A value assessment of the unified society will help us determine the significance of the unified society. Will it be worth abandoning the country-based society we have today for a brand-new world system?
Social forms are a category of social systems, which should be assessed according to the maximum value principle. This principle requires us to judge whether the maximum values are being realized for the maximum number of people. We will adopt two approaches in the evaluation of the unified society. First, we will directly compare the main values (i.e., survival and happiness) of humans living in the unified society to the country-based society; second, we will conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the justice of the unified society compared to the country-based society.
SECTION ONE: ASSESSMENT OF HUMAN VALUE REALIZATION
One: On Human Survival
The survival of mankind is the foundational value of humanity; it transcends all other values, and any further discussion would be pointless without it. The unified society is significant for the survival of mankind in the following ways.
1. It Resolves the Overall Extinction Crisis
Science and technology development is a double-edged sword that may benefit and harm humanity at the same time. If science and technology keep developing at their current speed, humanity will face extinction in the near future.
The only way to prevent human extinction is to limit science and technology from further developing. This will only be achievable in a unified society with centralized governance and control. We all know that overall human survival is the highest value known to man, so this makes the unified society extremely significant. All the values of today’s country-based society will pale in comparison.
2. It Eases the Survival Crisis of Individuals and Groups
Analysis of human society shows that group survival is mainly threated by war and large-scale terrorist attacks, while individual survival is mainly threated by criminal homicide. Historically, there have been four main causes of war. The first is confrontation between countries. These wars are the most common and generate the highest casualties. The second is the conflict between ethnicities, and the third is hostility between religions. These three types of wars not only result in military casualties but civilian casualties as well.
The fourth cause of war is the fight for internal dominance that results in civil war. These wars are mainly aimed at wresting power from the highest administrative leaders of a country, the highest ethnic leaders of an ethnicity, or the highest religious leaders within a religion. This type of war generally does not lead to deliberate massacre of civilians, since their goal is to replace the party in power to rule the people.
Now let us examine criminal homicides. The largest and most devastating form of criminal homicide is terrorism. Terrorist attacks can be triggered by ethnic or religious hatred. When intense hatred exists between conflicting ethnicities or religions and war is not possible, terrorist attacks will be launched instead. Another form of criminal homicide stems from dissatisfaction with society, hatred of individuals, or greed over possessions. This type of criminal homicide is usually perpetuated by one or a few individuals, so they bring less casualty and shock to the community.
In a unified society, countries will have perished and the world power will be the sole supreme authority; therefore, the confrontation between countries will have disappeared. Furthermore, as humanity becomes one and ethnicity and religion integrate into one, ensuing conflicts and hatreds will vanish as well.
As a result, the three former types of war will all be eliminated and only civil war will be left. However, since civil war is aimed at seizing either administrative, ethnic, or religious dominance, and both the latter will have been integrated, only civil war aimed at wresting administrative leadership will remain.
We know that violent acquisition of power generally happens when a regime cannot be renewed in a democratic and orderly manner. From today’s political values, the unified society will neither be hereditary nor a dictator ship; thus, the democratic and orderly transfer of power will be entirely possible, and violent civil wars will be largely unnecessary. Even if such civil wars do erupt, they will be less brutal than the other types of wars, and civilian casualties will be minimal.
When it comes to criminal homicide, terrorist attacks are obviously the most deadly and large-scale. However, in an ethnically and religiously integrated society, the motives for terrorism will have vanished; therefore, terrorist attacks will no longer be a threat to society.
Criminal homicide perpetuated by individuals will always exist, but the unorganized nature of these killings will minimize their harm. In addition, this type of homicide will be greatly reduced in a unified society for the following reasons:
First, the inherent competitiveness of countries will promote ideals like bravery, adventurism, and revenge. These values may lead people to become restless and impulsive enough to perpetuate murder. The unified society will be non-competitive in nature and will advocate morals like peace, friendliness, and calmness. As these morals permeate all levels of society, crime rates will drop accordingly.
Second, wealth inequality is a big problem in the country-based society, and it is partially due to the development of science and technology. The unequal distribution of wealth is a huge factor in psychological imbalance, which in turn leads to homicidal intent. In a unified society of balanced wealth, criminal homicide motivated by divisions in wealth will be significantly reduced.
Third, in a unified society where mature science and technology achievements are widely promoted, life will be plentiful. People will only need to expend moderate efforts to meet their basic needs; thus, there will be no need for criminals to commit murder to obtain material goods.
Fourth, as countries, ethnicities, and religions are integrated, the unified society will restrict firearm possession in the interests of all mankind. Other means for killing will also be safeguarded and restricted; thus, the conditions for crime and murder will be severely reduced and crime will decrease accordingly.
The unified society will greatly reduce instances of war and criminal homicide. By diminishing these issues that have long plagued human society, group and individual survival pressures will be alleviated as well.
3. It Minimizes Intergenerational Survival Crisis
The various environmental problems, resource problems, and population problems we face today not only concern the sustainable development of human society, but also the lives of our future children and grandchildren. These problems concern both the survival values and the happiness values of the future generations. For the sake of narration, we will incorporate these issues under the category of “intergenerational survival.”
We all know that humans are currently plagued by a series of serious environmental, resource, and population problems. The use of Freon has led to the destruction of the ozone layer; the emission of greenhouse gases has led to global warming; acid gas emissions, as well as large-scale industrial production, has resulted in acid rain and other air pollutions; uncontrolled land use and the destruction of forests, grasslands, and wetlands has caused desertification and loss of biodiversity; severe industrial and agricultural pollution and explosive population growth has resulted in a water crisis; and the uncontrolled exploitation of non-renewable resources is leading to serious resource deficiencies. The crisis of intergenerational survival is clear at a glance. The characteristics of the country-based society are hindering the effective solution of these problems.
a. The supreme power of the country-based society is the country. Leaders of each country will first consider the interests of their own country before considering the interests of mankind. That is why the specifics of many issues are still being debated despite universal awareness of the crisis and the constant coordination of the United Nations.
b. The long course of human history shows that the competition among nations is extremely cruel. Wars between nations lead to countless casualties, and the losers often suffer a great deal. No country dares to fall behind in the competition against others. In such an atmosphere, countries cannot consider whether the means of competition they adopt will endanger the future generations, only if they bring immediate benefits.
Due to the diversification of nations, there will naturally be comparison between countries. When there is a divide between countries, leaders will try their best to catch up. Moreover, if people are dissatisfied with their own living standards compared to the living standards of neighboring countries, they will be dissatisfied with the government as well. This is what rulers are most afraid of.
In order to avoid the above situations, country leaders will use all means necessary to promote development, whether the means are moral or not. Such immoral means may include the uncontrolled exploitation of non-renewable resources, the uncontrolled use of land, or the indiscriminate exploitation of forests. This will inevitably lead to resource depletion, desertification, forest destruction, soil erosion, and the loss of biodiversity.
c. In the country-based society, the independent development of countries will lead to huge disparities in wealth. Issues like population explosion, desertification, resources shortage, and environmental destruction are all directly or indirectly linked to wealth inequality.
The fundamentally different characteristics of the unified society can lessen the above problems to a large extent, and some problems can even be completely resolved.
a. The world power will be the only regime in the unified society; it will represent the overall interests of humanity, and all inconsistencies will be effectively eliminated. Regional development may still progress along its own course, and regional interests may endanger the overall, fundamental, and long-term interests of humanity at some point; however, whenever such a situation occurs, the world power will do everything it can to effectively control and impede the threat.
b. The unified society will eliminate the concept of country and with it the need for inter-country competition. Without the constant pressure of international competition, countries will no longer need to rely on immoral means to promote faster development. The interests of the future generation may be considered and safeguarded accordingly.
c. The unified society will enjoy a balanced and equalized level of wealth. As mature science and technology achievements are universally applied, the lives of all humans will be affluent and comfortable. With further improvements in education and social security, the global population will be controlled at a stable level as well; thus, the series of issues that will determine the sustain able development of human society can be greatly alleviated. The survival and happiness of future generations will also be protected, thus minimizing the intergenerational survival crisis.
Two: On Human Happiness
Happiness is an emotion; it is the peace and satisfaction of the soul. Happiness requires basic living conditions, personal safety, freedom, and equality as well as physical health. Relative to the country-based society, does the unified society bring more happiness or more suffering to humans?
1. A Relaxed and Happy Life
In the country-based society, all citizens are bound by the competition of their respective nations. As the world evolves more and more rapidly, the social environment becomes more competitive as well. Although people may acquire more material wealth in contemporary society, they rarely find enjoyment due to the extreme psychological stress brought on by the highly competitive environment. In fact, mental depression has become a ubiquitous modern ailment.
A person works both to obtain material wealth and to pursue a happy life; however, the reality of the highly competitive society is that material wealth does not bring happiness, but rather pain. The unified society will eradicate the concept of country and thus create the possibility for a peaceful, friendly, and non-competitive society. The limitation of science and technology will also alleviate the pressure to constantly learn and innovate. Once the intense competitive pressure dissipates, the society will become more relaxed.
The limitation of science and technology is not the elimination of science and technology. On the contrary, the unified society will popularize and apply many mature science and technology achievements. Once these achievements are evenly spread throughout the world, a balanced state of affluence will be attained. In terms of material wealth alone, universal happiness will be greatly enhanced. Moreover, the decrease in military affairs will bring about massive reductions in military expenditure. This amount alone will be enough to eradicate poverty on a global scale.
The unified society will only need to maintain one unified administrative structure. This will lead to reduced government expenditure. The surplus can again be used to better the lives of the general population.
The integration of world economy will also lead to reduced enterprise managements fees, transportation fees, tariffs, and other expenses. This will increase the efficiency of enterprises and improve world economy, so people’s living standards will also benefit.
In short, the unified society will be a fully employed, affluent, happy, and relaxed environment.
2. A Satisfactory Spiritual Life
Happiness can be found in the satisfaction of the soul, and satisfaction is obtained through comparison. This comparison is with both the surrounding people and one’s own past. As long as the difference is not too big, people will be satisfied.
It is very difficult to feel satisfied in a rapidly evolving society, as one must endure tremendous pressure to keep up with the pace of the world. The moment a person stops racing forward, they fall behind. This is why we constantly lament the pressures and stress of contemporary life.
A society of unequal wealth is not one that affords much spiritual satisfaction. The majority of poorer people will always feel dissatisfied in comparison to the extremely wealthy individuals. The unified society will rectify this situation. With the limitations on science and technology development, the world will enter a period of stability. Pressures to develop and innovate will lessen.
The equalization of wealth in the unified society will also alleviate psychological imbalance caused by wealth disparity. Moderation, frugality, and surplus will be promoted as philosophies of life; therefore, people will live a spiritually fulfilled and satisfied life.
3. A Peaceful and Hopeful Life
A peaceful and non-competitive life opposes fanatical risk-taking, endless competition, and confrontation; however, a peaceful life is not a life without pursuits or hope. Quiet simplicity is a pursuit; pastoral life is a pursuit; moderation, frugality, and surplus are pursuits. In a unified society, people will continue to pursue happiness and joy, but they will do so in a relaxed and peaceful environment. This environment will also be conducive to a hopeful life.
4. A Peaceful and Stable Life
In the unified society, social conflicts will subside, general affluence will be achieved, and criminal activity will be reduced. As a result, the unified society will experience minimal wars and minimal crime. Such a stable, peaceful existence would not be possible in the inherently competitive country based society.
Happiness is heavily dependent upon a sense of security. If one were faced with constant threats of terrorism, war, murder, robbery, and other threats, it would be difficult to feel genuine happiness. The unified society will seek to eliminate war and crime to promote a secure way of life.
5. A Healthy and Long Life
The unbalanced nature of the country-based society results in unequal distribution of wealth, frequent wars, frequent terrorist attacks, and high crime rates. Due to this, the health conditions of citizens from different nations varies greatly, as does life expectancy.
The unified society will be generally affluent and void of poverty. At the same time, medical achievements will be popularized across the globe so that world health levels will reach an equal and maximum state. In addition, threats like war and crime will be reduced as well. This will all create the conditions for healthier, longer lives.
The average life expectancy of people in the unified society will surpass that of the developed countries today. People will be healthier both physically and mentally. A healthy and long life will become a universal possibility.
6. A Free and Equal Life
Happiness would not be possible without freedom and equality; this is a universally accepted fact. However, equality and freedom cannot be widely realized in the country-based society. The overall human condition in countries is extremely unequal, as only some people are afforded the rights to equality and freedom.
The realization of the unified society will create solutions for the above problems. First, the unified society will be a society of equalized wealth, so division in property will become balanced.
Second, the unified society will adopt a system of democracy and popular sovereignty. Under such an environment, all people will receive political freedom and human rights.
Third, the unified society will implement an excellent social welfare system. All humans will be able to satisfy their needs on an equal footing. Therefore, from the perspective of all humanity, the unified society will bring unprecedented equality and freedom.
SECTION TWO: ASSESSMENT OF SOCIAL SYSTEM JUSTICE
Justice is an important value of the social system (detailed in Chapter Two, section two); it stems from humanity’s need for rationality. Justice is indispensable for the realization of the maximum value principle.
Whether or not the unified society has a just social system will be an important indicator of the overall value of the unified society. To assess the justice system of the unified society, we must analyze whether its social system is fair and reasonable from the perspective of all mankind. For a more comprehensive and in-depth analysis, we will separate justice into four aspects: general justice, group justice, individual justice, and intergenerational justice.
One: General Justice
In the country-based society, competition and conflict among nations often ends in war. As the supreme power of the society, the country’s primary consideration is often the prevention of invasion and the perpetuation of one’s own invasion. From the perspective of general justice, a social system should first guarantee the survival of humanity, but this is not the case in the country-based society. The social system of the country-based society is completely lacking in rationality.
It is the irrationality of the social system that often leads to the most advanced science and technology achievements being applied to war and destruction rather than the benefit of humanity. The competitive and antagonistic nature of inter-country rivalry means that countries can spare little thought for the happiness of the people when designing a social system. Instead, they will place competitive advantage as the priority of all policies and social systems.
We can see that most countries would rather expend large amounts of money on military expenditure instead of in support of the poor. This is obviously not conducive to the happiness of people. We can also see that countries often create a tense and competitive environment to motivate their people, which is also not conducive to happy living.
The unified society’s social system will be fundamentally different from that of countries. It will focus on safeguarding universal happiness, security, and survival. The rationality of the unified society’s social system will far exceed the rationality of today’s country-based social system.
Two: Group Justice
We say that all people are born equal regardless of region, color, age, and so on; however, we observe that with the same efforts, citizens of one country may earn one thousand US dollars while citizens of another country may only earn ten dollars; citizens of one country may enjoy good social welfare while citizens of another country may be forced to beg on the streets; citizens of one country may live in a democratic, open, and free political environment while citizens of another country may be ruled by an autocratic monarchy. Though we are all human, some ethnic groups are discriminated against while others can be as arrogant as they please. This is obviously unfair.
Since it is generally accepted that humans are born equal, people of all countries, ethnicities, and religions must share in equal human rights. This is the only fair definition of equal human rights in terms of group justice; however, achieving such a goal is impossible in a country-based society.
In the fully integrated unified society, all people will be governed by the same regime. They will enjoy the same kind of social welfare, the same political, economic, and cultural rights, and be obligated to fulfill the same responsibilities. Therefore, only the unified society will be able to truly realize equal human rights for all mankind.
Let us continue to analyze group justice from another perspective: one cannot sacrifice someone else’s life for one’s own, and one cannot base one’s own happiness on the suffering of others. This is a generally accepted basic moral code; however, human groups often violate this code.
War is the most typical and cruel act of group injustice. The country-based society has never been free of war. Larger countries plunder smaller countries all the time, robbing them of wealth and causing casualties on both sides. Although this phenomenon is inherently unjust, it is a basic component of the country-based society.
Terrorist attacks are similarly unjust. They are often perpetrated due to national, ethnic, and religious hatred. Many innocent lives are lost in the process. This is also a typical feature of the injustice of the country-based society.
The unified society will not be able to completely avoid war and terrorist attacks, but only reduce them as much as possible. Once countries, ethnicities, and religions are fully integrated and the society reaches a balanced level of affluence, war and terrorism will lose most of their motivation. In terms of group justice, the unified society will be far superior to the country based society.
Three: Individual Justice
As human individuals, the basic principles of justice include not stealing the property of others; not threatening the survival of others; not depriving others of happiness; not acting contrary to public moral standards; and not disrupting the harmony of society. It will be impossible for any society to require everyone to meet the basic principles of justice. Every society will have people who violate public morals and laws; however, in comparison with the country-based society, the unified society will be able to minimize individual injustice.
Needless to say, countries will emphasize and vigorously promote the demand for individual justice in the hopes of achieving social stability and harmony, but the basic characteristics of the country-based society determine that even while countries advocate and defend individual justice, they are simultaneously diluting and collapsing individual justice.
In human society, there are three powerful agents that motivate mass destruction: nationality, ethnicity, and religion. These three forces simultaneously coexist in the country-based society, and as a result, war and terrorism follow. The general environment will imperceptibly affect every person living in it, and humans have always been especially accustomed to imitating and learning from example. When countries with inherently unjust forces in them ask for individual justice from their own people, the hypocrisy of the situation will generate very limited results.
In addition, countries will often advocate values like bravery, risk-taking, and innovation to promote their competitive advantage; however, these values may be interpreted in negative ways. People may bravely commit robbery, take risks to commit homicide, or use the latest and most advanced means to carry out their crimes.
For the above reasons, the country-based society will often have high crime rates, and a high portion of people will choose to violate public morals. These are all manifestations of individual injustice.
This situation will be changed drastically in the unified society. With the demise of countries and the integration of ethnicities and religions, the most formidable forces of antagonism will have vanished. The unified society will not only be able to formulate a system of individual justice but will also be qualified to set the example for the principles of justice.
The unified society aims to create a “peaceful, friendly, and non-competitive” environment. This will greatly mediate interpersonal relationships within the society. Coupled with an atmosphere of general affluence, the unified society will easily achieve lower crime rates and better compliance with public moral values; thus, the individual justice of the unified society will far supersede that of the country-based society.
Four: Intergenerational Justice
Humans may be able to survive for a long time to come, but the earth’s resources are limited. If we deplete these resources today, we will seriously affect the survival and happiness of the future generations. That would no doubt be a shameful and immoral act, yet we are already acting in such an irresponsible manner. Our uncontrolled exploitation of non-renewable resources is causing serious resource depletion; over-farming of the land and overgrazing of the grasslands are leading to desertification; deforestation is leading to soil erosion, water scarcity, and loss of biodiversity. We are making the planet less and less suitable for human existence, thus increasingly endangering the interests of future generations.
Humans have long been aware of these issues, and the United Nations has exerted much effort to prevent these behaviors. Unfortunately, no substantial results have been obtained. The fierce competition between countries often makes it difficult for country leaders to consider the interests of future generations—especially when they are still occupied with the interests of the current generation.
In contrast, the unified society will represent all mankind, regardless of the generational divide. In the non-competitive environment, the unified society will be able to rationally plan the affairs of humanity. The achievement of equalized wealth and sufficiency will also make it easier to resolve resource issues, environmental issues, and population issues. Both the direct value realization assessment and the indirect social system justice assessment prove the unified society to be more advantageous than the county-based society.
The only impediment of the unified society will be the decrease of material enjoyment brought on by the limitation of science and technology development; however, as a mere subcategory of the happiness value, this type of material enjoyment cannot obscure the bigger picture. Contemporary material enjoyment is often accompanied by intense mental pressure, which in turn lessens the feelings of happiness. The sacrifice of this material enjoyment is to guarantee the overall survival of mankind—a cause far greater than all else; thus, from this point of departure alone, we can ascertain that the unified society is far more beneficial to humanity than the country-based society.
The significance of the unified society is far more than this. Its guarantee of universal happiness for all generations is unparalleled, and the country based society cannot begin to compare with the quality of life that the unified society can offer. In all ways, the unified society is an undoubtedly ideal society.
Our original intention for the unified society was to prevent human extinction; however, a series of analysis has revealed the unified society to be the most ideal society in accordance with the maximum value principle. Therefore, the social choice that humans must make is now completely aligned with the most ideal choice that humans can make.