environment degradation has not changed, or is likely to be affected no change in the survival of species, but some species, there were not conducive to continue to survive in this environment variation, and this adverse variance is genetic, and the overall variation in this species.

When a species is a degradation of an irreversible trend, this species will be increasingly difficult to survive, to have been eliminated and, ultimately, the disappearance of extinction. Species degradation generally works on the conventional extinction.

III. Threat of laws of evolution

Role in the evolution of the law of any species, including human beings, all species are relentless in the evolution of the law, and there appeared to eliminate the phenomenon of living, it does herald the end of mankind would be the role of the forces of nature to the extinction of this? 

1. Environmental threat

General biological approach to adapt to the environment is very simple, completely exposed as a result of the state, if the global climate cooling, the evolution of animals is certainly the direction of thickening skin, long hair; if global warming, animals must be the direction of the evolution of skin thinner, shorter hair, if this kind of evolution can not be completed will be extinct.

At the same time, food chain relationships between species, will inevitably lead to the extinction of a species as a group of food reduction and extinction of species. Because the animals the way of food processing chewing mouth only, it is impossible not to eat some species can become fit for human consumption, although the evolution of the digestive system can also, but to complete this evolution only a small number of species; the way to access to food animals is a simple gift of nature, it is impossible to carry out domestic and domesticated food, some changes in the nature of animal food to obtain the impact will be great.

Humans have fundamentally from the situation of animals, because human intelligence has reached a commanding height of an absolute, and any species have mastered the science and technology to catch up, thus, human beings and the natural environment is taken to deal with an entirely different approach.

Human being  has been completely exposed from the body must rely on the natural environment to adapt to changes in the situation, which as early as anthropology in a number of years before the animal will put on his body, the use of fire to heating has been on fundamental changes. Today, however, very optimistic about all the more, we can adapt to changes in outdoor temperature clothes changes in the interior is through the stove, heating and air-conditioning temperature, at very high or very low temperature environment can be designed special work clothing and facilities.

And from an environmental impact on human food, the rough calculation, we have the advantage of any animal is second to none. As early as millions of years ago human beings will be able to use rock smash the nuts feeding, and then learn how to use fire, so that food can not be eaten raw can be made fit for human consumption, Ten thousand years ago mankind learned how to domesticated poultry, domesticated plants , which has far more than other animals.

However, not all this long ago compared with today's human beings, we can through the greenhouse in the winter cold to eat a variety of fresh vegetables, fruits and grain; we can change the genes of crops, cultivate a cold, anti-heat, drought, flood, disease and pest resistant crops; As the consumption of a variety of animals in captivity, but also for those of poultry, livestock, enjoy the summer shade and winter warmth.

At the same time, we can see that the human species are miscellaneous food, plants and animals can become its food, raw and cooked food can be accepted, which makes human beings in response to changes in the natural environment, in the face of their own food all the more able grasp.

In that case, whether the environmental change on human not a decisive influence on it? Of course not, in fact, the preceding sections of this chapter discussed most of them are related to human impact on the environment, the threat of the universe, the solar system, as well as the threat of a threat to Earth, all of mankind is the threat posed by the basic threat to the environment . However, can lead to the extinction of the human environment of the overall threat, must be sufficient to lead to global ecological suffered a complete collapse of the power, and far from the ordinary sense of the environment. In that case, a recent human use today are genuinely unable to grasp the means to escape the threat of extinction, that is, the sun turned into a red giant, however, it is a very distant threat, the threat today is considered too early.

2. Species competitive threat

The dinosaur had a strong long-term rule of the earth, we may as well make the assumption that, if today, on Earth at the same time the survival of humans and dinosaurs, dinosaurs rule is the rule of human or human dinosaurs do? I think the answer is very clear, must be the wisdom of a huge dinosaur of human rule, and not the opposite.

A person who single-handedly not encountered in the field of dinosaurs, even if the wolf encounter, I am afraid it will be shredded. However, groups of human beings, especially the high-tech means to master a high degree of human wisdom, its power is unparalleled peak.

Can be sure, today's competition for survival of any species in the road to extinction of the population can reach more than 60 million human beings, from the evolutionary point of view, the human will never allow any other species in the evolution of the development of enough the overall survival of their own as a threat to the point where enough. This is a threat to plants and animals is to say the least, because of animals and plants on Earth are in control of human being, perhaps of their development and changes of small and even larger changes in human development and are difficult to detect, but the development and changes can be as large as the larger threat to the survival of mankind when mankind will be found in the human by virtue of its powerful forces are fully capable of controlling its development.

The threat of biological evolution is the most difficult control of micro-organisms, this is because very small micro-organisms, and the number of extremely large, a new virus and bacteria can surprise attack humans, and the most frightening is that the vicious infectious diseases.

However, today we have a means of diagnosis and treatment of infectious disease prevention and control, the total can be controlled within a limited scope, and not to suffer too much for human being.

Such kind of ability is based on facts. The late Middle Ages in Europe the Black Death had killed half of the urban population, but Milan is from the catastrophe, as bishop of Milan command, where there is a disease, whether dead, live, are surrounded by walls of its housing, and are buried. After the science developed after the effective way to know is that isolation is to prevent epidemics of the most effective means.

In 2003, in China, the explosion  of a highly contagious, high mortality rates of malignant and infectious diseases SARS, developed as a result of traffic, only 2 months to spread the disease to more than 30 countries on five continents, it is On the mere mention SARS. However, countries should adopt effective means of inspection and quarantine in and there is no effective drug therapy, the only five-six months to curb the spread of SARS, the final transmission of less than 10,000, fewer than 1,000 deaths. If this should be in 100 years ago, the harm will be thousands of times more than today.

In fact, we have antibiotics and other drugs to treat a large extent, is already available in a wide range of new diseases. At that time, the treatment of SARS is completely taken stop-gap solution, although not as much special effects, but also to the emergency. It can be sure that we have mastered the above-mentioned modern means of micro-organisms through the evolution of the disease though will surely bring to the human death and harm, but not the extinction of mankind.

3. Species degradation threat

Degradation of the species here refers to the degradation of human beings, that is, human will can not be resisted because of their genetic variability, degenerate into something totally inappropriate to continue the species to survive, resulting in the extinction of this? For example, can not continue to multiply; become more and more stupid or intelligent, and finally evolved into the same general animal species, and therefore extinction; or else there are not conducive to continue to survive the degradation and so on.

In accordance with the principles of the theory of evolution, the use of the organ will be more evolution of the more developed is the only major human brain to adapt to the environment with the biological, because of the large-scale use of the brain, human intelligence is bound to become increasingly developed, the conclusion from the theory are totally dependent on support. And in terms of creativity, in fact, human creativity has been the increasing trend in the past; still do not see any signs of stagnation and retrogression. As long as there will be no major intellectual degradation, human beings on the earth is perfectly placed to continue to dominate, and they are better than other species to adapt to various environments.

In fact, even in case of a human in the next day, the degradation of intelligence there, and even the many important aspects of physical degradation are not terrible, as far as today we have the basis of gene technology as recycling, as long as a little development, can save his own human being. Recycling so-called gene technology is the use of enzymes to DNA on the gene cut, paste and repair, which in accordance with the wishes of their own to create their own request in line with the biological. At present, this technology has been widely used, scientists can cotton into red, yellow, brown; can produce seedless watermelon and seedless grapes; can grow frog eyes 6; can not long rat tail. All these are the results of genetic reconstruction.

As long as the wish, the human is entirely possible in the near future on their own genes for recycling. In particular, we have seen today, the Human Genome Project is to human DNA of the three billion base pairs and the composition of more than 30,000 genes to conduct a comprehensive study, sorting, and preliminary results have been achieved in the near the future will be all of human gene structure, as well as representatives of human life entirely to find out the password. So, on this basis as long as a little effort, it can be, human beings easily recycled.

We are very pleased to see that only human beings have a variety of today's technology, it has been successfully saved many endangered species. For example: British scientists launched a frozen storage of the DNA of endangered species programs; Chinese scientists on the endangered yew plants to cultivate a successful and succeeded in protecting the endangered species of giant pandas and so on.

One thing is clear, any variation of species, will not jump at the same time, the overall mutation, if one day find their own human being is really the beginning of the degradation of genes, are fully capable of relying on already mastered the technology of biological engineering, the successful to prevent the spread of this negative variation, but also the completion of the work plan. Therefore, the species can not lead to degradation factors of the extinction of mankind.

To sum up, till the evolution of sun into the red giant in 5 billion years, no extinction factors exist in nature. Thus, seeing from the opportunity given by nature, human being has an extremely long future, which can also be concluded from the survival history of other species. For example: 6500 years ago, dinosaurs existed sixteen million years on the earth due to its strong power. Human being is much more powerful than dinosaurs. Intelligent human being doesn’t need any more to confront nakedly natural climate changes, or struggle single-handedly with beast. The access to food is no longer simply relies on nature, but mainly on creative actions. It’s evident that human being is more powerful and stronger than dinosaurs to possess more survival abilities. In addition, human uses only 50 thousands years for evolution, at beginning of its history if comparing with dinosaurs. So even with simple logic reasoning, we can conclude that the human being will have millions and millions years of future.  

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