Published in Hong Kong Magazine in December, 2008
--Written When Saving Mankind (Select) Was Published in Hong Kong
Author Hu Jiaqi
I. Introduction to the Problem
The so-called great unification is to unify all human beings by world regime. I thought the great unification was an unpractical dream before I started researching the great unification of human beings. Many of you may share the point with my former self. My real thinking about this question started with the continuous ongoing safety research of science and technology, and when I recognized that the problem was very serious and urgent, I started to seek a solution.
Natural extinction of mankind is very far away, but self-extinction, which will be simply caused by further development of science and technology, is near.
Science and technology is a double-edged sword. The stronger its ability to benefit mankind, the more powerful its ability to destroy mankind, and this power will extinct mankind in the end. What is more, the extinction will not be far away. By simple logic reasoning, we can come to a conclusion: The real start of development of science and technology was during the Industrial Revolution in the middle of the 18th century. Now, a nuclear bomb can easily destroy a metropolis of ten million people. Bio-toxins made with transgenetic technology are far more powerful than nuclear bombs, so such destruction ability is not very far from the extinction of mankind.
It is only over 200 years in which science and technology has developed from null to the degree that it could almost extinguish human beings. Today, investments in science and technology are much larger, scientific research methods more effective and equipment and instruments for scientific research much more advanced. Because of all these reasons, the production speed of scientific fruits is many times faster than before, so it will not be a long time before science and technology reaches the degree where it will be able to exterminate mankind.
When science and technology develops into the degree to which it can produce out extinction means, the extinction means and developmental technology of extinction means will spread and people that dare use the means will get it sooner or later. The human race is very huge, and although people who dare to use extinction means are rare, the absolute number will still be quite large. Human beings are a special species which are not perfectly evolved, so there will always be some irrational people that will commit extremely vicious crimes. One such extremely vicious crime will be enough to terminate mankind.
In fact, not only will psychopaths start the extinction power, but someone will start the power accidently also.
Science and technology has a most obvious feature, and that is uncertainty. The best scientific fruit in our opinion will often turn out to actually be the worst. There have been many disasters caused by scientific errors in the history of science development. After science and technology has developed to a higher level to which it can end mankind, careless use of scientific results or careless scientific experiments may both start extinction power accidentally and push human beings down to the abyss of extinction.
As long as science and technology continues to develop as it does today, it will be certain that mankind will be extinguished. Tt is independent of man's will, and not far away.
This is a conclusion made after comprehensive and systematic scientific research, which I have elaborated on in Saving Mankind (Select). I have deeply felt the seriousness of the problem, and I believe that a precise scholar should not only be able to discover the problem, but also be able to put forth a solution. By this requirement and after in-depth research, I came to the matter of great unification.
II. Necessity of the Great Unification
We believe that the target of scientific research of most scientists, except for a few particular psychopaths, is not to exterminate mankind, because their families and themselves will die together. Appearance of extinction means and breaking out of extinction power are often the natural result when science and technology has developed into quite a high level. To avoid extinction of mankind by science and technology, we will have to stop further development of science and technology, which has two aspects as follows:
Firstly, science and technology should not develop to a higher level. Because science and technology will be able to exterminate mankind, we can compare it to landmines. We are sure they are in front of us and that they will extinguish mankind, but we do not know where these landmines are buried, like the uncertainty of science and technology. Even if we know where some of these landmines are buried, we cannot make sure that no psychopath will trample them purposely, because human beings' rationality is limited. Therefore, we have to stop going forward to make sure nobody will trample the landmines.
To put it simply, the further development of science and technology will definitely extinguish mankind. The relationship between them is cause and effect, with the further development of science and technology as the reason, and extinction of human beings as the effect. To avoid the effect, the reason must be removed. In other words, to avoid extinction of human beings, we must stop development of science and technology.
Secondly, to restrict development of science and technology is not to restrain use of science and technology. On the contrary, not only should we not restrain use of safe and mature science and technology, but we should greatly promote and popularize these fruits worldwide. If we can really achieve this purpose, a common improvement of whole world could definitely be guaranteed.
But it is impossible for present national society to restrict development of science and technology while still using current technical fruits rationally at the same time.
Human nature has quite an important feature, which is everlasting competition. In national society, many countries co-exist. They will compete and combat with each other, as no power could restrain them. As a result, the competition between countries cannot be changed and often find no other way except war as the final solution. Since the failure of a war always leads to a country's destruction and slaughter of its people, not a single country dares to take the matter lightly.
No matter economic competition, military competition or comprehensive strength competition among countries, competition of science and technology is primary, because science and technology is the first productive force. So it is impossible to let countries give up development of science and technology, particularly large countries.
Not even if human being are soon to be extinct, because extinction of mankind is for the whole human race, a future problem and a conclusion that one makes after rational thinking. On the other hand, the country's destruction because of failure in competition is its own issue, it could happen immediately and it is a conclusion made after simple thinking.
There is only one exception, which is that if I restrict development of science and technology, then you must restrict it also. But there are nearly 200 countries in the world, and this circumstance is absolutely impossible.
Then how can social system make sure that all countries will restrict development of science and technology? Throughout history, there is not one successful example of unified global action. Both the former League of Nations and present United Nations are unable to do so. To let the world act uniformly, there must be some social strength much stronger than international organization.
Throughout recorded history of human society, the strongest social strength is definitely a nation's strength. A nation has organizations of regime like an army, police and court to keep its order, while other social strengths do not have such organizations.
However, national regime works only within the country. People have to obey regime organizations of other countries if they are out of their own. So we can foresee that it is only by spreading such power of regime to the whole world and forming a world regime as opposed to a national regime that the globe can act uniformly. This target is the great unification of mankind, or in other words, to unify all human beings under a world regime.
III. Necessity in Other Aspects
In fact, great unification of human being is not only the necessary choice for human beings to avoid being extinguished by science and technology. A series of most serious problems faces and will face human beings in the future that presently predict also requiring great unification.
Take the resource problem as an example. Fifty thousand years after human beings completed evolution, people mainly consumed renewable resources that could be used continuously before the industrial revolution. The crisis of resource exhaustion started only after the industrial revolution, and this problem became serious less than a hundred years ago. The cause is that scientific fruits have been used widely, which has resulted in a large increase of people's consumption ability. Due to two factors, the consumption ability cannot be controlled rationally in national society: First, because of competition among countries, to make sure that it is not washed out, every country will try its best to keep high speed development. Secondly, citizens of different countries compete and compare with each other. If development of the country is not fast, domestic living standard is lower than the neighboring country, or its development speed is slower than other countries. Then domestic people will not agree, and the government will face pressure to step down, so developing at all means has become a certain choice of every country. Development means consumption of resources. The countries' irrational development under competition pressure is a major cause of the large consumption of resources. What is worse is that scientific results have developed after industrial revolution increased our consumption ability.
The environmental problem is another example. Every country goes its own way, rather than caring for each other. Developed countries’ harm to the environment is mainly to produce industrial pollution, while poor countries simply have no adequate food or clothing. They are unable to develop science and technology or engage in industrial production, so the only choice for them is to carry out destructive exploration of forests, over crop lands, and overgraze grasslands, which will definitely result in soil erosion and finally desertification.
If every country goes its own way, disordered development will inevitably result in very bitter consequences. If someone will go through the desert with little food and water, then he will calculate carefully, use the food and water rationally and will walk out of the desert. But if a group of people are going through the desert with little food and water, someone will eat and drink more than the others. Such action of eating and drinking more will influence others, everyone will follow his actions, and all of them will die in the desert once the water and food run out. This is the unchangeable nature of mankind, because human beings are such a special species with limited rationality. Co-existence of many countries is just like many people crossing the desert together.
As we know, the North Pole is a quiet place, but many countries itch to explore petroleum and blaze new sea routes there. Because they worry that others may take the lead, they would rather catch the ball before the bound. The South Pole is a quieter place protected by the Antarctic Treaty. But some still go there to explore petroleum. The reason is also that they worry that others may take the lead. Just think, if mankind realizes great unification and is governed by a world regime, will such head over heels destruction and predatory exploration be so serious?
Many continuously worsening serious problems that concern all human beings are relevant with independent calculation of different countries. For example, the resource problem and environment problem are both closely related to population problems. Global population was only 700 million in the early days of industrial revolution, while the world population has now reached 6.7 billion. In other words, consumption and pollution are almost 10 times that of before, so the problems are very serious, of course. Faced by so serious a population problem, some countries are still encouraging fertility because the culture of these countries encourages fertility. When compared with other countries, they find that the proportion of their population has fallen, which would influence the strength of their countries. What is more, some poor countries even have no money to execute birth control measures, and no country will help them. If mankind has realized great unification and could consider problems with the globe as a whole, the above conflicts could be avoided.
A series of the toughest problems that national society can’t solve, include war, terrorism and the gap between the rich and the poor, all could be greatly relieved after the great unification of mankind. I have elaborated this point specifically in my work Saving Mankind (Select).
IV. Conditions for the Great Unification Are Ready
The great unification of mankind would be only a "Utopian" fiction a hundred years ago, but it has become practical now.
Firstly, from a hardware aspect, conditions for the great unification of mankind are ready.
If it were a hundred years ago, notice of a meeting would need a year to reach inland China from inland America, so unified government was impossible, of course. But modern traffic and communication measures have connected the whole world as a global village, which means that the hardware conditions for the great unification of mankind are ready. If there is really any condition unprepared, then there is only a human barrier, but human factors can be modified and changed.
Secondly, people have a rational requirement for global coordination.
After World War I and World War II, because of the heavy damage and large number of deaths and to avoid similar wars, politicians thought unanimously that it was necessary to set up an organization to coordinate the nations. The League of Nations and the Unite Nations were set up successively. But as international organizations, both the League of Nations or the United Nations were unable to really coordinate nations, but the people's requirement for global coordination was obvious.
Thirdly, the globalization trend has appeared spontaneously.
When we walk on the street, we can see running automobiles manufactured by different countries. After we enter an emporium, we can see various products from many countries. These are examples of economic globalization. When we turn on the television, we can watch iconic operas produced by Korea and megahits produced by America. This is example of cultural globalization. Then what is the great unification of mankind? In fact, it is an in-depth globalization of the world in every aspect. Globalization of politics and military aspects will mean realization of the great unification of mankind.
Is resistance against the great unification very strong? Actually, it is not. If monarchy is prevailing in present national society, then the resistance would be strong. A leader of monarchy is lifetime tenured and political power is hereditary. Once the position of a state leader is lost, he loses everything. But democratic nations are prevailing at present. Most large countries are democratic countries, with state leaders in office for two or three terms at the longest, or only one term at the shortest, so I think most of the leaders will not set large barriers to the great unification. As to the common people, it is more impossible for them to set up a barrier against the great unification of mankind. Just think. Will we feel very upset if mankind has realized the great unification?
V. Historic Trend Shows that It Is Time for the Great Unification
Throughout human history, political entity has been expanding. Political entity will expand to the ultimate border where transportation and communication can reach. In other words, where hardware conditions such as traffic and communications can meet the requirements of unified government of however large an area, a nation of that large area will appear not long after.
China had only a small area in the Xia dynasty and Shang dynasty, but today China is very large. Western civilization that is currently leading the world originated from the Greek civilization. In ancient times, Greek consisted of some small city-states that populated thousands of people or tens of thousands people. Even the largest city-states such as Athens and Sparta were populated by only twenty to thirty thousand people.
Over 2000 years ago, Alexander was born to the Greek. After Alexander defeated Persia, he heard that there was an ocean to the east of India, and he thought that was the end of the world. By his knowledge of the world at that time, he thought there was only Europe, Africa and Asia in the world. So the idea to unify the whole world came to his mind, and he fought for the idea until he reached the upstream of the Indus River. He stopped conquering there because he was limited by transportation and communication conditions at that time. His conquering was like a bear breaking off corncobs, losing the previous one after breaking off a new one. Alexander conquered many places, but what he could govern efficiently was only a small area near him.
The largest military expansion in history was realized by Mongols. Genghis Khan and his posterity conquered over half of Eurasia, but the conqueror could not continue in the middle and later periods. This was mainly because under traffic and communications conditions at that time, it was very difficult to decide for and control so large an area, which had to be divided into many hordes later. But the Mongols' attack ability was completely able to continue the conquer.
Russia sold Alaska, that now occupies one fifth of America's land area, to America at 7.2 million dollars. But Russia would not sell the state now, even if America offered 72 billion dollars. Under traffic and communication conditions of 140 years ago, it was very difficult to contact or control North America, which was so far away from St. Petersburg. If Russia did not sell Alaska to America decidedly, it would become independent or seized by other countries.
So however much hardware conditions, such as traffic and communications conditions, allow for unified government, a political entity of that magnitude will definitely appear.
Hardware conditions for global government are ready now. The conditions have been ready for nearly a hundred years, so the great unification of mankind will be soon.
Who would have believed in the unification of Europe if it were dozens of years ago? Europe was never unified in history, but we can see hope of unification of Europe now. How did it come into being? After World War II, two super powers - America and the Soviet Union - appeared, while Europe, who had led the world for hundreds of years, was placed between these two super powers. European countries were worried that they might be marginalized, so they thought unify. Thus, European Coal and Steel Community was established. Just as the first step that was inconspicuous birthed the European Community later and developed into the League of Europe, we can predict that the next step will be unification of Europe.
This shows that what great unification of mankind still needs is the people's common understanding. Just think. If people could understand that the great unification of mankind concerns people's survival or extinction, then the reason is more persuasive than the reason that brought European countries together! If most people could understand the importance, then will the great unification of mankind be far away? What the great unification still needs us to do is to spread the serious truth.
In fact, it is already enough if leaders of large countries can recognize the importance, because their views will influence the world. The article in place of the foreword of the book Saving Mankind is An Open Letter to 26 World Leaders. These 26 world leaders are the Secretary General of the UN and 25 leaders of the most powerful nations in the world at present.
VI. Opportunity and Responsibility of China
There are many ways through which mankind can realize great unification, but as a great just matter that will avoid extinction of mankind, the method must also be just. For example, the great unification should be peaceful rather than done by wars. Besides, many other factors should be taken into consideration also. I have elaborated on this point in detail in relevant books of mine.
Significant changes of political domains in history were all dominated by large countries. For example, the current political world domains were confirmed by leaders of America, the Soviet Union, the UK and China after World War II. The great unification of mankind will be the most important change of political domains, so it is certain that only large countries can push the change forward, and only coordinated action of many major large countries can push this matter forward.
It is certain that the nations that can influence world pattern at present are America, China, Russia, the UK and France, the five permanent memberships of the United Nations (UN) Security Council. If these five countries can adopt coordinated action, particularly if large countries, such as Japan, Germany and India, could reach agreement with the five, there would be nothing impossible in the world.
America is the most powerful of these five countries, but America's power is declining, while China is the real power of tomorrow. The great unification will be a process, and future power could play an important role in the process. This means not only an opportunity for China, but also responsibilities that China should shoulder for all whole mankind.