Chapter Two Methods and Principles

This book is focused on the study of humanity’s fate, and it is committed to finding the answer to continued human survival and universal happiness. In order to ensure the rigorousness of scientific research, we must first determine the methods and principles of such research. These so-called methods and principles are what dictate the trajectory of our research and the criteria that research goals should be measured against. Without proper methods and principles, our research will lack direction and intent, and without correct methods and principles, the final conclusions will be wildly inaccurate or completely opposite to the truth.

 

SECTION ONE: HUMAN VALUES

The human values mentioned here refer to the needs and wishes of humans. Human values can be broken down into many categories, such as survival, happiness, pleasure, fulfillment, and so on. However, survival and happiness are humanity’s most important values; all other pursuits are subservient to them. When there is conflict with the needs of survival and happiness, all other pursuits must give way.

From another point of view, survival and happiness are also instinctive pursuits of mankind, and a most basic pursuit at that. Every human individual, every human group, and humanity as a whole are striving for survival and happiness. No normal person takes survival and happiness lightly.

We say that survival and happiness are the most important values of humanity, but that is only a general concept. There is a difference between the two. If we look at survival and happiness separately, although they both have indisputable importance to humanity, they are not equally important. Obviously, survival comes first and happiness comes second.

 

One: Human Survival Trumps All Else

 The meaning of survival is often defined in a very broad way. For example, sometimes bettering the quality of life is included in the context of survival, or survival can be equated with living. However, the survival we speak of here refers only to the existence of life—that is, to be alive. It is the more literal sense of the word “survival.” As members of the human race, we obviously stand on our own human perspective when inspecting and evaluating things. We pursue happiness, pleasure, health, conscience, and morality, but the beneficiary of all these pursuits are humans. Without life, no such pursuits would exist. People toil for life every day; farmers work in the field from dawn to dusk, workers manufacture products at all hours. Without life, they would not be able to accomplish any of this, and without life, they would not gain anything in return. Our scholars and politicians worry about the problems in society. They discuss and plan for environmental issues, resource shortages, and peace maneuvers. All of these carefully designed economic, cultural, and social constructions are carried out based on humanity. Without humans, none of these arrangements would have subjects to act on. These arrangements also rely on humans to complete them; without human existence, there would be no one to discuss, plan, and arrange things. Thus, we say that survival trumps all else. Survival is the number one, unparalleled human value. Nothing exists without survival.

Survival is also the number one instinct of mankind. When a person encounters harsh challenges, their desire to survive can propel them to do previously unimaginable things. A weak person can hold up things of incredible weight; a disabled person can suddenly stand. Countless real-life examples prove that when it comes to life and death, survival can make the most of a person’s potential and create remarkable miracles. This upholds the argument that survival is the most important human value.

The pursuit of survival can be extended from human individuals to human groups, or even all humanity. No matter if it is a country, a nation, a group like an organization, or the whole of mankind, self-survival always remains the goal above all else. If self-survival cannot be guaranteed, all other pursuits are empty. The carrier of all human pursuits is the survival of mankind itself.

 

Two: Happiness—the Eternal Human Pursuit

Happiness is an eternal human pursuit; that is a universal, fundamental truth. Happiness is the purpose of life; all human life is spent in the pursuit of happiness. Defining happiness is much more difficult than defining survival. What is happiness? How is it obtained? In people’s minds, these questions are often vague and confused. Everyone is pursuing happiness, and everyone wants to be happy, but few people clearly understand what they are pursuing in life. Even fewer people manage to hold on to that choice and maintain it relentlessly.

Happiness should be described as an emotion, a satisfaction, and peace of mind. Those with money, status, and honors may not necessarily be happy, while someone who is penniless could very well have happiness. The psychedelic pleasure brought on by drugs is not true happiness, but the mother who bears the pain of childbirth is truly happy. The reason for all this lies in the satisfaction and peace of the mind.

Happiness comes from hope; one cannot be happy without hope. If today is an improvement upon the day before, and tomorrow is expected to be even better than today, the soul will be happy and satisfied. Contrarily, if life deteriorates day by day, happiness will be elusive. Happiness is especially present in the comparative sense of hope. If living standards have been increasing quickly for the past decade, a sudden slowing down of such increase would interrupt peace of mind. Although today would still be better than yesterday, the increase rate has slowed down compared to before, making it hard to feel as happy as before. The same conditions may bring different levels of happiness under different circumstances. If your daily standard of living was ten dollars ten years ago, you might have been happy. But if your daily standard of living was still ten dollars ten years later in the exact same living environment, not only would you not be happy, but you might be very pained and disappointed. That is because ten years ago your life was good compared to those around you, but after ten years, everyone else’s living condition has improved with only you left behind, thus destroying your peace of mind.

True wealth is the absence of greed, so happiness is dependent upon satisfaction of the soul. Greedy people cannot be satisfied even with mountains of gold, while content people are happy with just bread and water. The reason the rich are not necessarily happy is that they wish for even more wealth. The poor may be able to obtain happiness if they have less lofty pursuits . . . perhaps basic food and clothing may suffice. A person’s happiness is largely determined by their desires; the easier it is to achieve such desires, the easier it will be to feel happy, and the opposite applies as well.

It may help to understand happiness by examining the psychological changes Chinese people have gone through in the past forty years. Forty years ago, we were in the Mao era. The entire country was poor, and in our isolated state we did not know the situation abroad, so we thought that was how the world should be. Therefore, people often found happiness even in their impoverished state. After China’s reform, the nation’s economy developed rapidly. As the overall standard of living improved, the gap between rich and poor widened as well, and the community became increasingly restless. Those who lagged behind development-wise were often unhappy and disappointed, even though their lives had improved. All they could see was that their neighbors had just replaced their bikes with cars when they themselves had just bought bikes; and their neighbors had upgraded their dwellings from fifty-square meters to one-hundred-square meters to one hundred-andfifty- square meters, but they themselves had just moved into a one-hundredsquare meter room.

Hence, peace of mind is produced in comparison. This comparison can be with the surrounding population and environment, with our own past, or with our desires. If an entrepreneur who had originally planned for the company’s earnings to reach ten million this year only achieved five million, he would certainly not be happy. But if he objectively analyzed his business at the beginning of the year and set the profit target at one million, he would undoubtedly be happy with a five million figure. With the same five million profits and the same entrepreneur, the feelings of happiness can be completely different. This is due to the change in satisfaction one experiences through comparison.

We often lament that happiness is cheap . . . so cheap that even a penniless man can experience it. But happiness also costs dearly, so much so that even billionaires cannot afford it. To be happy we must also feel secure. If we existed in constant terror over war and murder, it would be difficult to feel happy. A stable, peaceful society, on the other hand, provides better conditions for happiness. Happiness is not entirely dependent on the amount of wealth one possesses, but it does require some economic support. One who lives barely clothed, constantly hungry, and always cold can hardly feel happy. Happiness also depends on healthiness of body, as it is hard to feel happy when constantly suffering from illness. Happiness is inseparable from joy and pleasure, but they are not one and the same. Joy and pleasure are natural experiences, while happiness is the combination of natural experiences and reflections of the soul. Engaging in sexual activities with someone you do not love may produce a temporary pleasure, but it will not produce happiness; enjoying the stimulation of drugs and alcohol may be somewhat joyful, but not necessarily happy.

Happiness goes hand in hand with suffering. Without experiencing pain, one cannot understand true happiness, just as one who has never failed cannot understand the joys of victory. Only those who have suffered the destruction of war can truly understand the beauty of peace.

Suffering is happiness’ mirror. Only those who have suffered in the past cherish and find satisfaction in the present. The suffering of others can also be a mirror into one’s own happiness, for the suffering of others can reflect the happiness we possess. Happiness is continuously gained through an eternal pursuit. There is no absolute happiness, just as there is no eternal happiness. Life always has imperfections; there cannot be perfection without such imperfections.

Happiness is influenced by one’s outlook on life. Different life views produce different feelings of happiness. Terrorists see the killing of innocent civilians in retaliation against their political opponents as a kind of happiness; war maniacs view conquering the world, killing, and plundering from others as happiness; a noble person gains happiness from contributing to others; loving parents find happiness in caring for their children and watching them grow up happy and healthy; devoted children find happiness in caring for their elders.

Because of this, the pursuit of happiness can be guided. The ethical and moral aspects of life value are dictated by social history. Different times and cultural backgrounds form different life values and different views of happiness. In history, we can often see noble people sacrifice boldly for their ideals and feel deeply happy doing so. These ideals are a type of life value; they can dictate people’s feelings of happiness.

We can break down life pursuits into detailed and specific components such as food, clothing, residence, travel, wealth, status, achievements, familial affection, love, friendship, health, environment, and morality. At a cursory glance, satisfying any of the above pursuits can make some people feel happy while failing to do so for others. Just as one person can feel happiness from enjoying a good meal, another might only feel slightly happy from it, or no happiness at all. When measuring from the standpoint of all humanity, all of the above can be included in the scope of happiness, but none of them can be equated to happiness. Happiness includes all the above components, yet it is not the result of all of the above combined. It should be said that the pursuit of any abovementioned component is only one small portion of the happiness map.

 A person can have any number of pursuits, but only by pursuing their main goal in life and achieving correspondingly can they experience happiness. Achievements in all other pursuits can only produce joy, pleasure, or other similar emotions. For example, if a woman saw a happy family as the primary goal in her life, she would feel happy once she reaches this goal; perhaps buying an unflattering set of clothing might frustrate her sometimes, but it would not change the satisfaction and peace of mind deep within her. If a man deemed a successful career as the number one goal in his life, he may experience joy from a glass of good wine, but it would not be able to undo the sense of disappointment and misfortune brought on by professional failure.

The main goals in life can be adjusted and changed. For example, a woman who fails in the pursuit of a happy family may turn towards a successful career, and a man who fails in his pursuit of business may change his focus to a happy family. Similarly, the main goal of a person’s life before the age of thirty may be a high degree of education from university or a PhD, but after age thirty, one may adjust their life’s goal to more specific areas like business or politics. Once this person enters old age, their life focus may change to health and family harmony. No matter the type of goal, as long as it is the main goal during that stage of life, its pursuit may produce happiness or unhappiness, depending on the situation.

Further expanding the concept of happiness from individual to group and even all of humanity, the same goals exist and can be adjusted accordingly as well. A nation may wish to be respected by other nations, and a country may want to dominate the world. To them, respect can produce national pride, and world domination can acquire additional wealth. If this nation or this country cannot achieve their goals, they may turn to simpler goals like peaceful coexistence, or not being invaded or occupied by other countries. Therefore, from the perspective and interests of all mankind, we cannot only consider whether humans can survive and reproduce endlessly, but we must also consider whether our generation and future generations can exist in peace and prosperity. Whether on an individual level, a group level, or the level of all mankind, the pursuit of happiness is eternal and innate.

SECTION TWO: THE VALUE OF SOCIAL SYSTEMS

SECTION TWO: THE VALUE OF SOCIAL SYSTEMS

The realization of human values depends not only on natural factors, but also on social systems. “Social systems” as discussed here is a broad term refer-ring to all social conditions related to the operation of human society. In addition to the basic governing systems we usually refer to, various other mechanisms, rules, and behaviors such as social patterns, social structures, political systems, legal systems, moral values, codes of conduct, economic and culture policies, and so on are also included. The value of social systems refers to the social conditions that must be ensured in order to safeguard the orderly operation of human society.

We have established that survival and happiness are the highest of human values, and we also know that survival and happiness are the basic pursuits of humanity, yet we often find that many people chose to die in the face of life and death; many people chose pain instead of happiness. These people are completely willing in their choice as they experience no regrets, and future generations respect and admire them for their actions. Such phenomena occur because humans rely on a set of social values when making choices in their own pursuits.

Soldiers on the battlefield charge fearlessly to their death, sacrificing their own lives in defense of their countries. In dire situations, parents would rather end their lives to ensure the survival and happiness of their children. It is faith and emotion that helps people to overcome the fear of death and to sacrifice their highest value—that is, survival—for the benefit of others.

A wife may give up her beloved career to take care of her family and support her husband’s work. An elder brother may willingly give up valuable education opportunities and start work early to support his younger brother through school. Such stories of sacrifice are abundant, for some of us measure choices against other criteria—the criteria of social values.

This does not mean that survival and happiness are not important, nor does it negate that survival and happiness are the highest values of humanity. The truth is just the opposite. Life is most precious for everyone, and anyone who lives desires happiness above all. It is only certain specific conditions of human society that require someone to sacrifice their own survival or happiness for something, or some things. If this cannot be done, human society will lose its procedures of operation, and humans themselves will lose faith in their existence. It is through a long history of development that human society finally established its own social systems.

It is necessary to restrict the values of mankind with social systems. Imagine two climbers trapped on the top of a mountain in a snowstorm with limited food. One climber might kill the other and take his food to survive. In a few days, once the snow stops, this climber might be rescued while his teammate dies. Actions like these base the survival of self upon the death of others. Hitler invaded and occupied many other countries, killing millions of Jews in the process, just to pursue better living conditions for the Germans. This is basing self-fulfillment and happiness upon the suffering and death of others.

Every individual and every group seeks to secure their own survival and ensure their own dreams of happiness. However, the pursuit of survival and happiness must be through proper means, and all aspects of social operation should follow certain rules. If everyone used despicable means to obtain survival and happiness without considering others, the world would be filled with fraud, bloodshed, and terror, and human society would lose all rules and procedure. This would inevitably lead to total chaos; humans as a whole would no longer have a chance for survival and happiness.

Therefore, it is necessary to use a series of social systems to serve and maintain human values. Only by limiting certain people from obtaining values through unjust means and guiding everyone to live, learn, and work along certain rules, and maintaining interaction between groups, can human society’s orderly operation be ensured—and, along with it, the realization of universal human values.

One: The Maximum Value Principle

Social systems in all aspects of human society are established under certain conditions. There will always be corresponding social systems as long as there is human society. Take social forms, for example. Human society transitioned from the earliest migrant gathering period to settled villages, then to the tribal stage, and finally to the national stage that continues until this day. The evolution of social forms was to adapt better to humans’ ever-expanding needs in agricultural production and the enlarging scope of war. In another example, countries have each established their own different political, economic, and cultural systems and defined them in legal terms in order to regulate individual behavior and ensure the stability of society. From a much smaller perspective, every city, street, community, and country has its own set of management models. They each promote a set of lifestyles or codes of conduct appropriate to the community. All of these are within the category of social systems.

The most essential function of social systems is to serve people; it is either consciously or unconsciously formed by prevailing local circumstances, or specifically designed and promoted by a certain power. Because social systems have to regulate and mandate all aspects of society, some of them will restrict and limit the realization of certain human values. However, this restriction only exists to ensure the realization of other major human values. The state enacts laws against homicide, theft, and robbery; this undoubtedly limits the wrongful acts of the lawless, but it is precisely this legal protection that allows the vast majority of people to live peacefully in a safe environment. Such legal systems are social systems that guarantee the values of the majority by limiting the values of a smaller group.

To cite another example, a city may develop rules forbidding littering and spitting in public to ensure the cleanliness of the city. This social system would also limit the behavior of a small number of people, but it would be to protect the clean-living environment of all city dwellers. In other words, it is limiting some less important values for a small group of people to realize the more important values of the whole city.

There are some social systems that limit the values of the majority to serve the values of a small number of people, such as when authoritarian kings demand frequent tributes of treasure, fruit, and beautiful women from all over the country. This is also a type of social system, implemented by the mandatory power of feudal dynasties.

There are also some social systems that fully serve the public and affect no one’s values. For instance, the city government may establish a mayoral service hotline to solve the problems people encounter every day. This type of social system generally only has beneficiaries, and no person’s interests are harmed in the process.

Social systems pertain to all facets of human society; they involve the values of every individual and group. Each person and group will evaluate a social system from their own point of view. How should we define the quality of a social system? What characteristics should an ideal social system have?

Social systems exist to serve human beings. Since different individuals and groups from different generations have differing or even contradictory needs, no one group or generation of people can objectively evaluate a social system. It is argued here that social systems should be established with all of humanity in mind so that the values of mankind as a whole can be maximized. In other words, the whole of humanity should be considered in these systems instead of just individuals, singular groups, or specific generations. Survival, happiness, and other human values should be guaranteed for as many people as possible. This is the fundamental principle that social systems should be built upon. We refer to it here as the “maximum value” principle.

The maximum value principle does not change with the development of society, nor does it alter according to the passage of time. Perhaps one day all the issues discussed in this book will be outdated, but the maximum value principle will not become obsolete. The maximum value principle is the core principle that governs all the research in this book.

As human beings, when we think about ourselves and plan for our future, we obviously hope that all arrangements are aligned as much as possible with our own interests. The problem is that the interests of mankind are multi-faceted—there are many types of values to pursue. The acts of mankind and the multitude of designs we implement for the future of humanity cannot fully satisfy all the values of every individual, group, and generation. A plan that satisfies certain values may be in conflict with other values; when the values of a certain group of people are satisfied, the values of other parts of the population may be damaged. This is completely normal; nothing can be 100 percent perfect, and no plan can be flawless. Loss and gain go hand in hand; this contradiction will apply to the design and evaluation of any social system. The solution to this contradiction lies in the maximum value principle; the good of the majority outweighs the good of the few, and the actions that cause least harm win out.

As we know, the two most important human values are first, survival, and second, happiness. Relative to these two, all other values are subservient. If we look at value systems through such direct lenses, it is easy to manage them. Any issue related to survival comes first, any issue pertaining to happiness comes second, and all other values follow accordingly. Yet if one really dealt with problems this way, it would cause certain chaos. For example, conflicts and contradictions between individuals and countries often exist, and if one simply emphasized the survival and happiness of one party, the other party’s survival and happiness would inevitably be negatively affected. When facing a variety of complex value choices, how would we practically implement the maximum value principle?

1. Happiness Defers to Survival

When considering human values, we will separate humanity into four levels: all humans, human groups, human individuals, and intergenerational humans. “All humans” (or humanity) refers to the whole of mankind and all peoples from all generations; “human groups” includes all manners of assemblies (like countries, nations, businesses, etc.) and non-organized groups; “human individuals” denotes singular individuals or small minorities; and “intergenerational humans” refers to people from different generations.

When we say that “happiness defers to survival,” we mean that when the survival and happiness of humans on a similar scale are in conflict, we must consider survival first and happiness second. This is very simple logic. Since survival outranks happiness when dealing with the same amount of people, happiness must give way to survival during any conflict between the two. The survival of people is more important than the happiness of that same amount of people.

It follows that we cannot deprive ten people of their lives to ensure the happiness of ten other people. On the contrary, if ten people must sacrifice their happiness in exchange for the lives of ten others, that would be a worthwhile exchange of values. According to this principle of deference, anyone who kills another in order to seize their property and wealth is defying the principle of happiness defers to survival. Since the acquisition of wealth is only one category of happiness (not even the whole scope), while life is the entirety of survival, exchanging one for the other is comparatively unreasonable. Of course, this is just a simple value analysis. It does not take into account social factors. The killing and robbing of others is in itself an immoral behavior. If such behavior were allowed to spread in human society, it would inescapably lead to upset, thus affecting the survival and happiness of humans on an even larger scale.

Take another example: if a person was terminally ill and in need of $200,000 to cover medical expenses, would he be justified in robbing someone else and using the “survival trumps happiness” rule to defend his actions? Certainly not. If we simply considered one person’s survival and another person’s money as belonging respectively to the scope of survival and happiness, this value exchange would certainly seem worth it. However, if robbery or other forms of forced possession are utilized, adverse results would occur. Such adverse results would lead to social instability, and many people’s survival and happiness would be threatened. The question boils down to a choice between one person’s survival and the survival and happiness of many people, and the latter obviously outweighs the former. If one person willingly donated $200,000 in savings to save another person’s life, the meaning would be completely different.

The value principles determined here are designed precisely to consider the concept of comprehensive influence. All other value principles discussed in the following take this concept into consideration as well.

2. The Majority Rule

The majority rule stipulates that in terms of survival, happiness, and other values, when assessing within the same value category, the values of the majority are deemed most important. In other words, if the lives of ten people had to be exchanged for the lives of twenty, the value exchange would be meaningful; along the same vein, if the happiness of ten people had to be sacrificed to ensure the happiness of twenty others, that value exchange would also be worthwhile. If the situation were to be reversed, it would not correspond to the maximum value principle.

It is important to note that the majority rule compares different numbers of people within the same value component on things of similar import. The rule cannot be applied if the value component is different—that is to say, the survival of ten people cannot be compared to the happiness of twenty others, and a certain portion of the happiness of ten people cannot be compared to another portion of happiness for fifteen others.

3. Assessments Must Be Flexible

It is obvious that both the happiness defers to survival principle and the majority rule are ideal codes that deal with simple situations. In simple situations, the assessment of values is clear at a glance. A person’s life is obviously more important than a person’s happiness; two people’s happiness is obviously more important than that of one, and two people’s lives obviously outweigh one person’s life. This type of simple value assessment is indeed easily defined.

When it comes to actual problems, the situation will often be far from simple. We will find that we must compare ten people’s lives to the happiness of a thousand others, or parts of ten people’s happiness must be compared with other parts of ten other people’s happiness. These problems complicate the situation; under such conditions, flexibility becomes the key.

For example, the progress of science and technology brought the advent of cars and aircraft as means of transportation, and they can quickly send people across great distances. A car’s one- hour journey on the highway takes days to walk, and the one-hour flight time of a plane equals weeks of journeying by foot. The use of these vehicles makes people’s lives more convenient, relaxed, and efficient; these attributes are all within the scope of happiness. However, the emergence of cars and airplanes also means the appearance of car accidents and plane crashes. People die every day due to car or aircraft accidents. In terms of human values, loss of life is within the scope of survival. If we use the principle of happiness defers to survival as our reasoning, all cars and planes should be destroyed. This conclusion is clearly ridiculous, as the use of cars and aircraft facilitates all of mankind and brings great happiness to humanity. In comparison, car accidents and plane crashes occur relatively infrequently, meaning they pose minimal threat to the survival of humans. When the potential for great happiness conflicts with miniscule threat to survival, happiness ranks first.

Perhaps a group of people needs to be diverted to build a reservoir. These people have lived here for generations, and removing them from their homes would be very inconvenient. They would also have difficulty adapting to a new environment and building a new life. The building of the reservoir would also require a great amount of capital; however, the successful completion of the reservoir could solve many people’s agricultural irrigation problems. For the migrants, moving would be inconvenient, thus making it part of the happiness value. The investment of capital would be a loss in the happiness category as well. For the beneficiaries, the gain would be a rich crop, which would bring a better quality of life, which also fits within the happiness category. These different aspects of happiness cannot be simply compared, so one would have to employ some flexible thinking when deciding whether or not to build this reservoir. Perhaps under certain investments situations, moving one hundred people could only solve irrigation problems for one thousand farmers, in which case it would not be worthwhile to build the reservoir. On the other hand, if moving one hundred people could solve ten thousand people’s irrigation problems, the reservoir would be necessary.

Based on the above judgments, we can draw two clear conclusions: First, the survival of mankind is the highest of all values. Since survival is the number one value, and humanity as a whole outweighs all else in magnitude, the survival of all humanity outweighs everything else. All other values must exist secondary to the survival of mankind. This conclusion informs us that in all problems involving humans, the survival of the species is the most important problem (the focus of this book is on solving this problem as well). In the face of overall human survival, all other values can be sacrificed. Any action that threatens the survival of humanity just to guarantee other values is contrary to the maximum value principle.

The second conclusion is that within the value of happiness, the happiness of all people outranks all other values of happiness. Inside the happiness value, humanity occupies the largest share in quantity. According to the majority rule, universal happiness is most important (this is the other issue this book deals with). No individual, group, or generation can threaten the universal happiness of humanity for their own happiness, as that would contradict the maximum value principle.

The two above conclusions will be the two fundamental bases that guide this book’s research. These two conclusions seem easy to understand and obviously correct, but it is very difficult to consistently and constantly follow them. In the subsequent analysis, we will discover that we have done and are still doing things that threaten the overall values of humanity, and that these actions sometimes seriously endanger the overall survival of mankind. Judging based on the maximum value principle, such actions are clearly big mistakes; they are most unforgivable crimes and also extremely dangerous behavior.

Two: Justice

To achieve the maximum value principle, social systems must first be just. Justice is the value of social systems; it is the actual embodiment of the maximum value principle within a social system. If the maximum value principle establishes the standards and goals for social systems, justice is the means and path to achieve such goals.

As the value of social systems, justice includes two meanings: fairness and reason. This so-called fairness basically means impartiality and equality. The vast world encompasses countless beings, billions of human individuals, countless different human groups (such as different countries, different nationalities, different enterprises, different institutions, etc.), and peoples of all generations. Justice requires equal and impartial rights for all human individuals, groups, and generations. Any individual, group, or person from any generation should have the right to equally obtain respective values. This not only requires all individuals, groups, and intergenerational peoples to refrain from depriving others to ensure personal gain, but to be equal and impartial in the distribution of assets and interests.

The reason we say the maximum value principle requires fairness before all is because some people will inevitably occupy more interests in an unjust society; therefore, other people will enjoy less interest, and these people’s values will be impaired. This is only the beginning. Those who seize more interests will definitely be those who control dominant power and resources; they obtain more interests because they have the ability and conditions to do so. Due to the nature of mankind, such abilities and conditions will lead these people to focus even more social interests in favor of themselves. The final result will be that a minority of people enjoy the majority of interests, and they will only accumulate more interests as time goes by. At the same time, the number of people who profit less will grow while the portion of interest they can share in will shrink more and more. Therefore, the ultimate outcome of an unjust society is that the value of most people cannot be achieved, and this obviously does not meet the maximum value principle.

An unjust social system will also propel a very small number of people to seize value from others through immoral means (such as murder, robbery, etc.) in order to ensure personal gain. This would unsettle the entire society, and the vast majority of people would suffer. It would obviously be contradictory to the maximum value principle.

The significance of fairness also lies in the universal pursuit of happiness. Happiness is a product of comparison; only in a just, equal society could the majority of people attain happiness through comparison. The so-called reason means that social systems must consider the characteristics of humans and human society—as well as human adaptation to natural conditions—in order to exist scientifically and realistically.

For example, historians generally believe contemporary humans to be less happy than ancient humans. Today’s world is far more just and equal com-pared to ancient times; the material wealth produced by current technology also far outweighs what has been created in the past. Under these conditions, humans today are less happy than those before us. This obviously means that there are seriously unreasonable factors in our current social system. It is the unreasonable factors in our social system that lead to a reduction in overall human happiness.

It seems that fairness alone cannot guarantee the realization of the maximum value principle, just as humans’ survival could not be ensured in a fair society that was plagued by war. And if people were constantly under various types of competitive pressures, the heavy psychological burden would rob them of joy, thus negating their happiness. A just social system that can realize the maximum value principle must not only be equal and fair, but also a combination of science, realism, justice, and reason.

Enlightenment thinkers proposed the slogan of “freedom, equality, and universal love.” This slogan guided human society from superstition and ignorance to civilization. Taken literally, “equality” and “universal love” refer to fairness, while “freedom” refers to reason. This informs us that human society cannot be just “fair” and “universally loving,” but must also ensure freedom.

A fully just social system’s reason factor denotes much more than just freedom. Many other aspects must be realized to ensure the maximum value principle. In today’s world, most people experience more freedom than before under the ideals of freedom, equality, and universal love, yet they do not experience as much happiness; the highly educated class of today has far more freedom consciousness compared to villagers in remote areas, yet due to the higher level of psychological pressure, they also feel less happy.

All this shows that the reason factor in social systems includes far more than just freedom.

The organic combination of fairness and reason is the key to establishing a harmonious and stable society of justice. The downfall of many regimes in human history resulted from the lack of a good relationship between fairness and reason. For example, the wealth of one affluent group (such as a family) might be accumulated through the efforts of many generations. It would be reasonably acquired. However, if the entire society were suffering in poverty, the wealth of minorities would seem incredibly unfair. Most of the uprisings, rebellions, and social unrest in history happened under the slogan of equalizing wealth and bridging divide. There is an old saying in China: “Poverty is not a problem . . . imbalance is.” If a regime wishes to ensure long-term stability, reason is not enough. Fairness must also be safeguarded.

On the other hand, if too much emphasis was put on fairness, and reason was ignored in the process, new problems would arise. If the reasonable wealth of the elite class was excessively deprived, it would damage their productivity and enthusiasm, the overall prosperity of the society would fall, and a general state of poverty might occur. Mao Zedong Era China and today’s North Korea are all such cases.

When conducting an in-depth analysis on the justice of social systems, we can divide justice into four aspects for discussion: individual justice, group justice, intergenerational justice, and overall justice. The moral values of society encourage people to give up important personal values and exchange their own survival and happiness for that of others under specific conditions. It also opposes the establishment of personal survival and happiness upon the death and suffering of others. This is all within the scope of individual justice. We propose that everyone is equal before the law; every citizen has the right to vote and be voted for, and everyone is assigned benefits according to how much they contribute. These are all in the range of individual justice.

We oppose strong countries, nations, and religious groups who bully weaker ones; we condemn groups who invade, pillage, and commit murder against other countries, nations, or religious groups for personal gain. We advocate for equality and neighborliness between countries and nations; we encourage wealthier countries to support poorer countries, and developed areas to help undeveloped areas. All this is in the scope of group justice. We advocate for fair trade between enterprises and oppose monopoly as well as trade protectionism. This also belongs within group justice.

We oppose the uncontrolled exploitation of non-renewable resources to circumvent resource depletion; we protest excessive grazing, over-cultivation, and deforestation to prevent desertification; we are against the large-scale emission of greenhouse gases to avert global warming; and we contest the use of Freon in order to preserve the ozone layer from damage. We take these pre-cautions to leave clear waters and blue skies for the future generation and to ensure sustainable development for human society. This is within the scope of intergenerational justice.

Whether it is individual justice, group justice, or intergenerational justice, they all revolve around the theme of “fairness.” They deal with relationships between individuals, groups, and people of different generations. In addition to this, human society must also balance its overall fairness. In other words, some things that may not seem fair from a partial view would be fair to the whole society, because the overall interests of mankind sometimes require the sacrifice of partial interests—just as the maximum value principle requires the few to obey the majority (the majority rule). This issue belongs in the category of overall justice.

The overall value of human society, however, may not always be able to be realized at maximum, just as some fair principles may not bring universal survival security and happiness. That is due to the unreasonable factors within such social systems. Within the context of justice, certain parts are devoted to considering rationality based on the whole of mankind. The purpose of such consideration is to realize as many values as possible for all human beings. This is also within the scope of overall justice. Overall justice requires smaller interests to serve larger interests; it opposes the placement of individual interests before group interests, and group interests before overall interests. Nevertheless, we often see countries putting their own interests above global interests while the international community remains helpless to stop them. This is caused by the unreasonableness of social systems.

Looking at the current world from another perspective, we find that human society today is fiercely competitive. People are under constant pres-sure to update knowledge and under constant threat from competition failure. Depression becomes common and the suicide rate climbs continuously. Generally speaking, while people have obtained a level of material enjoyment, they have not obtained similar levels of happiness; instead, they are burdened by heavy mental stress. This is a cause of unreasonable social systems.

Overall justice also considers things based on humans as a species. It deals with the relationship between mankind and other species, as well as the relationship between nature and man. As human beings, we should develop principles of justice from our own point of view. That is why we propose that the overall survival of mankind exists above all else. Any factor that could possibly endanger our survival must be mercilessly eliminated. Perhaps these factors involve the survival of other species, or other issues, but every other problem becomes insignificant in the face of human survival as a whole. Because we are humanity, we cannot sacrifice our entire existence to achieve some sort of morality. Once morality leaves its bearer, it will have no more purpose.

Similarly, for humans as a whole, we cannot sacrifice our universal happiness for the survival of other species, nor can we sacrifice our own happiness as a species to ensure the happiness of other species. The justice principles we formulate must serve the survival, happiness, and other values of humanity; they should maximize the achievement of universal human values. This is both logical and reasonable.

Judging according to the principle of overall justice, Americans like eating beef, Arabs love mutton, the Chinese people like eating pork, and Koreans love dog meat. This dietary issue does not pertain to human survival, since humanity can survive on grains and vegetables. Yet humans require delicious food, and this demand is within the category of human happiness—in other words, the demand for meat satisfies some of the needs for human happiness. And so humans slaughter large numbers of other animals every day, exchanging their lives for our own happy appetites. Relative to other species, humans are immoral. But based on humanity as a whole, the justice principle must serve human values, making this immoral exchange understandable.

The justice principle has also put forth requirements for humans accordingly. We object to the torture of animals, the devastation of rare species, the destruction of the earth, and the pollution of space. In reality, not only do such requirements not conflict with humanity’s happiness and survival, but they fundamentally help humans achieve their values. A caring group can better promote world peace and harmony, a bio-diverse world can better achieve natural unity, and a beautiful earth and clean space is more conducive to human life and guarantees better long-term survival and happiness for future generations of mankind.

Finally, it is necessary to note that there is no affiliation or mutually inclusive relationship between individual justice, group justice, intergenerational justice, and overall justice. They are different social system requirements put forth by different factors from different perspectives.

SECTION THREE:THE FAR-REACHING PRINCIPLE

SECTION THREE:THE FAR-REACHING PRINCIPLE

This book is devoted to the far-reaching, universal, and fundamental interests of mankind. It considers the fate and future of mankind. In order to explore corresponding issues in depth and propose solutions, we will start our research from a more extraordinary point of view. This research approach can be summed up in one term: the far-reaching principle. This principle has two characteristics: first, it seeks to be as broad as possible in its expanse; second, it strives to be as enduring as possible in terms of time.

One: A Broad Expanse

Humans live on Earth as terrestrial creatures, but even with the simplest experience we can determine that the fate and future of man is not influenced by isolated land factors alone. Without evaporation from the ocean there would not be enough rain, without plate movement there would be no mountains or rivers, and without the atmosphere humans could not breathe. This is all intuitive information. To interpret the fate and future of mankind, we cannot limit our focus to the land, as the entire globe, as well as the atmosphere around it, is essentially linked to the fate and future of humanity.

Even the elements listed above are not the whole picture. For example, the magnetic field above Earth’s atmosphere prevents cosmic rays and solar winds from attacking us, and beyond Earth’s magnetic field lies the solar magnetic field, which influences humans constantly as well. These are all things that cannot be directly observed by the naked eye, but they objectively exist. Therefore, we should expand the scope of research as well.

We all know that Earth is just an extremely small planet in the vast universe, yet the vast universe constantly affects the small Earth we live on as well as its inhabitants. Looking to the solar system, the moon affects the tides of Earth every day; solar flares explode many times every year, influencing us in many ways; asteroids and comets experience large collisions with Earth every few centuries. Looking out to the larger Milky Way, and even the entire universe, the possibility of alien invasion, the impact of supernova eruptions on Earth, and the possible threats posed by black holes are all issues closely related to the fate of mankind.

Perhaps we are overthinking some things, as some of these elements are much too far away from us, and their potential impact seems unfounded as of yet. However, if we do extend and broaden the expanse of our vision, how can we eliminate the factors not worth considering and capture the elements that really do pose a threat to mankind?

Two: An Endurance of Time

We know that human beings have only entered civilized society for less than tens of thousands of years, but the earliest concept of man formed about four million years ago when the Australopithecus first separated man from primates by standing up. If we take into account the original human breeding process, the earliest life on Earth can be traced back to 4.28 billion years ago. So how far into the future should we look when considering the fate of mankind?

Today’s world is growing at a rapid pace. The Industrial Revolution greatly stimulated the creativity of science and technology; as a result, our world is constantly changing every day. From this standpoint, it is enough to set human future research goals to ten years or a hundred years, since we cannot possibly know what the world may be like in ten or a hundred years. The changes to the world after such periods of time will most definitely be drastic, so perhaps that is the only thing we can accurately predict.

From the future view of humans as a species, we can almost be certain that although we entered the threshold of humanity some four million years ago, humans should not be extinct in four million years. Humans are the strongest of all Earth’s creatures; we are complex life-forms that are the most capable of adapting to the environment in the entire history of Earth’s biology.

So how far away should we cast our net? Since this research focuses on the future of humanity on a far-reaching, universal, and fundamental level, ten or a hundred years is much too short a scale. Should we set our eyes on four million years later? A billion years later? Or even further off? The book’s foothold is the latter.

What must be noted is that the billion-year goal just acts as a mirror in order to reflect current issues. Realistically speaking, things happening in mil- lions, hundreds of millions, and billions of years are only predictable, and no accurate judgments can be made. On the contrary, many things that might come in a decade or century cannot be predicted or grasped. In particular, it is important to emphasize that everything we do today is affecting the world of the future in increasingly serious ways.

At the end of the nineteenth century, people exclaimed that more had been done in the one hundred years of the nineteenth century than since the birth of humans; at the turn of the twentieth century, people exclaimed once again that the century had accomplished more than all else previously accumulated, including the one hundred years of the nineteenth century and all human history before that. This undoubtedly tells us that humanity’s ability to transform themselves and nature is growing a hundredfold, a thousand fold, and more. Perhaps one act of wrongdoing today could not be made up for with even a hundred years of effort in the future... it could even be irreversible. If we do not use a billion-year goal as a mirror, we cannot scientifically plan for today and tomorrow. Without such a far-reaching mirror, we cannot truly realize the long-term, universal, and fundamental interests of humanity, correct our mistakes in a timely manner, and maintain our path on the right direction for years to come.

Using billions of years as our research scale does not mean our focus is on what we should do in a billion years—that is a research topic better left to the future generations. Although the expanse of this research goes to the very edges of the universe, it is not focused on journeying into the depth of the universe to accomplish something either, as such a goal would be quite meaningless. On the contrary, our entire purpose is to use a time period of billions of years and a spatial scope of tens of billions of light-years as an investigation scope and reference target. This will guide our actions for today and the near future, making sure that everything we do is in line with the long-term, global, and fundamental interests of humanity.

Therefore, the far-reaching principle is actually based in reality. It is just a research method that seeks to make our research considerations more pro- found, comprehensive, and meticulous. It is still intent on solving issues of mankind today and in the near future. Although such a principle may inconvenience our research, it can make our research conclusions more objective and scientific.

 

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